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WATER - abnormalities that allowed life So common, the everyday and familiar, liquid water is still staggering: it has a number of anomalies. Water if there were no laws, is "something different" substances in the world. The nature and experience it does not behave like other substances. But thanks to her whims, life could evolve and exist in water. The first anomaly: if we consider its structure and chemical substances category which includes, water should melt and boil at lower temperatures, which does not exist on Earth. There would thus no liquid water on Earth, no sound, but only as vapor. The second anomaly: high specific heat. In water, it is ten times higher than in iron. Water is heated five times slower than sand, but the cooling is slow. Due to the exceptional ability to absorb heat water, marine creatures are never threatened by a strong no overheating or excessive cooling of. The third and fourth anomalies are closely related: water is the latent heat of vaporization and high latent heat of melting. To evaporate water from a kettle will need 5.5 times more heat to boiling it demic. If this property did not exist, many lakes and rivers would dry up quickly to life in bottom and they were gone. Freezing, water also gives more heat. That is why, in cold nights of winter are placed in greenhouses with water barrels: freezing, it emits heat, thus warming the air. The fifth anomaly: freezing, water expands by 9% from the initial volume. Why ice is lighter than water and rises to the surface, often a pool of water freezes to the bottom. Ice which covers it is a good insulator, for thermal conductivity of ice, as water is very small. Under such a "yea" even in winter in the Antarctic marine animals do not suffer too much from the cold. The sixth is the strange anomaly: When heated, all substances expand and contract on cooling. It is a truth recognized. And because cold water contracts. But ... in this "gift" is everything.Always shrinks when temperature decreases, but at +4 ˚ C limit is reached. The water now begins to expand again, although the temperature drops. So water has the highest density at 4 ˚ C. As a result, winter is racindu to 4 ˚ C, it falls to the bottom and here is kept cold during the whole year (in freshwater tanks, marine salts complicates the picture because water circulation).This saves the life of all living things anomaly wintering in rivers, lakes and ponds. The seventh anomaly: of all liquids, except mercury, water has the highest surface tension. The drop of water that tends to make ball. Drop of water is strnsa as a packing in its surface.Therefore, the surface is always covered with a thin layer consisting of molecules. To break it is necessary to apply force and still quite high. In this film running water insects, mosquito larvae cling and crawl massive snails with their shells.Physicists have calculated the dumbbell should be hanging by a 3cm column of water to break it. It would be a huge dumbbell - over a hundred tons! The only case that would be perfectly pure water. In nature there is, however, such water. Foreign substances break links in the chain sustainability of water molecules and the forces of cohesion between them shrinks more. All forces of cohesion lift water up into capillaries and hairline cracks. On this principle nourish the plants and the circulation of our capillaries. The eighth and final anomaly refers to the fact that water is the best solvent in the world. It dissolves many substances, remaining inert, without modifying the action of substances which dissolve. Due to this water could become the bearer of life. All solutions are prepared from living organisms, water.They change little in solution and the solvent itself - water - can be used repeatedly. "Water - said the great Leonardo - was given the magic power to become the sap of life on Earth".
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