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Chapter 12.2 Notes

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					                 Chapter 12: A New Nation
                       Section 2: Houston’s First Term

               Houston’s Administration
   Oct 1836: Sam Houston elected president of the Republic of Texas
   Houston’s Goals:
        o Peace with American Indians
        o Keep guarded against Mexico
        o Annexation by the U.S.
   Secretary of State: Stephen F. Austin
   Secretary of the Treasury: Henry Smith
   Secretary of War: Thomas J. Rusk
   Secretary of the Navy: Samuel Rhodes Fisher
   Supreme Court:
        o Chief Justice James Collinsworth
        o 4 Associate Justices
        o 4 District Courts
   23 County Courts
   Texas claimed Rio Grande as boundary
   Mexico claimed Nueces River as boundary
   Ad interim government moved government to Columbia
   Late 1836: Houston named temporary capital



                  Houston & Army Unrest
•   Felix Huston: Texas army commander who desired to invade Mexico
•   Replaced by Houston
•   Duel between Huston & Albert Sydney Johnson
•   Johnston unable to take command
•   Unrest grows
•   Commander urges a march on the capital
•   President Houston reduced the size of the army in 1836 because unrest in the army threatened
    the new government.
•   Houston relied on the Texas Rangers and militia for frontier defense
                           Economic Policies
•   Expenditures—government expenses
•   Revenues—government income
•   National debt = $1.25 million
•   Efforts to solve problems:
        • Collected taxes and duties
        • Tried to get loans from the U.S.
        • Sale of public lands
•   Panic of 1837: Financial crisis during Houston’s administration
•   Began in U.S.
•   Texas heavily traded with the U.S.
•   Limited supply
•   Not backed
•   Value dropped after more paper money was printed


              Land Policy Under Houston
•   1836: Texas claimed over 200 million acres in public lands
•   Constitution of 1836 provided for sale of lands
•   Empresario system
•   Heads of households: 4,604 acres
•   Single men: 1,476 acres
•   Distributed 37 million acres


    Houston’s American Indian Policy
•   Conflict spreads as settlement spreads
•   American Indians want to keep land, Texans want to remove Indians
•   Houston lived with the Cherokee Indians
•   Desired a peaceful solution
•   Houston negotiated a treaty with the Cherokee
•   Cherokee guaranteed title to land
•   Senate refused to ratify
•   Ratify—approve or accept formally
•   Cherokee become angry
•   Mexican agents convince Cherokee to attack
•   Chief Bowles—Cherokee leader and friend of Sam Houston
•   Encourages Cherokee to remain patient
•   Gave Cherokee land to keep peace
•   Cherokee viewed as Mexican allies
•   Enlisted Chief Bowles to help keep peace with Plains Indians
•   Establishes line of forts along frontier
•   Used Texas Ranger to patrol frontier
•   Texans viewed Indians as a roadblock
•   Negotiated treaties with Indians
•   Houston believed the best American Indian policy was to make peace with each American Indian
    group.

				
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posted:2/14/2012
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