The Art of Devotion Panel Painting in Early Renaissance Italy

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The Art of Devotion Panel Painting in Early Renaissance Italy Powered By Docstoc
					Portrait of a Woman by Robert Campin
               circa 1420
   Writings by men
   Writings by women (rare)
   Art
   Religious texts and artifacts
   Material culture
   Skeletal Remains
   Oral tradition
   Social structure and roles
                                    Skeletal Remains of a 12th-
                                    Century Woman, England
Lippo D’Andrea, Italian,
1377-after 1427, The
Madonna and Child
Enthroned with Angels
and Saints John the
Baptist and Nicholas of
Bari, tempera on panel,
49 1/4 x 23 3/4 inches.
Master of 1419, Virgin
and Child, c. 1415,
tempera and gold on
panel, 45 13/16 x 21
3/8 inches. The
Ackland Art Museum,
the University of
North Carolina at
Chapel Hill. Ackland
Fund, 80.34.1
School of Lorenzo
Ghiberti, Madonna
and Child, c. 1450,
polychromed
terracotta, 32 x 23 ¼ x
8 ½ inches. The
Cleveland Museum of
Art. Gift of Leonard C.
Hanna, Jr., for the
Coralie Walker Hanna
Memorial Collection,
1939.161
   Most important role:
    wife and mother
   Marriages arranged;
    occurred early
   Bore many children
   Pious, possibly literate
   Had servants, but
    oversaw work of the
    household
                               Domenico Ghirlandaio, Lucrezia
                               Turnabuoni, 1475. Florentine
                               school.
                                Religious art
                                 demonstrated household
                                 wealth and religious
                                 devotion

                                Mary as an ideal of
                                 female purity and
                                 motherhood


                                How did wealthy
                                 women’s mothering
                                 experiences compare to
                                 those depicted in scenes
                                 of the Madonna and
                                 Child?

Master of 1419, Virgin and
Child, c. 1415,
The Pit and the Pedestal
   “Of the numberless snares that the crafty enemy
    spreads for us . . . the worst is woman, sad stem,
    evil root, vicious fount . . . honey and poison.”

      --Marbode, 11th-century Bishop of Rennes


   “Woman is a stranger to fidelity . . . Beware of every
    woman as one would of a poison serpent.”

      --Albertus Magnus, 13th-century theologian and scientist
Women gossiping while a demon listens.
 Ely Cathedral, England, 11th-Century
   “The most beautiful and useful thing . . . is to have a . . .
    wife who is good, modest, honest, temperate. . . . If she
    is full of charity, humility, rectitude, and patience . . .
    how great should be your mutual friendship!”

                        --Saint Bernardino of Siena (b. 1380)


   “No priest can soften the heart of a man like his wife
    can.”

                       --Thomas of Chobham, 13th-century writer
Medieval Madonna and Child
Peasants made up the bulk of the medieval population.

 Peasant women made large contributions to society.
   People in the Middle
    Ages formed small
    communities around
    a central lord or
    master.
   Why did they do this?
       For safety and
        defense.
   Most people lived
    on a manor, which
    consisted of the
    castle (or manor
    house), the church,
    the village, and the
    surrounding farm
    land.
   At the lowest level of
    society were the
    peasants, also called serfs
    or villeins.

   The lord offered his
    peasants protection in
    exchange for living and
    working on his land.

                                  Shepherd's Calendar, Medieval Women
                                  McMaster University
   Peasants worked hard to
    cultivate the land and
    produce the goods that
    the lord and his manor
    needed.

       heavily taxed

       required to relinquish
        much of what they
        harvested.
                                 Hardworking peasants at home.
                                 Pierpont Morgan Library, New York City.
   Peasant women were
    expected to marry.
   A married woman's place
    was in the home and the
    village, while the man's
    place was in the fields,
    roads, and forests.

   But what exactly did the
    women have to do in the
    home and in the village?
                               Peasant woman spinning with blank sheild, ca
                               1475-1480
   In many places, boys could
    marry at 14 and girls at 12.
   Large families were the norm.
     Medieval women would become
      pregnant between 4 and 8 times.
     Mortality rate for children and
      babies was high.
     A woman would expect to lose at
      least one child.
     Women frequently died in
      childbirth.
   The life expectancy of a
    Medieval woman was around
    thirty years.
                                        The Dance of Death [Woodcut, before 1538]
   Housework
   Maintaining yard and
    garden
   Taking care of the
    animals
   Gathering wood
   Helping husband in the
    fields
   Caring for and training
    children
   Producing goods for
    household consumption     Woman milking a cow, 13th century
   Wives sometimes performed other tasks that
    would bring in extra household income.

   Some women took up spinning as an occupation.
       Flax was often grown in gardens adjoining the peasant
        dwelling specifically to be worked into linen.
   Some women
    became ale wives.

   Even when they did
    not spin or brew ale
    for the market,
    peasant women
    performed these
    tasks for their own
    families.
   …’After I have lain awake all night with our child,        When I have done this, I look at the sun.
    I get up in the morning and find our house chaotic.         I get the food ready for our beast before you come
    I milk the cows and turn them out in the field,             home,
    While you are quite sound asleep….                          And food for ourselves before it is noon,
                                                                Yet I don't get a fair word when I have done.
   Then later on in the day I make butter.
    Afterwards I make cheese. These you think a joke.          So I look to our welfare both outdoors and inside,
    Then our children start crying and must be got up,          So nothing great or small is lacking.
    Yet you will blame me if any of our goods are not           I take care to please you, lest any strife arises,
    there.
                                                                And therefore I think you do wrong to tell me off…
   When I have done this, there is still even more to do:
    I feed our chickens otherwise they will be scrawny;
    Our hens, our capons and our ducks all together,
    I also tend to our goslings that go on the green.

   I bake, I brew, otherwise it will not be well;
    I beat and swingle flax, so help me God,                   www.york.ac.uk/teaching/history/pjpg/BALLAD.htm
    I heckle the tow, I warm up and cool down,
    I tease wool and card it and spin it on the wheel. ..
   Some peasant women
    did not marry.
   Some became servants.
       main jobs were to clean,
        cook, and do other
        domestic work
       helped with crafts in
        masters’ homes
       nursed masters’ children




              A servant in Supper in the
              House of the Pharisee by Giotto,
              early 14th century
   Some medieval women
    became blacksmiths,
    merchants, and
    apothecaries.




                          Preparing the wine.
   Some women became
    nuns and devoted their
    lives to God and spiritual
    matters.
   Primary motivation:
       Devotion to God
   Secondary motivations:
     Opportunities for
      intellectual life
     Avoidance of death in
      childbirth
   Nuns lived in
    convents
   Along with monks,
    provided for the
    less-fortunate
    members of the
    community
   Monasteries and
    nunneries were safe
    havens for pilgrims
    and other travelers.
   Many peasant families
    ate, slept, and spent
    time together in very
    small quarters, rarely
    more than one or two
    rooms. The houses
    had thatched roofs
    and were easily
    destroyed.
   In simpler homes where
    there were no chimneys,
    the medieval kitchen
    consisted of a stone
    hearth in the center of
    the room. This was not
    only where the cooking
    took place, but also the
    source of central heating.
   The wife did the cooking
    and baking.
   Diet consisted of breads,
    vegetables from their own
    gardens, dairy products
    from their own sheep,
    goats, and cows, and pork
    from their own livestock.
   Meat was salted and dried
    for use throughout the year
   Flavor was masked by the
    addition of herbs, leftover
    breads, and vegetables.
   Some vegetables, such as
    cabbages, leeks, and onions
    became known as "pot-
    herbs." This pottage was a
    staple of the peasant diet
   Peasant women wore
    long gowns with
    sleeveless tunics and
    wimples to cover their
    hair.
   Sheepskin cloaks and
    woolen hats and mittens
    were worn in winter for
    protection from the cold
    and rain.
   Leather boots covered in
    wood were used to keep
    the feet dry.
   Outer clothes were
    almost never laundered,
   Linen underwear was
    washed regularly.
   The smell of wood
    smoke that permeated
    the clothing seemed to
    act as a deodorant.
   Peasant women spun
    wool into the threads
    that were woven into
    the cloth for these
    garments.
   Medieval handbook on
    wellness
   One of the most important
    picture books of the
    Middle Ages
   Some pictures depict
    housewives in their daily
    chores as well as other
    aspects of medieval life
    not generally recorded.
                                Harvesting cabbages; Tacuinum
                                Sanitatis, 15th c., Paris.
A woman making barley soup in
the Tacuinum Sanitatis of Liege,
circa 1380.
The gourd harvest,
15th century Tacuinum
Sanitatis.
Picking cherries
Gathering herbs
Barley
c. 1370-1400
Men and women working in the fields, Tacuinum Sanitas of Vienna, late 14th
century
   Williams, Mary Newman and Anne Echols. Between Pit
    and Pedestal: Women in the Middle Ages. Princeton, NJ:
    Markus Wiener Publishers, 1993.
   Leyser, Henrietta. Medieval Women: A Social History of
    Women in England. Great Britain: Weidenfeld and
    Nicolson, 1995.
   “The Middle Ages: Myth and Reality.”
    http://www.onlinehistory.com/The%20Middle%20Age
    s.ppt (accessed 11-19-09).
   Thinkquest, “The Distaff Side.”
    http://library.thinkquest.org/12834/text/distaffside.htm
    l (accessed 11-19-09).

				
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