Juan Garcia-Romero PHIL-1301-4004 December 5, 2010 Mr. D. Tomulet Journal Questions p. 331 2.What is Kant’s argument that space and time must be “pure” or a priori forms of intuition? Kant argues that the a priori object of geometry is the pure intuition of space. Geometry studies the properties of pure space. Pure means here devoid of physical objects. Space is considered an intuition because we can perceive it through the senses. It is also considered a priori because we cannot remove it from our conception of things of whatever kind. p. 338 2. Explain the role Kant assigns to the categories, illustrating it with the examples of substance/properties and cause/effect. How are these a priori concepts related to the objects of our common experience? Kant calls prior concepts “categories” because they will supply the most general characteristics of things. The characteristics it takes to qualify as a thing or object at all. . p. 355 2. Kant says that the only thing good without qualification is a good will. What is the relation between will and rationality? Will is the capacity to execute or refuse to execute the decisions of reason regarding a certain course of action. Every decision of reason has the forms of an imperative which Kant calls a maxim. 4. What is the supreme principle of morality? Why is it categorical? And why must it be a priori? The a priori foundation of morality, considers reason from a practical angle. Kant argues that morality is not a set of rules we learn from experience, but a set of a priori rules imposed upon us by reason. p. 363 2. Relate, as Hegel might, the World Spirit, absolute Knowledge, and yourself. Absolute knowledge designates the state of consciousness when everything other has been brought into itself and spirit knows it to be all of reality and the world spirit is consciousness and reason manifesting itself in the world. p. 366 3. How does Hegel think of God? How is God related to the world? To us? The Hegelian concept of God contains both Spirit and Reason. The human spirit in its development is the divine spirit in the process of self-making. Through us, God becomes himself within himself. In the end, nothing is, but God. He separates into consciousness and its objects, and then works to reconstitute the initial unity. God as spirit becomes God as reason. p. 370 2. Characterize the struggle between capitalist and worker. To increase profit and face competition, the capitalist does not pay the worker more than the worker needs to stay alive, work, and reproduce. The worker becomes a commodity the capitalist can buy from the market. The worker is degraded to the status of an animal. The reason for this condition is the fact that workers are always too many. So wages become minimal 4. Describe some form of worker alienation. There is alienation among workers fighting for the few available jobs, and there is alienation between worker and capitalist, who is perceived as an oppressor. p. 372 2. What does communism intend? Why? According to Marx, communism is the system that follows. It is a classless society that returns private property to its human form, and outlaws the means of exploitation. Communism does not forbid people to enjoy the products of society. It just deprives them of the means to exploit one another. p. 395 4. In what way can our lives be worth living, even if they are tragic? Aesthetic value can justify our life and make it worth living. Aiming for a life style that avoids boredom and keeps things interesting; the pursuit of pleasurable experiences. p. 402 5. What does Nietzsche mean when he says “God is dead”? The disappearance of God is equivalent to losing hope and the meaning of life. The secular West is the end of the West. In the chaos that follows the death of God, the West will go down. This is what Nietzsche calls the stench of the dead God. p. 410 2.What does Nietzsche understand by a “genealogy” of morals? This point outside morality is provided by history. History can teach us how a system of morality appears and for what reason. Nietzsche wants to study the genealogy of morals. 3. What is master morality like? Who devised it? What do the central terms “good” and “bad” mean? Master morality is people of the “first rank” people who call themselves “noble,” “commanders,” “the rich,” “the happy,” and “the truthful.” “Bad” is just a contrast term it designates only a shadow of good. The masters affirm themselves and find themselves good. 4. What is slave morality like? Who devised it? What do the central terms “good” and “evil” mean? Slaves are the powerless; they find themselves at the mercy of those “ predators on the rampage.” “evil” is the primary concept and is driven not by affirmation, but by negation. p. 417 3. Explain the parable of the camel, the lion, and the child. The overman understands he is only body, soul being “something about the body.” Our intelligence is bodily in origin and purpose. Body is the motivation behind reason and consciousness. Body is the great sage. There are three stages in the birth of the overman. p. 430 2. What general features of an action determine whether it is morally right or wrong? Contrast this utilitarian view with Kant’s account of what makes actions right or wrong? 5. Explain the principle of utility. What makes this a moral principle, rather than just prudence or self-interest? Utilitarianism is that the moral worth (or just plain worth really) of an action or decision is the sum of all the good and bad of all that are affected by the action. A real life example of this is china's one child policy. Individuals give up the right to have more than one child. Overall you can argue that the slowing of the growth of what was the most populous nation in the world was best for the nation as a whole. Very utilitarian in a way that makes sense to all of us. This is also true for the slow growth movement. p. 437 2. What bad consequences do Wollstonecraft and Mill see flowing from the differential treatment of women? According to Wollstonecraft, women are systematically and intentionally transformed into pleasure-toys for men. Men do not only want the obedience of women, they also want their sentiments. In order to produce a slave who likes her slavery, she must be educated in view of that purpose since early childhood 3. What ideals do they recommend in place of the current beliefs about the position of women in society? They ask for women’s equality with men before the law, freedom of decision, and a real education. The same virtues should be taught to both boys and girls, namely, the real virtues of humanity. Above all, boys and girls should be equally taught the independent use of reason. p. 215 3. Study carefully the steps in Anselm’s argument. Write down questions you have about its correctness. I. Why does Anselm define God as a being in which no greater can be conceived? II. Why does Anselm believe that something existing in the mind and reality might not be greater than something existing in reality by itself since nothing in reality can be perfect, and perfection is an ideal? III. What is the point of premise 10? The premise contradicts itself. IV. So does god really exist according to premise 12? p. 220 1. How does Aquinas understand the relationship between human reason and divine revelation? Aquinas draws a figure of a House that consists of three floors. First floor is about Truths known only by revelation. Second floor explains about Truth known by both reason and revelation. Last floor talks about the Truths known by reason and natural experience. p. 226 1. Why does Aquinas think we cannot use Anselm’s argument? Because Aquinas believes that there are five ways to prove God’s existence. These five ways have been subjected to exhaustive logical scrutiny, often in a forbidding forest of technical symbols.