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					The Presidency
                 The Presidents
   Great Expectations
    – Americans want a president who is powerful
      and who can do good:
          Washington, Jefferson, Lincoln, Roosevelt and
    – But at the same time, they don’t want the
      president to get too powerful since we are
      individualistic and skeptical of authority.
          Nixon
          Clinton
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                                                     NBC News Time Capsule Nixon Resigns August 9, 1974 - AOL Video.url
              The Presidents
   Who They Are
    – Formal Requirements:
        Must be 35 years old

        Must be a natural-born citizen

        Must have resided in U.S. for 14 years

    – Informal “Requirements”:
        White, Male, Protestant (except one JFK)

    – All manner of professions, but mostly political
      ones (former state governors, for example)
 22nd amendment established 2 terms/10
 Govn’t experience (law)
 $$$
 Moderate viewpoints
 Male
 Lonely job
          Salary and Benefits
   Determined by Congress
   $400,000 salary/$50,000 expenses/$120,000 travel
    & entertainment
   Air Force One
   Free medical, dental, healthcare
   White House (132 room mansion) swimming
    pool, bowling alley
   80 domestic staff
   Retirement = Pension - $151,800; office staff -
    $150,000 (former first ladies - $20,000)
   25th amendment (1967)
   Order
    –   VP
    –   Speaker of the House
    –   Pres. Pro-temp of the Senate
    –   Cabinet Offices (secretaries)
    –   Garfield, FDR, JFK, Harding all died in office
   Disability
    – Pres informs Congress (vp takes over)
    – VP and majority of Cabinet indicate if president is
   2 duties:
    – President over Senate (vote in case of tie)
    – Helps decide if pres is disabled and acts as pres
      should that happen
 Other duties vary
 Recently given more power and
  responsibility (ex: Cheney)
The Presidents
                 The Presidents
   How They Got There
    – Elections: The Normal Road to the White
          Once elected, the president gets a term of four years.
          In 1951, the 22nd Amendment limited the number of
           terms to two.
          Most Presidents have been elected to office.
                  The Presidents
   How They Got There
    – Succession and Impeachment
          Vice-President succeeds if the president leaves office due to
           death, resignation, or removal.
          Impeachment is investigated by the House, and if impeached,
           tried by the Senate with the Chief Justice presiding.
          Only two presidents have been impeached: A. Johnson &
           Clinton - neither was convicted.
          The 25th Amendment clarifies what happens if the president
           becomes disabled.
The Presidents
System of Electing the President

 Elector - a member of a political party
  chosen by a popular vote in each state to
  formally elect the pres and vp
 Electoral vote - official vote for pres and vp
  by electors in each state
 # of electors per state = # of representatives
  + # of senators per state
   Must win 270 of 538 votes (majority)
    – Elections 2000
 If no one candidate wins majority than outcome
  determined by House of Rep. (ex: 1800 -
  Jefferson, 1824 - John Quincy Adams)
 Winner take all system
 Widely debated
    – Electoral votes vs. popular votes
BUSH/       271              50,456,062
 CHENEY     electoral vote   popular vote

GORE/       266              50,996,582
 LIBERMAN   electoral vote   popular vote
           Presidential Office
   20th amendment
    – Changed the month the president takes office
      from March to January
    – Noon on January 20th
Presidential Powers

       From Table 13.3
   Head of State
    – Represent nation
    – Ceremonial duties
        Light tree
        Host dignitaries

        Meet public figures

   Chief Executive
    –   Carries out laws of Congress
    –   Executive orders - rules that have the force of law
    –   Grant reprieve
    –   Grant pardon
    –   amnesty
   Chief Legislator
    –   Propose legislation to Congress
    –   State of Union address
    –   Work with members of Congress
    –   Veto power

   Economic Planner
    – Employment Act of 1946 (annual economic report,
      council of Economic Advisors)
    – Prepare federal budget
   Party Leader
    –   Help in election of members
    –   Fund raising
    –   Appointing party members (patronage)
    –   Conflict of interest?

   Chief Diplomat
    –   Directs foreign policy
    –   Struggle with Congress over power
    –   Make treaties
    –   Make executive agreements
    –   Recognition of foreign governments

   Commander in Chief
    – Power to make war
    – Military operation and strategy
    – Operations at home
              Limitations on power
 Congress - override veto by 2/3 vote (Ex: War Powers
  Act - Nixon’s veto 1973)
 Congress - impeach pres (Andrew Johnson, Bill
  Clinton - acquitted)
 Supreme Court - Marbury v. Madison 1803
    – Some of FDR’s new deal legislation was ruled
          Schechter Poultry Corp vs. U.S.
    – Richard Nixon’s White House Tapes
   Bureaucracy - intentional and unintentional
    – Fail to provide info, misinterpret instructions
   Public opinion
    – War, economic state, moral character
   Mass media
           Executive Privilege
 Right of pres to refuse to testify before, or
  to provide info to Congress or a court
 US v. Nixon (1974)
    – Nixon secretly taped conversations with key
      aides about Watergate coverup
    – SC ruled that Nixon had to surredner tapes to
      special prosecutor investigating scandal
    – Question remains: How far does executive
      privilege extend?
          Presidential Powers
   The Expansion of Power
    – Presidents may develop new roles for the office
    – Presidents may expand the power of the office
   Perspectives on Presidential Power
    – Through the 50’s & 60’s a powerful President
      was perceived as good.
    – From the 70’s on, presidential power was
      checked and distrusted by the public.
     Running the Government:
       The Chief Executive
   The Vice President
    – Basically just “waits” for things to do
    – Recent presidents have given their VPs important jobs
   The Cabinet
    – Presidential advisors, not in Constitution
    – Is made up of the top executives of the Federal
      Departments, confirmed by the Senate
   Pres, VP, 14 secretaries (dept. heads), top officials
    – President Bush's Cabinet
Running the Government: The
      Chief Executive
Cabinet Secretary Characteristics
   Presidential advisors
   “secretaries” head each major executive dept
   Must please many (political party, Congress,
    interest groups)
   Experience in area
   Satisfaction of interest groups (ex: education:
    – NEA: About NEA
 Administrative skills (large departments)
 Background (college grads, advanced
  degrees, leaders in field)
    – Salary $161,200 (often sacrifice $$ for public
Nomination and Confirmation
 List made by pres
 Names may be leaked to assess views of
  public, Congress, interest groups
 Confirmation hearings before committee
  that oversees particular dept
 2/3 vote of Senate
        Role of Cabinet
 Head of dept
 Advisor to pres
 Most Cabinet’s are sounding boards more
  than advisors
 Inner cabinet (state, defense, treasury,
  Attorney General) more influential
          Limits of Cabinet
 Conflicting loyalties (pres, career
  employees, Congress, interest groups)
 Internal disputes (between secretaries - fight
  for control; disagree with pres)
 Secrecy and trust issues
 Pres often turns to Executive Office instead
     Running the Government:
       The Chief Executive
   The Executive Office
    – Made up of several policymaking and advisory bodies
    – Three principle groups: NSC, CEA, OMB

                          Figure 13.1
     Running the Government:
       The Chief Executive
   The White House Staff
    – Chief aides and staff for the president - some
      are more for the White House than the president
    – Presidents rely on their information and effort
   The First Lady
    – No official government position, but many get
      involved politically
    – Recent ones focus on a single issue
 Individuals and agencies that directly assist
  the pres
 Gather info; advise pres; help implement
     Executive Office Agencies
   Office of Management and Budget (OMB)
    – Largest
    – Prepares pres budget to Congress
    – Reviews budgets of agencies
    – Central clearance - review all legislative
   National Security Council (NSC)
    – Created in 1974
    – Coordinate military and foreign policy
    – Pres, vp, sec of state, sec of defense, other
    – National security advisor directs staff
    – National Security Council
   National Economic Council
    – Created in 1946
    – Helps pres formulate nat’l economic policy
    – 3 top economists - 60 other economists, attorneys,
      political scientists
    – Assesses econ health, future econ conditions, aids other
    – Proposes solutions to problems
    – Lawrence B. Lindsey
    Running the Government: The
          Chief Executive
   Principal Offices in the White House (Figure 13.2)
           White House Office
 Pres appoints (withOUT approval of Senate)
 Often long time personal supporters
 Inner circle
    – Chief of staff, deputy chief of staff, White House
      counsel, press sec
   Press staff (headed by press sec)
    – Handles relations with White House press corp
    – Press conferences
    – Public statements
     Presidential Leadership of
     Congress: The Politics of
          Shared Powers
   Chief Legislator
    – Veto: Sending a bill back to Congress with his
      reasons for rejecting it. Can be overridden.
    – Pocket Veto: Letting a bill die by not signing it
      - only works when Congress is adjourned.
    – Line Item Veto: The ability to veto parts of a
      bill. Some state governors have it, but not the
    – Vetoes are most used to prevent legislation.
  Presidential Leadership of
Congress: The Politics of Shared
     Presidential Leadership of
     Congress: The Politics of
          Shared Powers
   Party Leadership
    – The Bonds of Party
          The psychological bond of being in the president’s party
    – Slippage in Party Support
          Presidents cannot always count on party support, especially on
           controversial issues
    – Leading the Party
          Presidents can offer party candidates support and punishment
           by withholding favors.
          Presidential coattails occur when voters cast their ballots for
           congressional candidates of the president’s party because they
           support the president.
  Presidential Leadership of
Congress: The Politics of Shared
  Presidential Leadership of
Congress: The Politics of Shared
     Presidential Leadership of
     Congress: The Politics of
          Shared Powers
   Public Support
    – Public Approval
        Operates mostly in the background

        Public approval gives the president leverage, not
    – Mandates
        Perception that the voters strongly support the
         president’s character and policies
        Mandates are infrequent, but presidents may claim a
         mandate anyway
     Presidential Leadership of
     Congress: The Politics of
          Shared Powers
   Legislative Skills
    – Variety of forms: bargaining, making personal
      appeals, consulting with Congress, setting
      priorities, etc.
    – Most important is bargaining with Congress.
    – Presidents can use their “honeymoon” period to
      their advantage.
    – Nation’s key agenda builder
    The President and National
         Security Policy
   Chief Diplomat
    – Negotiates treaties with other countries
    – Treaties must be approved by the Senate
    – Use executive agreements to take care of
      routine matters with other countries
    – May negotiate for peace between other
    – Lead U.S. allies in defense & economic issues
    The President and National
         Security Policy
   Commander in Chief
    – Writers of the constitution wanted civilian
      control of the military
    – Presidents often make important military
    – Presidents command a standing military and
      nuclear arsenal - unthinkable 200 years ago
    The President and National
         Security Policy
   War Powers
    – Constitution gives Congress the power to
      declare war, but presidents can commit troops
      and equipment in conflicts
    – War Powers Resolution was intended to limit
      the president’s use of the military - but may be
    – Presidents continue to test the limits of using
      the military in foreign conflicts
    The President and National
         Security Policy
   Crisis Manager
    – A crisis is a sudden, unpredictable, and potentially
      dangerous event.
    – The role the president plays can help or hurt the
      presidential image.
    – With current technology, the president can act much
      faster than Congress to resolve a crisis.
   Working with Congress
    – President has lead role in foreign affairs.
    – Presidents still have to work with Congress for support
      and funding of foreign policies.
      Presidential Isolation
 Staff members are reluctant to voice
  criticism of the pres
 Disagreement with the pres can sometimes
  lead to limited access to the pres
 Top staffers control access to the pres
      Power from the People:
      The Public Presidency
   Going Public
    – Public support is perhaps the greatest source of
      influence a president has.
    – Presidential appearances are staged to get the
      public’s attention.
    – As head of state, presidents often perform many
      ceremonial functions, which usually result in
      favorable press coverage.
        Power from the People:
        The Public Presidency
   Presidential Approval
    – Receives much effort by the White House
    – Product of many factors: predispositions, “honeymoon”
    – Changes can highlight good / bad decisions

                               Figure 13.3
       Power from the People: The
           Public Presidency
   Average Presidential Approval for Entire Terms in Office (Figure 13.4)
       Power from the People:
       The Public Presidency
   Policy Support
    – Being an effective speaker is important.
    – The public may still miss the message.
   Mobilizing the Public
    – The president may need to get the public to
      actually act by contacting Congress.
    – Difficult to do since public opinion and
      political action are needed.

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