2. Data collection methods Qualitative by xiagong0815


									Data Collection Methods, Qualitative
                Quality of Life sub-module
                          Petri Kainulainen
             EUREKA 2011, Nitra, Slovakia
Data collection in general
 Data Collection
   Is one of the most important phases of research process
   Is one of the time consuming phase of a study
   Has to be planned very carefully and the plan has to be written into
    the study plan
   Has to be performed carefully – the second chance is not ofter
   Is a bit more challenging in qualitative research than in quantitative
    one – researcher is more involved
 Test and practice
   Data Collection Forms (quantitative research) must be tested
    beforehand – preferably with the small sample of actual study
   The interviews (qualitative research) must be practiced beforehand
    Empirical research
 Research can be categorized into two classes
    Literature based studies (literature reviews, no real observations)
    The research based on real observations (empirical research)

                                  Empirical research

         Quantitative                             Qualitative research
         Data collection methods:                 Data collection methods:
         - Paper questionnaires                   - Personal interviews
         - Internet based questionnaires          - Group interviews
         - Systematic observation                 - Observation with participation
         - Experimental studies                   - Documents, video, etc.

                Numeric data                                  Verbal data
Data collection – qualitative research
 Personal interviews
   Very common way to gather qualitative data in Finland
   Interview should be more or less discussion initiated and led by
    the researcher. Not just question – answer.
   The interview should be planned very carefully
   The researcher has sometimes to motivate and give additional
    questions – quite challenging for interviewer
   The study subject must be sure that her/his answers are handled
   Interview can be very social event
Data collection – qualitative research
 Structured interview
   All questions are the same for every subject
        Structure
        Order
        Meaning
    Each question has beforehand built opitions (multiple choices)
    Method is quite close to quantitative research – filling out the paper
       questionnaire with the interviewer
 Semistructured interview
      All questions (and the meaning) are the for every subject
      There are no already built options (multiple choices)
      The study subject gives the answers by own words
      It’s like open field questions on paper questionnaire – the answers are
       more detailed by interviews
Data collection – qualitative research
 Interview by themes
   The themes are pre-selected
   The questions don’t have strict form and order
   All of the themes will covered, the extent and order can vary
   The interviewer can have list of themes and additional questions
   The method gives the study subjects more freedom to express themselves
 Open interview
   Like an interactive discussion between the study subject and the intervewer
   The topic is pre-selected but the content may vary between the study subjects
   All themes are not necessarily covered
 Deep interview
   More than one interview rounds
       First interview: get to know each other
       Second interview: gather the information
       Third interview: analyze more deeply tha answers with the study subject
    The research problem and the topic should be large enough
    Timing can be problematic – several interviews
Data collection – qualitative research
 Group interview
   Several subjects and/or interviewers present at the same time
   Can be for example interview by themes
   You can achieve easily more information compared with personal interviews
        New ideas
        The answers can be different or more detailed than in personal interview
        Easier to remember and understand – others can help
    Disadvantages
       The subjects may control each other
       Dominating subjects can disturb the interview
    Is very suitable method if the subjects have different opinions and they are
       willing to share them with others
      The group should still be homogenous – the questions and terms should
       understood by same way
      Suitable group size 4-8 persons
      The subjects will introduce themselves to make it possible to recognize each
       other afterwards
      The recording should be written down quickly after the interview
      Can be combined with personal interview
      Timing can be problematic
Data collection – qualitative research
 General issues on interviews
    Different types of interviews yield different kind of data – the selection of
       method should be based on the research questions
      The interviews should be practised and the use of recording device checked
       – you won’t get a second chance
      Pre-interview if possible – modify the questions and themes
      Be prepared for everything (phone is ringing, you run out batteries)
      Sometimes it’s hard proceed with the interview – make auxiliary questions
      The recording should agreed with the study subject in advance
      The place should be selected carefully
      Phone can also be used
        The contact between the interviewer and the subject is not so personal
        How to record?
    Interview should be totally voluntary basis
    Trust is everything
Data collection – qualitative research
 Observations without participation
   The researcher observes the study subjects without any interaction with them
   The observations can be recorded by the video or collected with paper froms
   For example the researcher is observing the students’ behavior in the class room
 Observations with participation
   The researcher is directly involved with the study subjects
   The observations will be collected systematically
   The role of researcher is quite small and she/he tries not to influence on the study subjects
 Action research
       Like the previous one except the researcher does have a big role – she/he participates and tries to influence
       The study process can be cyclic – selection of the objectives, researching, testing, changing the objectives...
 Other sources of data
   The data from previous studies
   Dieries, letters
   Memos
   TV/paper commercials, radio programs, movies
       Etc.

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