HR Planning

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					TATAP MUKA MINGGU KE VI




                 Presented By
                  HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                 Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
Presented By
HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
HR Planning




•   What is HR Planning?

   Why is it rarely done?

   What is the connection between a firm’s
    strategic orientation and HR planning?


                              Presented By
                              HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                              Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
   Organizational Life-Cycle Stages
          and HR Activities
  LIFE-                                                       TRAINING             LABOR /
  CYCLE           STAFFING            COMPENSATION              AND               EMPLOYEE
  STAGE                                                     DEVELOPMENT           RELATIONS
Introduction   Attract best           Meet or exceed        Define future        Set basic
               technical and          labor market rates    skill                employee-
               professional           to attract needed     requirements         relations
               talent.                talent.               and begin            philosophy of
                                                            establishing         organization.
                                                            career ladders.
Growth         Recruit adequate       Meet external         Mold effective       Maintain labor
               numbers and mix        market but consider   management           peace,
               of qualifies           internal equity       team through         employee
               workers. Plan          effects. Establish    management           motivation,
               management             formal                development          and morale.
               succession. Mange      compensation          and
               rapid internal labor   structures.           organizational
               market                                       development.
               movements

                                                                  Presented By
                                                                  HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                                                                  Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
     Organizational Life-Cycle Stages and
     HR Activities (cont’d)
LIFE-CYCLE                                             TRAINING AND               LABOR /
  STAGE          STAFFING         COMPENSATION         DEVELOPMENT               EMPLOYEE
                                                                                 RELATIONS

Maturity     Encourage sufficient Control             Maintain flexibility    Control labor costs
             turnover to minimize compensation        and skills of an        and maintain labor
             layoffs and provide  costs.              aging workforce.        peace. Improve
             new openings.                                                    productivity.
             Encourage mobility
             as reorganizations
             shift jobs around.
Decline      Plan and implement   Implement tighter   Implement               Improve
             workforce            cost control.       retraining and          productivity and
             reductions and                           career consulting       achieve flexibility
             reallocations,                           services.               in work rules.
             downsizing and                                                   Negotiate job
             outplacement may                                                 security and
             occur during this                                                employment-
             stage.                                                           adjustment
                                                                              policies
                                                                 Presented By
                                                                 HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                                                                 Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
  How does HR Planning occur?

1. What   does the environment look like?
2. What are our future personnel needs?
            (forecast demand)
   a. Judgmental
         Estimates
           Rule of Thumb
           Delphi Technique
           NGT
           Brainstorming       Presented By
                                HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                                Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
 The Nominal Group Technique
A small group of 4-5 people gathers around a table. Leader
identifies judgment issue and gives participants procedural
instructions.

   Participants write down all ideas that occur to them, keeping
   their lists private at this point. Creativity is encouraged during
   this phase.

       Leader asks each participant to present ideas and writes them
       on a blackboard or flipchart, continuing until all ideas have been
       recorded.

          Participants discuss each other’s ideas, clarifying, expanding,
          and evaluating them as a group.

              Participants rank ideas privately in their own personal order and
              preference.

                   The idea that ranks highest among the participants is adopted
                   as the group’s judgment.
          The Delphi Technique
Leader identifies judgment issues and develops questionnaire.


  Prospective participants are identified and asked to cooperate.


       Leaders send questionnaire to willing participants, who record
       their judgments and recommendations and return the
       questionnaire.

            Leaders compiles summaries and reproduces participants’
            responses.

                   Leader sends the compiled list of judgment to all participants.


                         Participants comment on each other’s ideas and propose a final
                         judgment.


                                    Leader looks
                                    for Consensus


    Leader accepts consensus judgment as group’s choice.
     How does HR Planning occur?

1. What   does the environment look like?
2.   What are our future personnel needs?
      a. forecast demand
      b. Statistical (regresion)




                                   Presented By
                                   HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                                   Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
Statistical Techniques Used to
Project Staffing Demand Needs
Name                  Description
Regression analysis   Past levels of various work load indicators, such as sales,
                      production levels, and value added, are examined for
                      statistical relationships with staffing levels. Where
                      sufficiently strong relationships are found, a regression (or
                      multiple regression) model is derived. Forecasted levels of
                      the retained indicator(s) are entered into the resulting
                      model and used to calculate the associated level of
                      human resource requirements.

Productivity ratios   Historical data are used to examine past levels of a
                      productivity index (P):

                               P = Work load / Number of People

                      Where constant, or systematic, relationships are found,
                      human resource requirements can be computed by diving
                      predicted work loads by P.
Statistical Techniques Used to Project Staffing
             Demand Needs (cont’d)
Name                   Description
Personnel ratios       Past personnel data are examined to determine historical
                       relationships among the employees in various jobs or job
                       categories. Regression analysis or productivity ratios are
                       then used to project either total or key-group human
                       resource requirements, and personnel ratios are used to
                       allocated total requirements to various job categories or to
                       estimate for non-key groups.


Time series analysis   Past staffing levels (instead of work load indicators) are
                       used to project future human resource requirements. Past
                       staffing levels are examined to isolate and cyclical
                       variation, long-tem terms, and random movement. Long-
                       term trends are then extrapolated or projected using a
                       moving average, exponential smoothing, or regression
                       technique.
      Regression Analysis


1. Statically identify historical predictor of workforce size
        Example: FTEs = a + b1 sales + b2 new customers

2. Only use equations with predictors found to be
   statistically significant

3. Predict future HR requirements, using equation
       Example: (a) FTEs = 7 + .0004 sales + .02 new
                      customers
                  (b) Projected sales = $1,000,000
                       Projected new customers = 300
                   (c) HR requirements = 7 + 400 + 6 = 413
Determining the Relationship Between Hospital
         Size and Number of Nurses
How does HR Planning occur?


2. What are our future personnel needs?
   (demand forecast cont.)
   b. Statistical (cont.)
         Ratio analysis




                            Presented By
                            HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                            Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
TATAP MUKA MINGGU KE VIII




                  Presented By
                  HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                  Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
How does HR Planning occur?


3. Are resources available – internally or
    externally – to fill those needs?
   a. Internal
         Replacement charts




                               Presented By
                               HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                               Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
Employee Replacement Chart
for Succession Planning
How does HR Planning occur?


3. Are resources available – internally or
    externally – to fill those needs?
   a. Internal
         Replacement charts
        Promotability




                               Presented By
                               HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                               Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
Presented By
Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
How does HR Planning occur?


3. Are resources available – internally or
   externally – to fill those needs?
   a. Internal
         Replacement charts
        Promotability
        Succession planning
        Skills inventory
        Transition (Markov) matrix
                                 Presented By
                                 HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                                 Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
           A Sample Transition Matrix
Part A: Personnel Supply
                                     Estimated Personnel Classification in Year T + 1 (%)
Classifications in Year T            P         M         S          Sr        A         Exit
Partner                              .70                                                .30
Manager                              .10       .80                                      .10
Supervisor                                     .12       .60                            .28
Senior                                                   .20        .55                 .25
Accountant                                                          .15       .65       .20


Part B. Staffing Levels
                                     Estimated Personnel Availabilities in Year T + 1 (%)
                            Beginning
Classifications in Year T    Levels   P        M         S          Sr        A         Exit
Partner                      10       7                                                 3
Manager                      30       3        24                                       3
Supervisor                   50                6         30                             14
Senior                       100                         20         55                  25
Accountant                   200                                    30        130       40
                                      10       30        50         85        130
How does HR Planning occur?


3. Are resources available – internally or
    externally – to fill those needs?
  b. External – what do you look at?

      - Try to determine availability of
       qualified labor; Surplus? Shortage?


                                  Presented By
                                  HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                                  Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
How does HR Planning occur?

   4. What should we do?
      Create plan of action to reconcile supply
      and demand
  a. Set objectives
  b. Generate alternatives




                              Presented By
                              HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                              Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
 Staffing Alternatives to Deal with
 Employee Surpluses




                                                   Presented By
                                                   HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                                                   Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
Source: Compliments of Dan Ward, GTE Corporation
 Staffing Alternatives to Deal with
 Employee Shortages




                                                   Presented By
                                                   HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                                                   Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
Source: Compliments of Dan Ward, GTE Corporation
How does HR Planning occur?

   4. What should we do?
      create plan of action to reconcile supply
      and demand

  a. Set objectives
  b. Generate alternatives
  c. Assess alternatives

                               Presented By
                               HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                               Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
  Alternative Scheduling Options
                                                                  Percent Using
Alternative                                                    (N = 427 companies)

The following definitions were used in this survey
for alternative scheduling strategies:

• Part-time: A regular employee who works fewer than 35 hours per          84%
  week.
• Flextime: A system than enables employees to vary their schedules:
                                                                           40%
  Usually, the flexibility applies to starting and finishing times.
• Compressed workweek: A full-week schedule (usually 40 hours) than
                                                                           23%
  occurs in fewer than five days, such as four 10-hour days.
• Job sharing: Two or more employees split a full-time position, diving
                                                                           18%
  the responsibilities, and, to some degree, the compensation.
• Work-at-home: A program that enables employees to complete work at
  home (or at a remote office closer to home) on a regular basis. It is    13%
  often referred to as “flexplace” or “telecommuting.”
How does HR Planning occur?

   4. What should we do?
      create plan of action to reconcile supply
      and demand
  a. Set objectives
  b. Generate alternatives
  c. Assess alternatives
  d. Choose alternative – KEEP PHILOSOPHY
     IN MIND
                               Presented By
                               HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                               Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO
How does HR Planning occur?


5. How did we do?
  a. Did company avoid surplus/shortage?
  b. Evaluate usefulness of methods used
  c. Goals v. Production Levels, etc.




                                   Presented By
                                   HRP/HERMIEN.DOC
                                   Harry Mills / PRESENTATIONPRO

				
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