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					       Ch. 8 – Political Geography
I. Polit Culture Regions
A. Define terms
1. State – self-governing political entity.
Has territory with internationally
recognized boundaries, sovereignty

2. Nation - Cultural entity
Group of people with common ancestry.
   May or may not be a sovereign territory
3. Nation-state- When a nation’s homeland
corresponds to a state's territory (political
and cultural entities are same)

4. Multinational state – potential for
   centrifugal forces

UK- Wales, Scotland, N Ireland, England
China - Flower Mt. Festival
B.Trouble defining states
 How many are there?




   Antarctica
 National Claims
      Ethnic Groups in Southwest Asia




Fig. 8-15: Ethnic boundaries do not match country boundaries, especially in Iraq, Iran,
           Afghanistan, and Pakistan. The mismatch has affected many of the
           conflicts in the area.
II. Development of state concept
A. Territoriality – natural or learned
Independence Day

B. Rise of States
1. Ancient states – Mesopotamia, China
2. Europe
3. Colonialism – gold, God, glory
4. Modern states – UN 192
         Colonial Possessions, 1914




Fig. 8-4: By the outbreak of World War I, European states held colonies throughout the
          world, especially throughout Africa and in much of Asia.
        Colonial Possessions, 2006




Fig. 8-5: Most of the remaining colonies are small islands in the Pacific or Caribbean.
    United Nations Members




Fig. 8-1: The UN has increased from 51 members in 1945 to 192 in 2007.
II. State shapes (morphology)
A. Compact
B. Protruded or
   prorupted
C. Elongated
D. Fragmented
E. Perforated
III. Types of Boundaries
A. Frontier
B. Boundary types
1. Physical / Natural
2. Cultural / Ethnographic
3. Relic
     India: The Tin Bigha Corridor




Fig. 8-7: The Tin Bigha corridor fragmented two sections of the country of Bangladesh.
          When it was leased to Bangladesh, a section of India was fragmented.
                    North and South
                         Korea




Haiti / Dominican
    Republic
C. Internal boundaries (state
organization)
1. Unitary
2. Federal
IV. Electoral Geography
A. Functional electoral regions
B. Gerrymandering
 C. US voting patterns -



Nominee                       George Bush          Al Gore
Party                          Republican         Democratic
Electoral vote                     271                266
States carried                      30              20+DC
Popular vote                   50,456,002         50,999,897
Percentage                       47.9%              48.4%

   http://www.cnn.com/ELECTION/2008/calculator/
                  2000 Election




                    Bush          Gore
Counties won        2,434         677
Pop of counties     143 million   127 million
Area won (sq mi)    2,428,000     580,000
V. Devolution

VI. Supranationalism
A. Define - voluntary cooperation of 3 or
    more countries

B. Military cooperation
    UN, NATO, Warsaw Pact
C. Economic - NAFTA, EU

				
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