tax credit hike by linxiaoqin


									    green energy t mes
1    Green enery times                 May 4, 2009

    premier issue • issue 1 • may 4, 2009

                         Yes YOu CAN! …Be eNerGY iNDepeNDeNT!                                                                                                                                             solar power
                                                               and the time is now!! read on…                                                                                                              works anywhere
                                                                                                                                                                                                            under the sun!

this solar powered home is riGht here in the upper valley! Notice the solar hot water panels on the roof, too.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         breaking news
Announcing Green energy Times!                                                                                                                                                                           tax credit hike
Dedicated to everyone living on this planet. A compilation of what you need to know to make the change!

                                                               obama will make                                                             prosperous future. And while we’re                            Congress Quadruples tax Credit for
   The GREEN ENERGy TIMES is here for                                                                                                                                                                    homeowners!
yOU! Our lives are busier than ever. Most                                                                                                  creating the incentives for companies

                                                               clean energy                                                                to develop these technologies, we’re                          Great news! Congress recently passed
people would never have the time to                                                                                                                                                                      new tax credits helping homeowners and
research the necessary steps to learn how                                                                                                  also creating incentives for consumers

                                                                                                                                           to adapt to these new technologies. So                        business owners fund clean energy solar
to incorporate alternative energies into                                                                                                                                                                 systems! Now you can receive a 30% tax
their lives, to do their part. This paper is                                                                                               the Recovery Act includes a new credit
                                                                                                                                           -- new tax credit for up to $7,500 to en-                     credit on your system installation and take
put together by people who are living &                                                                                                                                                                  advantage of your local state incentives.
currently using alternative energy for their                       In his Earth Day speech, President                                      courage Americans to buy more fuel-
                                                               Obama says his budget will invest $15 billion                               efficient cars and trucks.”                                   In many areas this cuts the payback time
needs. This paper is compiled, using 100%                                                                                                                                                                for your solar system IN HALF. If you are
solar power!                                                   each year for 10 years to develop clean en-                                     To encourage new innovations
                                                               ergy including wind power and solar power,                                  Obama’s recovery plan includes the                            considering purchasing a system, there’s
      The ‘green’ movement is a wonderful                                                                                                                                                                never been a better time to go solar! With
start, & it reduces our carbon footprint                       geothermal energy and clean coal technol-                                   largest investment in basic research
                                                               ogy. He announced that his administration,                                  funding in American history. His budget                       a rate of return over 20%, it’s a smart and
with every step we each take, but we need                                                                                                                                                                safe commitment against increasing elec-
to prepare for our future electrical & fuel                    through the Department of the Interior, is                                  includes a 10-year commitment to make
                                                               creating the nation’s first program to autho-                               the Research and Experimentation Tax                          tricity rates and our unstable economy.
needs! This paper is aimed to give you the                                                                                                                                                                   A 4 kW solar system that could cost as
info you seek, all in one compilation of a                     rize the leasing of Federal waters to generate                              Credit permanent. “That young guy in
                                                               electricity from wind and ocean currents. He                                the garage designing a new engine or                          much as $34,000 now qualifies for an
quarterly guide. It is free & will be avail-                                                                                                                                                             $8,000 federal tax credit, which is up from
able at convenient locations that we all visit                 states that this will open the door to major                                a new battery, that computer scientist
                                                               investments in offshore clean energy . “ It’s                               who’s imagining a new way of thinking                         the previous $2,000! ♻
regularly. Subscriptions are also available.
     The information is geared to take you                     estimated if we fully pursue our potential                                  about energy, we need to fund them
from talking about it, to being able to make                   for wind energy on land and off shore, wind                                 now, fund them early, because that’s                           Did you know…
informed deci-                                                         can generate as much as 20 percent                                  what America has always been about:                            that you can take out a loan
sions to incor-               An area the                              of our energy by 2030 and create a
                                                                       quarter million jobs in the process “.
                                                                                                                                           technology and innovation.”
                                                                                                                                                                                                          for alternative energy and if
porate alterna-                                                                                                                                Obama’s administration will also be
tive energies             size of the Nevada                              He asked for the same enthusiasm                                 pursuing comprehensive legislation to                          you sell your house, the loan
into your very                                                         for the automobile industry that is                                 move towards energy independence                                   stays with the house?
home or busi-              Test Site & Nellis                          being shown for generation of clean
                                                                       electricity for home and businesses.
                                                                                                                                           and prevent the worst consequences of
                                                                                                                                           climate change, while creating the in-
ness. We ALL
must do this!             AFB, could deliver                           He said the automobile industry can’t
                                                                       survive by using the technology of
                                                                                                                                           centives to make clean energy the prof-
                                                                                                                                           itable kind of energy in America. He be-                      renewable energy systems
Le ave       this
mind-boggling              twice the needed                            the past. The industry has to be for-
                                                                       ward looking. “When gas prices spike
                                                                                                                                           lieves the best way to do this is through
                                                                                                                                           legislation that places a market-based
                                                                                                                                                                                                         For many people, powering their homes or
task up to us,                                                                                                                                                                                           small businesses using a small renewable
to give you the           energy to meet the                           up like they did last summer, sudden-
                                                                       ly the market for American cars plum-
                                                                                                                                           cap on carbon dioxide and other green-
                                                                                                                                           house gas emissions. “ By setting an
                                                                                                                                                                                                         energy system that is not connected to the
info you need.                                                                                                                                                                                           electricity grid makes economic sense &
It may not all            entire U.S. needs,                           mets because we build SUVs. That’s
                                                                       it. It leaves the American economy
                                                                                                                                           overall cap, carbon pollution becomes
                                                                                                                                           like a commodity. It places a value on a
                                                                                                                                                                                                         appeals to their environmental values.
fit into this first                                                                                                                                                                                         In remote locations, renewable energy
issue, but we                using existing                            ever more dependent on the supply
                                                                       of foreign oil.” Ending America’s de-
                                                                                                                                           limited resource, and that is the ability
                                                                                                                                           to pollute. And to determine that value,
                                                                                                                                                                                                         systems can be more cost-effective than
will tell you                                                                                                                                                                                            extending a power line to the electricity grid
more & more                  photovoltaic                              pendence on foreign oil is the prime
                                                                       concern of many politicians including
                                                                                                                                           just like any other traded commodity,
                                                                                                                                           we’d create a market where companies
                                                                                                                                                                                                         (the cost of which can range from $15,000
with each pub-                                                                                                                                                                                           to $50,000 per mile). But these systems are
lication. We                  technology!                              President Obama. That’s why Obama
                                                                       sees advanced biofuels and ethanol,
                                                                                                                                           could buy and sell the right to produce
                                                                                                                                           a certain amount of carbon pollution.
                                                                                                                                                                                                         also used by people who live near the grid &
welcome ques-                                                                                                                                                                                            wish to obtain independence from the power
tions & will                                                           as an important transitional fuel that                                  And in this way, every company can                        provider or demonstrate a commitment to
share the answers with everyone in future                      may help reduce oil dependence and are                                      determine for itself whether it makes                         non-polluting energy sources.
issues.                                                        clean, homegrown sources of energy as                                       sense to spend the money to become                              Successful systems generally take advantage
                                                               well. “ We have to create the incentives for                                cleaner or more efficient, or to spend
   We recommend you join or start energy                                                                                                                                                                 of a combination of techniques & technolo-
                                                               companies to develop the next generation                                    the money on a certain amount of al-
committes in your communities.                                                                                                                                                                           gies to generate reliable power, reduce costs,
                                                               of clean-energy vehicles -- and for Ameri-                                  lowable pollution.” This makes wind
   Take advantage of all of the tax incentives                                                                                                                                                           & minimize inconvenience. Some of these
                                                               cans to drive them, particularly as the U.S.                                power more economical, makes solar
out there. you can now save at least 40% or                                                                                                                                                              strategies include using fossil fuel or renew-
                                                               auto industry moves forward on a historic                                   power more economical. Clean energy
more off a solar, wind or hydro system! NOW                                                                                                                                                              able hybrid systems & reducing the amount of
is the time to make the changes! ♻
                                                               restructuring that can position it for a more                               all becomes more economical. ♻                                electricity required to meet your needs.
                                                                                                                                                                                                           We will explore SOLAR, WIND, HyDRO, Solar/
    contents                                                                                                                                                                                             Wind, & Solar/Hydro hybrid systems.         ♻
    announcing green energy times ..........1                  appliances & energy .................................. 7               solarfest, tax incentives ...................12
    this issue’s top story, breaking news ..........1          on-demand hot water .......................... 7                       hydro power ................................................. 13
    step 1 - shelter, existing........................2        center ads........................................................ 8   resources ............................................14
    step 1 - shelter, new construction..............3          center ads .............................................. 9            book reviews .......................................14

                                                                                                                                                                                                          reen energy t mes
    alternative energies: solar, grid-tied ......4             batteries & electrical ........................10                      green products ...................................15
    renewable energy: solar, offigrid .....5
    wind power ............................................6
                                                               solar hot water ..................................11
                                                               masonry heaters.................................11
                                                                                                                                      advertising in g.e.t./subscriptions…..... 15
                                                                                                                                      back cover/gro-solar ad ........................... 16             g  ... be e ne rgy inde pe nde n t !
2   step 1: shelter-existinG                May 4, 2009

Contributed from                           Check & replace weather stripping
                                                                                                           where to weatherize                               Batts, fiberglass or rock wool - 3.5”=R-11,
                                                                                                                                                             5.5”=R-19, 9.5”=R-30; Loose Fill, fiberglass,
                                                                                                                                                             rock wool - R-2.7 per inch, or Cellulose - R-3.7
                                                           when worn.                                    In the attic: weatherstrip & insulate access        per inch; Rigid Board, expanded polystyrene
Efficiency Makes $ense
                                                                                                         door; seal around the outside of the chim-          - R-4 per inch, Extruded polystyrene - R-5 per
                                                           If your exterior doors jiggle when closed, ney with metal flashing & high-temp seal-              inch, polyurethane or polyisocyanurate - R-7
About three quarters of energy used
                                                           move the striker/latch plate closer to the ant ( flue caulk or muffler cement); plumb-            to R-8 per inch; Foamed in Place, polyure-
in New England homes is for heating
                                                           door-stop so the door closes snuggly ing vents in the attic floor & in the roof; top              thane- R-7 to R-8 per inch; Radiant Barriers,
& the greatest heat loss, by far, is from
                                                           against the stop or add new weather of interior walls in pre-1950’s houses with                   no R-value assigned-most effective when
infiltration or air leakage. Button up
                                                           stripping that snugs up against the strips of rigid insulation & seal with silicone               reflecting heat back upwards, under floors
your home, save energy & money this
                                                           door.                                         caulk; elecrtical wire penetrations at top of       to keep desirable winter heat inside your
                                                                                                         interior walls & for ceiling fixtures with fiber-   house.
                                                           Install storm windows & doors. Close glass insulation (only if IC rated for insulation
Homes do require a certain amount of
                                                           & latch them tightly. Caulk closed all contact); seal all holes between the heated                Windows: can be the weakest link in a build-
fresh air to keep occupants healthy. Mold
                                                           leaky windows & exterior doors that you space & the attic, ductwork ...                           ing’s thermal barrier. The r-value of a single
builds up & back drafting of flu gases
                                                           never open.                                                                                       pane window is R-1. An energy saving ther-
can occur in extremely tight houses
                                                                                                         In the basement or crawlspace: seal & insu-         mopane is about R-2. The most advanced
without adequate ventilation, which can
                                                           Close chimney & fireplace dampers late around any heating or a/c ducts; holes                     superwindows boast up to R-12. But, in ac-
cause illness or death. Fresh air is best
                                                           when not in use. If chimney is unused, that allow air to rise into heated space                   tuality, they should be measured by the U-
supplied in a controlled manner through
                                                           install an inflatable chimney pillow or above; plumbing, chimney & electrical pen-                value + the ERS rating. (See Windows, page
powered & programmed fresh air vents.
                                                           caulked-in foam plug to better seal.          etrations; caulk around basement window             11). The most cost-effective time to install
A blower door test can measure if you
                                                           Cover leaky windows that you do want frames; seal holes in the foundation wall &                  high-performance windows is when a build-
have adequate ventilation. You can
                                                           to open in the spring with an interior gaps in concrete foundation & the wood                     ing is new, or when window replacement is
always open a window!
                                                           plastic “storm” product, like Tyz-All, structure (sill plate & rim joist) with caulk or           necessary.
                                                           available at Energy Federation Inc. foam sealant.
Most infiltration takes place as warm
                                                           (800-876-0660,                                                      Quality windows create a more comfort-
air rises & flows out openings high in
                                                           Tyz-All can be removed in the spring & Windows & Doors: replace broken glass &                    able space while reducing heat loss & con-
the house, pulling cold air in through
                                                           reused next winter. It will usually pay for reputty loose panes; install new sash locks or        densation. Windows labeled ENERGy STAR
leaks low in the house. These leaks are
                                                           itself in one year.                           adjust old ones; caulk on the inside around         perform significantly better; typically they
easiest to find on cold days & are usually
                                                                                                         window & door trim & all woodwork joints;           have a low E coating, argon gas filling, & a
very cost effective to repair. Feel for cool
                                                           Stone wall foundations in old homes are weatherstrip exterior doors, even to garage &             warm edge spacer between panes of glass &
drafts coming in low areas - where the
                                                           incredibly leaky. Hiring a contractor to porches. Use weatherstripping or temp. flex              even fiberglass insulated frames, with many
sill meets the foundation, around low
                                                           apply 2” of sprayed foam insulation from rope caulk for windows that will be opened.              advantages.
doors, windows & protrusions for pipes
                                                           the subfloor down to 4’ underground
& wires. Hold something that smokes,
                                                           will stop air infiltration, insulate against In living areas: electrical outlets & switch         ENERGy STAR labeled windows in a north-
like incense, & look for smoke being
                                                           freezing tempertures & reduce moisture plates (use foam gaskets); paintble caulk                  ern climate display a National Fenestration
sucked out along potential openings -
                                                           infiltration.                                 around bath & kitchen cabinets on exte-             Rating Council (NFRC) label with a unit U
attic hatches, upper floor windows &
                                                                                                         rior walls; cracks where floor meets exterior       value of no more than .35. Lower numbers
electric outlets, etc. Seal all high & low
                                                           Make sure all fan-driven exterior vents walls, even behind carpet; fireplace (if not              mean more savings. All major window man-
openings with weather stripping, spray
                                                           (dryer, stove, bathroom, etc.) have an used, with inflatable plug or rigid insula-                ufacturers have double pane windows with
foam or caulk.
                                                           exterior flap that closes tightly when the tion plug) -make sure damper closes tightly            NFRC label U value of .32.
                                                           fan is off. Clear vent flaps of lint & other when not in use.
Close interior doors & turn off the heat
                                                           debris so they close tightly.                                                                     Check the window label to verify that the
to any rooms that are unused during the
                                                                                                         Exterior: Caulk around all penetrations             unit is ENERGy STAR labeled for a northern
                                                           If you can feel any heat coming off where electrical, phone, cable, gas & dryer                   climate. Some window companies have
Set your thermostat back at night &
                                                           your hot water tank or hot water pipes, vents & water lines enter house ( use fiber-              even better ratings!!
while you are gone during the day. This
                                                           cover them with an insulated tank wrap glass in large gaps first); around all sides of
will save you about 1% on you heating
                                                           jacket or foam pipe insulation available windows & door frames; check dryer exhaust               Or Install clear plastic barriers on the inside
use for each degree set back. Using a
                                                           at your local hardware store or Energy vent hood for tight fitting flapper (replace               of windows to cut heat loss by 25-40%; re-
programmable thermostat to do this will
                                                           Federation Inc. (800-876-0660, http:// it); remove A/C unit in winter or cover tightly            pair & weatherize exterior storm windows
allow you to bring the heat back up to
                                                                                  ( make rigid insulation covers for flimsy side      to increase the temp of the inside window
a comfortable temperature before you
                                                                                                         panels; caulk cracks in overhangs of cantile-       as much as 30ºF on a cold day; install tight-
get up in the morning or return home.
                                                           Turn your hot water on & let it run for a vered bays & chimney chases.                            fitting insulating shades; construct insulated
                                                           couple of minutes. If it is then too hot to                                                       pop-in panels or shutters; close curtains or
Weather-strip all exterior doors,
                                                           hold your hand under the water, turn the Insulation: Minimum of R-30 in floors, R-19 in           shades at night; open curtains during the
including attic hatch, bulkhead door &
                                                           thermostat on your hot water tank down walls or more & R-38-49 in ceilings.                       day! to let the sun in! & clean south-facing
doors to cold cellars & crawl spaces.
                                                           to 125°. ♻                                                                                        windows for more free heat! ♻

                                                Steel and aluminum each have         health and the environment

                                                big pluses. Steel is sturdy, while   throughout its entire life cycle.”

                                                                                                                                         e Ven Constructio
                                                aluminum will not rust. Copper       When produced or burned, says

                                                                                                                                      n d 802.291.0403
From the Editors of E/The Environmental         and stainless steel are sturdy       CHEJ, PVC plastic releases diox-
Magazine                                        and lasting, but they can cost       ins, a group of potent synthetic
dear earthtalk: We will need to
replace our house gutters soon. What are
                                                three to four times as much as
                                                steel or aluminum. Steel gut-
                                                                                     chemicals that can cause can-
                                                                                     cer and harm the immune and                     a


our best options from an environmental          ters can stand up to ladders and     reproductive systems.
                                                fallen branches better than alu-                                                           vandevenconstruction
perspective? -- Jodie Green, Dallas, TX                             Replacing your gutters can be
                                                minums. Even thick galvanized
                                                                    an unfortunate expense, but it
Use a material that is the most
durable for your climate; ulti-
                                                steel eventually rusts. Gutters
                                                                    can provide an environmental
                                                should be a minimum of 26
                                                                                                                                     InsulatIon specIalIsts
                                                                    opportunity, because the way
mately the longer your gutters                  gauge galvanized steel or 0.025
                                                                    you handle your roof’s water
last, the less environmental cost               inch aluminum.      is important. Consider link-
there will be in the product life-
                                   Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is also ing your gutters to a “rooftop
                                                                                                                                                       • Cellulose
cycle, from manufacturing to
                                                                         catchment system” that
recycling. A cheaper product
                                                                         captures rainwater in a
                                                                                                                                                    • Spray Foam
that degrades twice as fast as
                                                                         cistern or rain barrels and
another would not be the best
                                                                         can then be used to water
                                                                                                                                                • Loose Fill - attics
choice, even if it does have a
                                                                         non-edible plantings.
greener production process:                                                                                                                   • Dense Pack - Walls
The extra cost of having to fix                                          Efficient water use is a
your water-damaged home—                                                 guideline in the U.S. Green
and the health problems that                                             Building Council’s LEED for
could arise from exposure to                                             Homes standard for certi-                                           RetRoFit
mold—would make a “cheaper”
gutter in reality much more
                                                                         fying green-built homes.
                                                                                                                                         New CoNStRuCtioN
                                                                         Consider a RainTube. This
                                   used for gutters, but can get recycled-plastic gutter insert
Galvanized steel, copper and brittle with age or in extreme keeps gutters clear of debris,                                         existing home Energy Efficiency Audits
aluminum are preferred gutter cold and cannot carry as much preventing overflow into your
materials,” reports Austin En- snow load as metal gutters. PVC house. Of course, cleaning your
ergy, the Texas capitol’s com- is also not a very green-friendly gutters now and then is proba-
munity-owned electric utility. choice. CHEJ calls PVC plastic bly the best environmental op-
Copper is a more expensive, “one of the most hazardous tion in that it may head off any
high-end gutter material, as are consumer products ever cre- need for replacement or modi-
stainless steel and wood.          ated…dangerous to human fication. ♻
new construction
                                                                                                                                                    May 4, 2009   step 2: new ConstruCtion            3

                                                                                                                                                       building tips
                                                                                                                                                       For your ENERGy STAR® Home
                                                                                                                                                          your home is a system & your planning &
                                                                                                                                                       design efforts should take that into account.
                                                                                                                                                       When you build an ENERGy STAR home, Effi-
                  Spruce Mountain                                                                                                                      ciency Vermont helps you & your builder
                  Green Building                                                                                                                       evaluate options to create a home that works
                                                                                                                                                       efficiently as a system. There’s no simple
                                                                                                                                                       formula for energy efficiency, just quality
                                                                                                                                                       design & construction, & attention to details.
      An inspired building                                                                                                                             The following are some tips to help you build
     company dedicated to                                                                                                                              an ENERGy STAR home.
                                                                                                                                                          Size matters. The smaller the footprint
      energy efficient and                                                                                                                             & the less the exterior surface area of your
      affordable practices.                                                                                                                            home, the more efficient it will be. Larger
                                                                                                                                                       homes use more natural resources for mate-
                                                                                                                                                       rials & more energy to produce those materi-
    •Super insulated structures                                                                                                                        als. Regardless of size, any home can be an
               •Renovation                                                                                                                             ENERGy STAR qualified home.
                                                                                                                                                          Understand how the laws of physics apply
            •Weatherization                                                                                                                            to your homeHot goes to cold. The greater
            •Custom plasters                                                                                                                           the temperature difference between the two
                                                                                                                                                       extremes the faster this heat transfer will
         •Decorative concrete                                                                                                                          occur. We can’t stop the heat transfer but we
            •Finish carpentry                                                                                                                          can slow it down. We do that by building an
                                                                                                                                                             insulated building envelope & stopping
                                                                                                                                                             air movement through that envelope.
                                                                                                                                                                Moisture is the enemy of most build-
            Jacob Rogen                                                                                                                                      ing materials. Moisture is the enemy of
            802.793.5738                                                                                                               most building materials & is the staff of
            Plainfield, VT                            Looking to reduce your                                                                                  life for mold, mildew & unwanted crit-
                                                     carbon footprint & make                                                                                 ters. The design of your home must keep                                                                                                                               water out & must ensure that moisture
                                                     your home more energy
                                                                                                                                                             you generate inside the home doesn’t
                                                     efficient? …go green with
          next issue:                                Merchants Bank and apply
                                                                                                                                                             cause problems.
                                                                                                                                                                Keeping water out requires an effec-
   “ask a natural builder”                           for one of our Home Equity                                                                              tive unbroken drainage plane.Keeping
                                                     Loans.                                                                                                  water out requires an effective unbro-
        send questions to:                                                           Member FDIC                                                             ken drainage plane that uses a variety of                                                                                                                                        materials installed in shingle fashion to
                                                                                                                                                             shed water away from the building.
                                                                                                                                                                Defense against interior moisture
       Phone 1 (802) 373-7793                                                                                                                                problems requires knowledge of the
                                                                                                                                                             only two mechanisms of moisture vapor
  Solutions for FOUNDATIONS
                                                                       • DECKS
                                                                       • SUN ROOMS                                                                           transport: Air transport (which follows
                                                                       • HOUSE                                                                               heat transfer... remember hot goes to
                                                                         ADDITIONS                                                                           cold) - air leakage is the biggest concern
                                                                       • POLE BARNS
                                                                       • NATURE                                                                              because it moves the most moisture.
                                                                         BOARDWALKS                                                                          Diffusion - vapor movement from areas
                                                                       • CARPORTS                                                                            of high to low vapor pressure through
                                                                       • SOLAR PANEL                                                                         permeable or semi-permeable materi-
                                                                                                                                                                Warm air holds more moisture in
                                                                                                                                                             vapor form than cold air.In cold climates
  Jim Lyman                                                              Vermont                                                                             during the heating season moisture
                                                   103 Monkton Ridge, Monkton,VT                                                                             levels in tight homes are almost always
                                                                                                                                                             higher inside than outside. So moisture                                                                                                                                    vapor transport is almost always from
                                                                                                                                                             inside to outside.

Green priorities - skin Deep Not Deep enough                                                                                                              your building envelope (exterior walls
                                                                                                                                                       & ceilings) must prevent water entry from
                                                                                                                                                       outside. your building envelope (exterior
Asthetic Green or Technical Green by Stephen Thrwaites                                                                                                 walls & ceilings) must prevent water entry
   Like the rest of us, the design commu- impacts; all worthy of attention. However,                    Building”. In it they noted; “Ongoing          from outside, prevent interior water vapor
nity, has a difficult time balancing green of these, excessive energy use is the larg-                  energy use is probably the largest             from getting into them, & if the interior of
priorities. More artists than technicians, est of all of man’s environmental impacts.                   environmental impact of a building, so         the wall does get wet it has to be able to
designers gravitate towards what could be That’s because carbon based fuels are                         designing & constructing buildings for         dry out. Does your plan do this? Ask us. We
termed “aesthetic green” rather than “techni- the single largest contributor to climate                 low energy use should be our number            can tell you.
cal green”.                                            change - by far our most pressing envi-          one priority”                                     The better the building envelope, the
   When it comes to green building; recycled ronmental issue.                                              Recognize too that energy use is            less heat you need to provide. The less heat
carpets, natural materials & natural fin-                 The United States Green Building Coun-        related to the myriad of other environ-        needed the smaller the heating plant &
                                                       cil recognizes this along with the design        mental issues besides climate change.          distribution system. Instead of spending so
   “But at the end of the day,                         community’s aversion to the technicality         Although embodied energy is nearly             much on the big, expensive high efficiency
                                                       of low energy design. Recently it revised        always a secondary concern (see                heating system & the fuel to go with it, spend
    green priorities need to be                        LEED NC to make 2 of the 10 energy points        EMBODIED ENERGy column), it does               more on effective insulation, on windows, on
                                                       mandatory. Previously it’d been possible         reflect resource & hence habitat deple-        air-sealing, & on a ventilation system.
  more than skin deep. We are                          to build a LEED building without garner-         tion. Buildings with lower embodied               The technology exists to build a much
                                                       ing any energy points at all. Of the first 420   energy, consume fewer resources,               better building envelope than is usually
   responsible for a myriad of                         LEED NC version 2 certified buildings, 12%       deplete fewer habitats, & contribute           built. To achieve higher R-values, less ther-
                                                       didn’t claim any of the 10 energy points,        less pollution.                                mal bridging, & less air-leakage consider:
    environmental impacts…”                            including, incredibly, 1 Gold building.             So when it comes to green priorities,       Advanced framing (less wood- more insula-
                                                          Here in Canada, Canadian Green Build-         highly visible “aesthetic green” priori-       tion) , SIP structural insulated panels , ICF
ishes are usually front & centre. Recycling ing Council’s LEED NC has always had an                     ties are not as important as less visible      insulated concrete forms
old carpet into new carpet is an example energy prerequisite of 25% better than                         “technical green” priorities. Skin deep           Don’t skip or skimp on basement insu-
of “cradle to cradle” that is the essence of code - roughly the same as LEED’s first                    green is not deep enough. Green Build-         lation. An uninsulated basement wall has
sustainability. Natural materials have the energy point.                                                ing’s most important gains are those           an R-value lower than that of a single pane
possibility of being renewable in ways man                When it comes to reporting on green           that reduce energy use. ♻                      piece of glass (R-values describe resistance
made materials can’t. Natural finishes beat issues in the built environment there are                                                                  to heat loss - the higher the number the
their solvent rich cousins every time.                 few more authoritative than Environmen-          All the remote control televisions             greater the resistance). Even though much
   But at the end of the day, green priori- tal Building News. It weighed in on the                     in the u.s., when turned to the ‘off’          of the basement is below grade, concrete
ties need to be more than skin deep. We are green priorities question in their landmark                 position, still use as much energy as the      walls & floors suck up heat & transport it out
responsible for a myriad of environmental article “Establishing Priorities with Green                   output of one Chernobyl-sized plant            of your home. Insulate outside or insulate
                                                                                                                                                                                        cont’d on pg.4 »
                                                                                                        solar, grid-tied
4   solar, Grid-tied        May 4, 2009


                                                                                                        Grid intertied solar-electric systems
                                                                                                        also known as on-grid, grid-tied, or utilityinteractive (UI), grid-intertied solar-electric
                                                                                                        systems generate solar electricity & route it to the electric utility grid, offsetting a home’s
                                                                                                        or business’ electrical consumption &, in some instances, even turning the electric meter
                                                                                                        backwards. Living with a grid-connected solar-electric system is no different than living
                                                                                                        with grid power, except that some or all of the electricity you use comes from the sun. In
                                                                                                        many states, the utility credits a homeowner’s account for excess solar electricity produced.
                                                                                                        This amount can then be applied to other months when the system produces less or in
                                                                                                        months when electrical consumption is greater. This arrangement is called net metering or
                                                                                                        net billing. The specific terms of net metering laws & regulations vary from state to state &
                                                                                                        utility to utility. Consult your local electricity provider or state regulatory agency for their
                                                                                                        guidelines. ♻

                                                                                                        The primary components of any grid interie solar electric system

                                                                                                        Grid intertied systems with Battery Backup
« Building tips, continued                                                                              without a battery bank or generator backup for your gridintertied system, when a
inside but insulate. Call us, we’ll help you                                                            blackout occurs, your household will be in the dark, too. To keep some or all of your
decide what’s the best way for you. With                                                                electric needs (or “loads”) like lights, a refrigerator, a well pump, or computer running
more traditionally framed homes compare                                                                 even when utility power outages occur, many homeowners choose to install a grid-
the different insulation materials available:                                                           intertied system with battery backup. Incorporating batteries into the system requires
Fiberglass batts                                                                                        more components, is more expensive, & lowers the system’s overall efficiency. But for
   & loose fill loose-fill, dense-pack or damp                                                          many homeowners who regularly experience utility outages or have critical electrical
spray cellulose spray foams                                                                             loads, having a backup energy source is priceless. ♻
   To control air we must first contain it. A
third or more of most heating bills is due                   
to air leakage. Determine where & how in               
your building envelope you will create a                            
continuous air barrier to ensure comfort &                
   Windows are the weakest link. They pro-
vide light & they connect us to the outdoors.
No matter how good they are, windows are                               
the weakest link in the building envelope.       
Frame your view to limit the amount of glass     
(decide what’s most important to see out         
your window).
   Compare windows by looking for their
NFRC U-value (U-values describe the trans-                                
mittance of heat - the opposite of the R-val-     
ue - the lower the number the better).
   you can also look for the ENERGy STAR
qualifications that are specific to our          of mold & building decay, & flushing out pol-
region.                                          lutants.
   Don’t oversize the heating system. Make          Spot ventilation - fans to remove large quanti-
sure a heat load sizing is done & make           ties of localized moisture & pollutants.               The primary components of any grid interie system with batteries
sure that it is done with the understand-            Combustion safety - attention to ventilation
ing that you will be building a tight home.
Many heating systems in Vermont are much
bigger than they need to be. When a system
                                                 details, preventing exhaust fumes from spilling
                                                 into our indoor air.
                                                    Make sure a heat load sizing is done & make
                                                                                                        system Components                                  meet your electric needs. Multiple modules
                                                                                                                                                           combined together are an array.
                                                                                                                                                           Although rigid panels are the most common
is too big it never achieves the efficiency it
was designed to reach which costs more
                                                 sure that it is done with the understanding that
                                                 you will be building a tight home. Many heating        U    nderstanding the basic components
                                                                                                             of an RE system & how they function is
                                                                                                        not an overwhelming task. Here are some
                                                                                                                                                           form of solar electricity collector, PV technol-
                                                                                                                                                           ogy also has been integrated into roofing
                                                                                                                                                           shingles & tiles, & even peel &-stick laminates
in fuel, costs more to buy & may actually        systems in Vermont are much bigger than they
shorten its life.                                need to be. When a system is too big it never          brief descriptions of the common equipment         (for metal standing-seam roofs).
   Compare heating systems by looking for        achieves the efficiency it was designed to reach.      used in grid-intertied & off-grid solar-electric   PV modules are very durable & long last-
the annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE)       Put high performance lighting in high-use           systems. Systems vary - not all equipment is       ing -most carry 25-yr warranties. They can
rating.                                          areas. which costs more in fuel, costs more to         necessary for every system type.                   withst& severe weather, including extreme
   Look for ENERGy STAR - for boilers .85        buy & may actually shorten its life. Look for                Solar-Electric Panels, aka: solar-electric   heat, cold, & hail stones.
AFUE or better, for furnaces .90 AFUE or         ENERGy STAR on energy-efficient compact fluo-          modules, photovoltaic (PV) panels: PV panels          Array Mounting Rack: Mounting racks pro-
better to meet the ENERGy STAR criteria.         rescent lighting & linear fluorescent fixtures to      are a solar-electric system’s defining compo-      vide
    Most Vermont homes use boilers. Water        overcome the old fluorescent drawbacks. you            nent, where sunlight is used to make direct        a secure platform on which to anchor your
heating can be accomplished efficiently with     can have good color, instant start-up, much            current (DC) electricity. Behind a PV panel’s      PV panels, keeping them fixed in place & ori-
a storage tank with the water heated by the      longer lamp life, energy savings, & aestheti-          shimmering facade, wafers of semiconductor         ented correctly. Panels can be mounted us-
boiler. When a furnace is used, a separate       cally attractive fixtures. Start shopping earlier      material work their magic, using light (pho-       ing one of three approaches: on a rooftop;
stand-alone water heater is necessary.           because you may have to order rather than buy          tons) to generate electricity—what’s known         atop a steel pole set in concrete; or at ground
   Build tight & ventilate right. There is no    off the shelf.                                         as the photovoltaic effect. Other compo-           level. The specific pieces, parts, & materials of
such thing as a house that is too tight. There      ENERGy STAR qualified appliances put the            nents in your system enable the electricity        your mounting device will vary considerably
are, however, homes that have inadequate         icing on the cake. Look for energy-efficient refrig-   from your solar-electric panels to safely pow-     depending on which mounting method you
ventilation. Ensure good indoor air by con-      erators, dishwashers, clothes washers & room air       er your electric loads likelights, computers, &    choose.
sidering three factors:                          conditioners. They’re made by manufacturers you        refrigerators.                                     Mounting racks may incorporate other fea-
     Whole-house automated mechani-              know & trust. ENERGy STAR qualified products           PV panels are assigned a rating in watts           tures, such as seasonal adjustability. The
cal ventilation - a simple or sophisticated      meet high standards for energy efficiency & qual-      based on the maximum power they can pro-           sun is higher in the sky during the summer
system to control indoor moisture levels.        ity guidelines, which means they use less energy       duce under ideal sun & temperature condi-          & lower in the winter. Adjustable mounting
This provides fresh air, preventing growth       without sacrificing performance. ♻                     tions. you can use the rated output to help        racks enable you to set the angle of your PV
                                                                                                        determine how many panels you’ll need to                                              » cont’d, pG.5
solar, off-grid
                                                                                                                                                              May 4, 2009    solar, off-Grid       5

Off the Grid solar pv systems
althouGh they are most common in remote locations without utility grid service, off-
grid solar-electric systems can work anywhere. These systems operate independently
from the grid to provide all of a household’s electricity. That means no electric bills
& no blackouts—at least none caused by grid failures. People choose to live off-grid
for a variety of reasons, including the prohibitive cost of bringing utility lines to                              104 River Street, Rutland, VT 05701
remote homesites, the appeal of an independent lifestyle, or the general reliability a
solar-electric system provides. Those who choose to live off-grid often need to make
                                                                                                                           (802)747-0577 Fax (802)773-0924
adjustments to when & how they use electricity, so they can live within the limitations                                        e-mail:
of the system’s design. This doesn’t necessarily imply doing without, but rather is a                                       
shift to a more conscientious use of electricity. p

                                                                                                                       Serving Vermont since 1996.

                                                                                                             Specializing in Off-Grid, Grid Tie with Backup, and
                                                                                                             Direct Grid Tie Solar and Solar/Wind Hybrid Power
                                                                                                             Systems. We also sell and install solar hot water
                                                                                                             and solar heating systems.

                                                                                                             We provide completely installed systems,
                                                                                                             installation assistance for homeowners, or cash
                                                                                                             and carry complete system kits.

                                                                                                             Contact us about our Free Monthly Renewable Energy
The primary components of any off-grid solar electric system                                                 Workshops – and SolarFest Pre-Festival Installers Workshop

system Components, cont’d…                           three cloudy days. Gridintertied systems
                                                     also can include battery banks to provide
panels seasonally, keeping them aimed more           emergency backup power during black-
directly at the sun. Adjusting the tilt angle in-    outs - perfect for keeping critical electric
creases the system’s annual energy produc-
tion by a few percent. The tilt of roofmounted
                                                     loads operating until grid power is re-
                                                                                                     New England Solar Electric, Inc.
arrays is rarely changed. Adjusting the angle             Although similar to ordinary car bat-           Solar Electric kits, gas
is inconvenient & sometimes dangerous, due           teries, the batteries used in solar-electric        refrigerators. appliances
to the array’s location.                             systems are specialized for the type of
Changing the tilt angle of pole- or ground-
                                                                                                        and information needed to
                                                     charging & discharging they’ll need to
mounted arrays can be done quickly & safely.         endure. Lead-acid batteries are the most         live independently with solar
Pole-mounted PV arrays also can incorporate          common battery used in solar-electric           electricity. Free 96 pg. Catalog/
tracking devices, but donot work well in the         systems. Flooded leadacid batteries are           Design Guide. Solar Electric
northeast, due t the ice + cloudy days do not        usually the least expensive, but require
allow it to re-set, & they are a moving compo-
                                                                                                         Independent Home Book
                                                     adding distilled water occasionally to
nent that can break. It is better to spend that      replenish water lost during the normal              $19.95 ppd. New England
money for a few extra panels for the extra           charging process. Sealed absorbent glass        Solar, PO Box 435, Worthington,
emergy output.                                       mat (AGM) batteries are maintenance                 MA 01098. 413-238-5974
    Array DC or PV Disconnect: used to safely        free & designed for grid-tied systems
interrupt the flow of electricity from the PV        where the batteries are typically kept at      ity grid.
array. It´s an essential component when sys-
tem maintenance or troubleshooting is re-
                                                     a full state of charge. Gel-cell batteries
                                                     can be a good choice to use in unheated
                                                                                                    Most grid-tie inverters are designed to op-
                                                                                                    erate without batteries, but battery-based         solar power works
quired. The disconnect enclosure houses an
electrical switch rated for use in DC circuits. It
                                                     spaces due to their freeze-resistant quali-
                                                     ties. System Meter/Monitor: measure &
                                                                                                    models also are available. Battery-based in-
                                                                                                    verters for off-grid oGrid-Intertied Inverterr         … anywhere
also may integrate either circuit breakers or
fuses, if needed.
                                                     display several different aspects of your
                                                     solar-electric system’s performance & sta-
                                                                                                    grid-tie use often include a battery charger,
                                                                                                    which is capable of charging a battery bank
                                                                                                                                                          under the sun!
      Charge Controller/regulator: is to pro-        tus, tracking how full your battery bank       from either the grid or a backup generator
tect your battery bank from overcharging.            is; how much electricity your solar panels                                                       how much your solar-electric system is pro-
                                                                                                    during cloudy weather.
It does this by monitoring the battery bank.         are producing or have produced; & how                                                            ducing. The utility co. often provides Inter-
                                                                                                    Most grid-Intertied inverters can be installed
When the bank is fully charged, the control-         much electricity is in use. Operating your                                                       tied-capable meters at no cost.
                                                                                                    outdoors (ideally, in the shade). Most off-grid
ler interrupts the flow of electricity from the      solar-electric system without metering is                                                            Backup Generator: Off-grid solar-electric
                                                                                                    inverters are not weatherproof & should be
PV panels. Batteries are expensive & pretty          like running your car without any gauges,                                                        systems can be sized to provide electricity
                                                                                                    mounted indoors, close to the battery bank.
particular about how they like to be treated.        although possible to do, it’s always better                                                      during cloudy periods when the sun doesn’t
                                                                                                           Inverter AC Disconnect: Just like the
To maximize their life span, you’ll definitely       to know how much fuel is in the tank.                                                            shine. But sizing a system to cover a worst-
                                                                                                    electrical circuits in your home or office,
want to avoid overcharging or undercharg-                Main DC Disconnect: In battery-based                                                         case scenario, like several cloudy weeks
                                                                                                    an inverter’s electrical output needs to be
ing them.                                            systems, a disconnect between the bat-                                                           during the winter, can result in a very large,
                                                                                                    routed through an AC circuit breaker, usually
    Most modern charge controllers incorpo-          teries & inverter is required. This discon-                                                      expensive system that will rarely get used to
                                                                                                    mounted inside the building’s mains panel,
rate maximum power point tracking (MPPT),            nect is typically a large, DC-rated breaker                                                      its capacity. To spare your pocketbook, size
                                                                                                    enabling the inverter to be disconnected if
which optimizes the PV array’s output, in-           mounted in a sheetmetal enclosure. This                                                          the system moderately, but include a backup
                                                                                                    servicing is necessary, & also safeguards the
creasing the energy it produces. Some bat-           breaker allows the inverter to be quickly                                                        generator to get through those occasional
                                                                                                    circuit’s electrical wiring.
terybased charge controllers also include a          disconnected from the batteries for ser-                                                         sunless stretches.
                                                                                                    Utilities usually require an AC disconnect be-
low-voltage disconnect that prevents over            vice, & protects the inverter-to-battery                                                           Engine generators can be fueled with biod-
                                                                                                    tween the inverter & the grid that is for their
discharging, which can perma nently dam-             wiring against electrical fires.                                                                 iesel, petroleum diesel, gasoline, or propane,
                                                                                                    use, usually located near the utility KWH me-
age the battery bank.                                Inverter: Inverters transform the DC elec-                                                       depending on the design. These generators
    Battery Bank: your PV panels will produce        tricity produced by your PV modules into                                                         produce AC electricity that a battery charger
                                                                                                         Kilowatt-Hour Meter: Most homes with
electricity whenever the sun shines on them.         the alternating current (AC) electricity                                                         (either stand alone or incorporated into an in-
                                                                                                    a grid-tied solar-electric system will have
If your system is off-grid, you’ll need a battery    commonly used in most homes for pow-                                                             verter) converts to DC energy, which is stored
                                                                                                    AC electricity both coming from & going to
bank - a group of batteries wired together -         ering lights, appliances, & other gadgets.                                                       in batteries. Like most internal combustion
                                                                                                    the electric utility grid. A bidirectional KWH
to store energy so you can have electricity at       Grid-tied inverters synchronize the elec-                                                        engines, generators tend to be loud & stinky,
                                                                                                    meter can simultaneously keep track of how
night or on cloudy days. For off-grid systems,       tricity they produce with the grid’s utility                                                     but a welldesigned solar-electric system will
                                                                                                    much electricity flows in each of the two di-
battery banks are typically sized to keep            grade AC electricity, allowing the system                                                        require running them only 50 to 200 hours a
                                                                                                    rections - just the information you need to
household electricity running for one to             to feed solar-made electricity to the util-                                                      year. ♻
                                                                                                    monitor how much electricity you’re using &
6   wind power         May 4, 2009

Wind electricity Basics
Wind generated electricity systems can provide
                                                                                                               Grid-tied system with Battery Backup
                                                                                                               Connecting a wind system to the grid with
                                                                                                               battery backup is the best way to go. It gives
                                                                                                               you unlimited capacity, being on the grid,
                                                                                                                                                                      energy into the grid is the best choice.
                                                                                                                                                                         A grid-tie system without batteries
                                                                                                                                                                      may perform somewhat better from the
electricity on remote, off-grid sites, or in town                                                                                                                     wind turbine than the battery-based
                                                                                                               and you send your surplus energy back to
(or anywhere) with a connection to the grid.                                                                                                                          systems because the inverter can con-
                                                                                                               the grid. When the grid is down, you can have
And of course the Wind Farms are sure making                                                                                                                          tend with the wind´s load better, run-
                                                                                                               electric, depending on te size of the battery
headlines these days and really making prog-                                                                                                                          ning the turbine at it’s highest speed,
                                                                                                               bank and turbine. Since many grid outages
ress towards energy independence. Wind sys-                                                                                                                           and extracting the most energy.
                                                                                                               are caused by high winds, this system is per-
tems generally require more maintenance and                                                                                                                            Components of a grid-tie wind system
                                                                                                               fect because this is also when a wind system
attention than solar or microhydro. With good                                                                                                                         without batteries are the same as with,
                                                                                                               works best. The drawback is that it is the most
equipment and installation, wind generation                                                                                                                           except you eliminate the batteries.
                                                                                                               expensive type of wind-electric system you
can make total sense for many. you can check                                                                                                                          direct-drive system w/o Batteries
                                                                                                               can install.
the Gov’t wind maps to get an idea if where
                                                                                                                  Components of a grid-tie wind system                This system is basically used for pump-
you live is a possible wind site. http://www.
                                                                                                               with batteries are: Wind Generator > Charge            ing water. The wind turbine corre-
                                                                                                               Controller > Dump Load &/or Battery Bank               sponds with the pump, through a con-
These maps cannot take into account every
                                                                                                               > System Meter and Main DC Disconnect >                troller. When the wind blows, water is
situation or pocket. you can invest in a wind
                                                                                                               Inverter > AC Breaker Panel > to the house,            pumped to a tank or directly to it’s des-
monitor, that records your site’s wind history. If
                                                       for maintenance of gears. In systems 20 KW or           where it is then used &/or Kilowatt hour Meter
you are not in a hurry, you can get on a list to                                                                                                                      tination. It’s Productive for a low cost.
                                                       larger, as well as some smaller wind systems,           > To/From Utility Grid.
borrow or rent one.                                                                                                                                                    Components of this system are: Wind
                                                       a gearbox is used to increase alternator speed          Grid-tied system without Batteries
how they work                                          from a slower turning rotor.
                                                                                                                                                                      Generator > Charge Controller > Direct-
When the wind is blowing, the wind generator                                                                   This is the the most cost-effective system.            Powered loads.
                                                          Since blades must turn to face the wind, a           With no batteries, the only problem is
converts the wind´s kinetic energy on a spin-                                                                                                                           In our next issue of Green Energy
                                                       yaw bearing is needed, that allows the wind             that when the grid goes down, you don’t
ning shaft. This shaft turns an alternator, which                                                                                                                     Times, we will describe eash of these
                                                       turbine to track the winds as they shift direc-
makes electricity. This electricity is then trans-                                                             have electric, either. To send your excess             components. ♻
                                                       tion. The tail directs the rotor into the wind.
mitted through the wires down the tower.
                                                       A governing system restricts the rotor rpm
     The blades and the hub are attached to
                                                       as well as generator output to protect the
the rotor, which is the collector, intercepting
                                                       turbine from high winds. A shutdown mecha-
the passing winds. Most turbines today are
                                                       nism also helps to stop the machine when it is
upwind machines. Their blades are on the
                                                       necessary, like during a bad storm, when you
windward side of the tower. Downwind ma-
                                                       don’t need the energy, or when it is time to
chines are also available, but neither seems
                                                       service the system.
to have a any advantage over the other.
    In small residential designs, the rotor is con-    wind Generator systems
nected directly to the shaft of a magnet alterna-      off-Grid systems
tor, which creates three-phase AC. Three-phase         Off-grid wind-electric systems need batteries
electricity means that the voltage and frequen-
                                                       to store the electricity. When living off-grid,
cy vary with the wind speed. They are not fixed
                                                       homeowners need to learn to live within the
like the 60 Hz, 120 VAC electricity coming out
                                                       limitations of their system. The main compo-
of normal AC household outlets. The unfixed
                                                       nents are: Wind Generator > Charge Controller
output is converted to DC to either charge bat-
                                                       > Dump Load &/or Battery Bank > System Meter
teries or feed an inverter. In most designs, up
                                                       and Main DC Disconnect > Inverter > AC Breaker
to 15 KW, the rotor is usually connected direct-
                                                       Panel > to the house for useage.
ly to the alternator, which eliminates the need

wind payback net metering                                                                                        The only cost associated with net metering is in-    net metering happens automatically —
                                                                                                               direct: the customer is buying less electricity from   the meter spins forward (in the normal
                                                                                                               the utility, which means the utility is collecting     direction) when the customer needs more

T   he wind power payback period for any resi-
    dential wind system is determined by these
                                                       N     et metering uses the excess electricity pro-
                                                             duced by a wind turbines & solar electric
                                                       systems to spin the existing home or business
                                                                                                               less revenue from the customer. That’s because
                                                                                                               any excess electricity that would have been sold
                                                                                                                                                                      electricity than is being produced, & spins
                                                                                                                                                                      backward when the customer is producing
                                                                                                               to the utility at the wholesale or ‘avoided cost’      more electricity than is needed in the home
variables: Wind speed at your location; Tower          electricity meter backwards; effectively banking        price is instead being used to offset electricity      or building. The meter registers the net
height;. System cost - including installation; State   the electricity until it is needed, providing the       the customer would have purchased at the retail        amount of energy produced or consumed
tax credits; How much you pay per kWh for elec-        customer with full retail value for all the electric-   price.                                                 during the billing period.
tricity; & size.                                       ity produced.                                              The bill savings for the customer will depend         Many states have enacted net metering
   Higher average wind speeds generate more              Under existing federal law (PURPA, Section 210)       on the amount of excess electricity produced.          laws legislatively, including CT, MA, NH, VT,
electricity. The more you reduce your electric bill,   utility customers can use the electricity they gen-     In most circumstances, however, the difference         … Utilities are required to offer net metering
the quicker the wind turbine will pay for itself.      erate with a wind turbine to supply their own           will be between $10-40 a month for a 10 kilowatt       for some wind systems, although many
Increase in tower height from 60 to 80’, can in-       lights & appliances, offsetting electricity they        residential wind energy system.                        states limit eligibility to small systems. ♻
crease the output of your wind turbine by as           would otherwise have to purchase from the util-              Moreover, any
much as 36% & decrease the payback period by           ity at the retail price. But if the customer produces   utility      revenue
the same amount.                                       any excess electricity (beyond what is needed to        losses associated
The cost to install a wind power system de-            meet the customer’s own needs) & net metering           with net metering
pends on how much of the prep work you can             is not allowed, the utility purchases that excess       are at least partially
contribute. Every $1,000 you save in installation      electricity at the wholesale or ‘avoided cost’ price,   offset by adminis-
costs will reduce the payback period by 5-10%.         which is much lower than the retail price.              trative & account-
Estimate an additional 50-80% of the cost of the         The excess energy is metered using an addition-       ing savings, which
components for professional installation.              al meter that must be installed at the customer’s       are not included in
Tax credits for residential wind power are offered     expense. Net metering simplifies this arrange-          the above figures.
on a state by state basis & range from $1,000-         ment by allowing the customer to use any excess         These         savings
$1,500. Any homeowner paying less than $0.09           electricity to offset electricity used at other times   can exceed $25 a
per kWh for electricity is not a good candidate        during the billing period. In other words, the cus-     month because,
for wind power.                                        tomer is billed only for the net energy consumed        absent net meter-
An average wind speed of 12 mph will generate          during the billing period.                              ing, utilities have
400 kWh/month. At $0.15 per kWh, this would               Net metering is important because wind en-           to separately pro-
mean savings of $60/mo, or $720 annually.              ergy is an intermittent resource, customers may         cess the accounts
This translates to a 16-19 year payback period.        not be using power as it is being generated, & it       of customers with
However, the same system operating at an aver-         allows them to receive full value for the electric-     wind turbines &
age wind speed of 16 mph would generate 600            ity they produce without installing expensive           issue the monthly
kWh/month for an annual savings of $1,080; re-         battery storage systems. It directly affects the        checks. In practice,
ducing the payback period by 6 years.                  economics & pay-back period for the investment.         these checks can
This doesn’t take into account the potential cash      Net-metering reduces the installation costs for         be for as little as 5
flow benefit of net metering - the sale of unused      the customer by eliminating the need for a sec-         cents.
power back to the grid.which will help shorten         ond energy meter, & it provides a simple, inex-           The standard
the payback period.                                    pensive, & mechanism for encouraging the use of         kilowatt-hour
The amount you save on future rate increases           small-scale wind energy systems, which provide          meter used for
will equal the percentage of your home’s total         important local, national, & global benefits to the     most residential &
power usage provided by the wind turbine. If           environment & the economy.                              small commercial
the wind turbine generates 70% of your power,             Utilities benefit by avoiding the administrative     customers accu-
you save 70% of the increase.                          & accounting costs of metering & purchasing the         rately registers the
Homeowners who install residential wind pow-           small amounts of excess electricity produced by         flow of electricity
er systems, much like their solar counterparts,        small-scale wind energy facilities. Consumers ben-      in either direction.
have a long term strategy for reducing energy          efit by getting greater value for some of the elec-     This means the
consumption coupled with strong environmen-            tricity they generate & by being able to intercon-      ‘netting’ process
tal concerns. ♻                                        nect with the utility using their existing meter.       associated with
applianCes & enerGy
                                                                                                                                                                             applianCes, on-demand hot water                                May 4, 2009           7

YOu have control here!                           clothes dryers are also more efficient, but
                                                 a clothesline uses zero energy + your
   Whether you own or rent, want or need         clothes last longer.
to reduce your spending, there are some          Phantom Loads! Many appliances use
definite steps you can take to                                      power even when they
help! you may not have control                                      are ’off’. Any device
over the house structure, win-                 “All the remote      that uses a remote
dows, heating system, but you                                       control is a ‘phantom
can choose the light bulbs you                  control TV’s in     load’, so that it can
use, the showerhead, & if appli-                                    receive the signal from
ances get turned off (REALLy                    the U.S., when      the remote. TV’s use
OFF!) when not in use…                                              15-25 watts. VCR’s 5-10
   avoid using electricity for any           turned to the “off”    watts. Plug them into
appliance that produces heat.                                       a switched outlet or
Making heat from electricity is               position, still use   powerstrip that you                                                                                                                                       Contact us to learn about
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Federal Tax Credits!
like watering your lawn with                                        can turn off. Any appli-
bottled water. It would be very              as much energy as      ance that has a light on
expensive & wasteful to do so.                                      it, such as microwaves,
                                              the output of one
                                                                                                                          on-demand hot water
There are much better options.                                      clock radios... are
We are not just talking about                                       drawing electric! Put
room heaters, but also electric              Chernobyl plant.”      that microwave on a
ranges & ovens, hot plates,                 - Armory Lovins,        powerswitch or unplug
skillets, waffle irons, waterbed      The Rocky Mountain Institute  it & use ‘recharge-                                  No more running out of hot water in the middle of a shower,              want to use that space for, as the on dem& water heater is wall
heaters, the incandescent                                           able’ battery powered                                or having to wait for the water heater to recover. Endless               mounted, freeing up a large amount of floor space.
lightbulb. Most of these appliances can          clocks. Another big load comes from                                     hot water, & saving energy costs at the same time – You’ll               these units are also very energy efficient & can save you 30-50%
be replaced with less expensive ways to          powercubes on the end of many small                                     wonder why you didn’t get one before!                                    of your hot water heating energy bill depending on what type
operate, ie: standard lightbulbs only give       appliances or computer components.                                        tankless instantaneous water heaters save money & are more             of water heater you are replacing & your usage. the initial cost is
you back 10% of the energy as visible            They are usually warm to the touch                                      energy efficient than tank type water heaters.                           higher than a conventional tank water heater, but you will recoup
light. The other 90% disappears as heat.         because they are sucking electric con-                                  on demand & water heaters, also called tankless, or instantaneous        your investment in a few short years in savings. although this
                                                 stantly, ie: plug-in flashlights, chargers...                           water heaters are becoming more popular in north america as              technology is relatively new in north america, it has been in use in
CFL’s give back 80% of their energy as
                                                 They should be unplugged or put                                         people are become more concerned about energy conservation. a            europe for many years where the technology has been well proven.
visible light & last over 10 times longer.
                                                 on power switches that are switched                                     typical water heater is a storage type unit where 40, 50 or even 60      if you are considering an on dem& water heater, it is essential that
   If you have a choice to use gas or elec-
                                                 OFF. Turn that computer, fax machine                                    gallons of water is heated up to the set temperature which could         it be properly sized for your home & for the lifestyle of your family.
tric for heating, water heating, or cook-
                                                 & components off when not in use.                                       be 120-130 degrees F., & maintains that temperature 24/7 so that         these water heaters come in different sizes to accommodate
ing, use gas, even if it means buying
                                                 you will save yourself a ton of $ & help                                the user will have enough hot water for their daily needs. it costs      various hot water needs & one of the most important aspects
new appliances. Natural gas bills will be
                                                 lower your carbon footprint, which we                                   money & energy to keep the water temperature hot all                                         of proper sizing is to calculate the flow rate in
50-60% lower than electric. Propane
                                                 all need to do! ♻                                                       the time, even when we are not using the hot water,                                          gallons per minute of the fixtures that could be
gas is 30-40% cheaper than electric. Gas
                                                                                                                         so there is a substantial st& by heat loss & energy used                                     used at the same time. the water heater needs

energy efficient                                            model:
                                                               • Position your refrigerator away from a heat source
                                                                                                                         to maintain these temperatures. the on dem& water
                                                                                                                         heater only heats up the amount of hot water that
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      to have the capacity to heat up the amount of
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      water that will be required.

- Submitted by David Perry
                                                            such as an oven, a dishwasher, or direct sunlight from
                                                            a window.
                                                                                                                         you need for that moment, & when you do not require
                                                                                                                         any more hot water, it turns off & therefore saves you
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      on dem& water heaters will not only save you
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      money in operating costs, but will provide your
                                                               • To allow air to circulate around the condenser coils,   energy & money.                                                                              family with endless amounts of hot water – no
     refrigeration and lighting are typically the largest                                                                on dem& water heaters do not have any storage                                                more running out of hot water in the shower,
120 vac energy consumers in a home (after electric          leave a space between the wall or cabinets and the
                                                            refrigerator or freezer and keep the coils clean so that     capacity, so they do not have a tank that holds the                                          or not having enough to fill your bathtub. every
heating loads) and these two areas should be looked                                                                      40, 50, or 60 gallons, but in fact they have only a very                                     day more homes are converting to on dem&
at very carefully in terms of getting the most energy       the heat can move away from the unit.
                                                                                                                         small amount of water inside that flows thru a heating                                       water heaters for their families hot water needs
efficient units available. when buying an appliance,           • Make sure the door seals are airtight.
                                                                                                                         coil. when you need hot water & turn on the hot tap,                                         & making their homes more energy efficient in
remember that it has two price tags: what you pay to           • Keep your refrigerator between 38 and 40 degrees        the water heater senses the water flow & starts up the heater to         the process.
take it home and what you pay for the energy and water      Fahrenheit and your freezer between 0 and 10 degrees         heat the water as it flows thru the unit. the heating coil is designed   Editor’s Note: These heaters work beautifully in cun-
it uses. energy star qualified appliances incorporate       Fahrenheit.                                                  to take the cold water that comes into the heater & then heat it up      junction with a Solar Hot Water System, making an even more efficient
advanced technologies that use 10–50% less energy              • Minimize the amount of time the refrigerator door       as it flows thru the heater, so that the outlet temperature is hot by    addition to your home. If you cannot afford Solar Hot Water, at least
and water than standard models. the electricity you save    is open.                                                     the time it comes out of the water heater & flows to your faucet.        seriously consider an On Dem& Heater. We have personal experience
can more than make up for the cost of a more expensive          energy star clothes washers use next generation          the most common type of on dem& water heater is the natural gas          with both the Rinnai & Aquastar br&s. The Rinnai meets & exceeds our
but more efficient energy star model. replacing             technology to cut energy and water consumption by            or propane fired units & when there is a dem& for hot water, the         needs. The remote allows us to easily turn even this unit on & off, as
a refrigerator bought in 1990 with a new energy             over 40% compared to conventional washers. new               gas flame comes on & very quickly provides hot water. in fact, it is     needed. Paloma is another recommended maker. We purchased our
star qualified model would save enough energy to            front load washers tumble clothes through a small            essentially instantaneous, with the only actual delay at the faucet      Rinnai from Perry’s in Bradford.
light the average household for nearly four months.         amount of water instead of rubbing clothes against           being the time for the hot water to flow thru your water piping
refrigerators and freezers from the 1970s cost four         an agitator in a full tub. advanced top loaders use          from the heater to the faucet.                                           watch?v=AlkJtya-iV0&NR=1
times more to operate. energy star is a joint program       sophisticated wash systems to flip or spin clothes           the fact that this type of water heater does not store 40-60 gallons
of the u.s. environmental protection agency and the         through a reduced stream of water. both designs              of hot water also is another huge benefit as it takes up hardly any
u.s. department of energy helping us all save money         dramatically reduce the amount of hot water used             space, & virtually no floor space. the area where the old water
and protect the environment through energy efficient        in the wash cycle, and the energy used to heat the           heater tank stood is now freed up for whatever else you may              5rJTomTqE&NR=1 ♻
products and practices. all major home appliances           water. efficient motors spin clothes two to three times
must meet the appliance standards program set by            faster during the spin cycle to extract more water. less
the us department of energy (doe). Manufacturers            moisture in the clothes means less time and energy in
must use standard test procedures developed by doe to                                                                     local hardware or discount store. if you plan on having a               fridges are at least 20 years old! Fridges made before
                                                            the dryer or if you hang them out.
prove the energy use and efficiency of their products.                                                                    renewable energy system with a battery bank, consider                   1993 use more than twice the energy of a new energy
                                                                gas ranges equipped with a power cord are now             using a compact fluorescent lights that can be powered                  star qualified model. the u.s. department of energy,
test results are printed on yellow energyguide label,       required to have electronic ignition. this includes all
which manufacturers are required to display on many                                                                       directly from the dc voltage of the battery bank (without               encourages every american who owns an old, inefficient
                                                            new ranges with the exception of only the very basic          the use of an inverter, which adds 10 to 20% loss of                    refrigerator or freezer to take another step - to save money,
appliances. this label estimates how much energy            models. Most gas ranges with electronic ignition use
the appliance uses, compares energy use of similar                                                                        electricity). when it comes to renewable energy systems,                energy and the environment by properly recycling that
                                                            a glo-bar type ignition in the oven which consumes a          for every dollar you spend replacing your inefficient                   old fridge or freezer. refrigerators and freezers contain
products, and lists approximate annual operating costs.     significant amount of electricity. this is of particular
your exact costs will depend on local utility rates and                                                                   appliances, you will save three to five dollars in the cost of          refrigerants, oils, and other compounds that, by federal
                                                            concern for off-grid households operating with a              a renewable energy system to run those appliances. so you               law, must be removed and recovered. then the steel,
the type and source of your energy.                         photovoltaic ( pv ) system. premier gas ranges use an         can see that energy conservation is crucial and can really              other metals, and selected parts can be recycled. some
      energy star refrigerators and freezers use high       electronic spark ignition for both the cook top as well       pay off when considering a renewable energy system.                     recycling programs also capture the foam insulation inside
efficiency compressors, improved insulation, and more       as the oven. this eliminates the need for a constantly
                                                                                                                              efficiency vermont provides technical assistance and                the refrigerator doors for added environmental benefits.
precise temperature and defrost mechanisms to improve       energized glo-bar in the oven and consumes only
                                                                                                                          financial incentives to vermont households and businesses               the average refrigerator aged 10 years or older contains
energy efficiency. energy star qualified refrigerator       a small amount of electricity. this type of system,
                                                                                                                          to help them reduce their energy cost with energy-                      more than 120 pounds of recyclable steel! the energy
models use at least 20% less energy than required by        unlike the glo-bar ignition system, also allows the
                                                                                                                          efficient equipment and lighting and with energy-efficient              saved by recycling one such refrigerator is equivalent to
current federal standards and 40% less energy than the      oven to be operated without any electricity.
                                                                                                                          approaches to construction and renovation. effective april              almost 290 kilowatt hours. that’s enough energy to run a
conventional models sold in 2001. energy            star         any appliance that operates at 240 vac (such as          1st, 2009 efficiency vermont is offering a $50.00 rebate                new energy star qualified refrigerator for 8 months.
qualified freezer models use at least 10% less energy       electric water heaters, cook stoves, furnaces and air
than required by current federal standards. Qualified                                                                     on the purchase of new refrigerators that are at least 25%              The Editor does not find it necessary to power lights
                                                            conditioners) are expensive loads to run on solar.            more efficient than the Federal minimum standard. they                  with DC. We only use 3.5 kWh/day. Our system will go
freezer models are available in three configurations:       you should consider using alternatives such as lp or          also offer a $50.00 rebate on qualifying energy star tier               5 days before the generator comes on. Awareness is
   • upright freezers with automatic defrost                natural gas, solar air heating, and solar water heating       3 washers. to receive the above rebates you must be a                   the key. The average Vermonter uses 17kWh/day.
   • upright freezers with manual defrost                   for water/space heating or cooking.                           vermont utility account holder.                                         Turn off lights when not needed…♻
   • chest freezers with manual defrost only                    compact fluorescent lights use a quarter to a third          recycle older or second refrigerators.
you may also be interested to know that you can reduce      of the power of an incandescent light for the same
                                                                                                                          u.s. households have 44.5 million fridges over 10 years
                                                                                                                                                                                                  Hydro, given the right site, can
the amount of energy your refrigerator or freezer uses,     lumen output and they last ten times longer. these
                                                            fluorescent lights are now readily available at your
                                                                                                                          old, 12.7 million of which are secondary units, often in                cost as little as a tenth of a pV
whether with a standard or an energy star qualified
                                                                                                                          basements and garages. and almost a quarter of these                    system of comparable output.
8    Center ads             May 4, 2009

                        George Abetti, Pres., General Manager
                  923 King’s Highway � White River Jct., VT 05001
                              802-295-9687 � Cell: 603-359-1912
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     we cover all your
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  chimney needs…

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        top hat
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     chimney sweep
    The Greenest Way to Get Around Town                                                                                                                                                                      Chimney Cleaning • Safety Inspections
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      peace of mind

    How far from home are your farmers’ market, coffee shop, grocery store & workplace?                                                                                                                         CSIA Certified • Fully Insured
    Chances are, not very. According to the League of American Bicyclists, 25% of all trips                                                                                                                                                   Stainless Steel Reling • Dampers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                           UB95M•200Stove Maintenance • Water Proofing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Installation of Green
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Natural or Propane Gas-Fired Modulating
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Condensing Boiler
    are made within a mile of the home, & 50% of the working population commutes
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Mountain Soapstone
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Masonry • Caps • Pre-Fab Installations
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    AIR VENT INTAKE                                                                                           OPENING FOR

    five miles or less to work. yet, more than 82% of trips five miles or less are made by                                                                                                                              Masonry Heaters
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    OPENING 2" NPT                                                                                            RELIEF VALVE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    (OPTIONAL)                                                                                                DISCHARGE PIPE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    18"                   307/8"          GAS SUPPLY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              GAS SUPPLY                                                  OPENING 1/2" NPT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    AIR VENT INTAKE

    personal motor vehicles.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              OPENING                                                     (OPTIONAL)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/2" NPT                                                                                              OPENING 2" PVC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (OPTIONAL)                                                  ELECTRICAL                                (OPTIONAL)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           STANDARD SUPPLY

                                                                                                                                                                                                   convenient Serving the Upper Valley and Lake Sunapee Area
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          CONNECTION FOR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           OPENING 11/4" NPT                                                                                              120V POWER & 24V
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      OPENING                              CONNECTIONS                                                                                                    THERMOSTAT LEADS    39 3/8"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       FOR TEE                             PROVIDED INSIDE                                    WATER RETURN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      EXHAUST                              BOILER CABINET

    With the majority of automobile emissions released when a car is started, these short
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              OPENING                                                     WATER RETURN
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      (2" CVPC)                                                                               11/4" NPT                                                                                             CONDENSATE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          OPENING 11/4" NPT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CONNECTION                                                                                            DRAIN OPENING

                                                                                                                                                                                                           Today          Memberof National VT & NH Guilds
                                                                                                                                                                                                   Call Us UB95M-200 RATINGS
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (OPTIONAL)                                                  (OPTIONAL)                                1/2" PVC


    trips are especially polluting. Not to mention they’re the easiest to take on two wheels.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        LEFT SIDE                                  FRONT               RIGHT SIDE                                       BACK

    Next time you head out the door, especially for a close-to-home trip, think about                                                                                                                                                           MODEL                       INPUT (MBH)                            HEATING CAPACITY                                    I=B=R NET                     AFUE             FLUE                      SHIPPING

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            800-821-1162 190 802-333-4789
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        (MBH)                                        RATING (MBH)                    (%)            DIAMETER                   WEIGHT (LBS.)
    walking or biking, according to season.                                                                                                                                                                                                          Max 200     165 95
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Min  80 76  66  95
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        3"                                                                                                                                                                                284

                                                                                                                                                                                                           Specifications                                                                                                                                                   Standard Equipment
                                                                                                                                                      UB95M•200                              Natural or Propane Gas-Fired Modulating
                                                                                                                                                                                             Condensing Boiler Direct Vent Condensing Hot Water Boiler
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ! Gas Fired                                                                                                                                                      !   Aluminum monoblock boiler with painted
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ! Uses natural or LP gas
                                                                                                                                                                                                            AIR VENT INTAKE                                                                       OPENING FOR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               metal and plastic jacket

                                                           We are here to help
                                                                                                                                                                                                            OPENING 2" NPT                                                                        RELIEF VALVE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  DISCHARGE PIPE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               High limit Aquastat

                                                                                                                                                                                                          ! May be installed on combustible flooring
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              GAS SUPPLY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              GAS SUPPLY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               18"                 307/8"
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              OPENING 1/2" NPT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (OPTIONAL)                            AIR VENT INTAKE
                                                                                                                                                                                                            (No Carpets)                                                                                                                                                       Circulator (Taco 007 or Grundfos)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              1/2" NPT                                                                              OPENING 2" PVC
                                                                                                                                                                                        STANDARD SUPPLY
                                                                                                                                                                                        OPENING 11/4" NPT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (OPTIONAL)                                      ELECTRICAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CONNECTION FOR
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              120V POWER & 24V

                                                                                                                                                                                                          ! 8" clearance to rear, 1" clearance to top, front,                                                                                                                  Manual reset LWCO
                                                                                                                                                                 OPENING                CONNECTIONS                                                                           THERMOSTAT LEADS    39 3/8"
                                                                                                                                                                  FOR TEE
                                                                                                                                                                                        PROVIDED INSIDE
                                                                                                                                                                                        BOILER CABINET
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              WATER RETURN                                                                                                                                 !
                                                                                                                                                                                                            left side, right side and base to combustible
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              OPENING                                         WATER RETURN

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               Pressure gauge
                                                                                                                                                                 (2" CVPC)                                                    11/4" NPT                                                                             CONDENSATE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              OPENING 11/4" NPT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CONNECTION                                      CONNECTION                            DRAIN OPENING
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    1/2" PVC                                               !
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              (OPTIONAL)                                      (OPTIONAL)
                                                                                                                                                                               TOP                            LEFT SIDE                       FRONT           RIGHT SIDE                                    BACK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           !   Temperature display
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ! Option of left, right, or rear exit for return

                                                        reduce your energy costs !
                                                                                                                                                       UB95M-200 RATINGS                                                                                                                                                                                                   !   30 psi ASME rated relief valve
                                                                                                                                                                                        HEATING CAPACITY plumbing and AFUE piping
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 I=B=R NET       gas       FLUE       SHIPPING
                                                                                                                                                          MODEL        INPUT (MBH)
                                                                                                                                                                                             (MBH)             RATING (MBH)      (%)     DIAMETER   WEIGHT (LBS.)                                                                                                          !   Air purge vent
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ! 8" clearance to side where exits for air intake,
                                                                                                                                                                       Max      200           190           gas, water and 95
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    165           electrical installation                                                                                                                  !   Service switch
                                                                                                                                                       UB95M-200                                                                             3"         284                                                                                                                !   Service receptacle outlet
                                                                                                                                                                        Min      80            76         ! 8" clearance to top, 24" clearance to front and left
                                                                                                                                                                                                                    66           95
                                                                                                                                                                                                            side, 12" clearance to rear for service                                                                                                                        !   Microprocessor based modulating control
                                                                                                                                                       Specifications                                             Standard Equipment                                                                                                                                           Modulating burner
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ! 0" clearance for vent and air intake pipes to                                                                                                                  !
                                                                                                                                                      ! Gas Fired Direct Vent Condensing Hot Water Boiler   combustible clearances with painted
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 ! Aluminum monoblock boiler                                                                                                                               !   Modulating automatic gas valve
                                                                                                                                                      ! Uses natural or LP gas                                      metal and plastic jacket
                                                                                                                                                      ! May be installed on combustible flooring                 ! content in heat exchanger is 2.6 gallons
                                                                                                                                                                                                          ! WaterHigh limit Aquastat                                                                                                                                       !   Modulating blower
                                                                                                                                                       (No Carpets)                                                                                                  ! Circulator (Taco 007 or Grundfos)                                                                   !   Direct Spark Igniter

                                                  We are here to help
                                                                                                                                                     ! 8" clearance to rear, 1" clearance to top, front, ConnectionsLWCO                                             ! Manual reset                                                                                            Manual Reset casting temperature switch

      from ENERGY STAR Refrigerators,
                                                                                                                                                       left side, right side and base to combustible                                                                 ! Pressure gauge
                                                                                                                                                       construction                                                                                                  Volts AC, 60 hertz,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ! 120 ! Temperature display 1 phase, less than 12 amps                                                        !   Air proving / blocked vent safety assembly
                                                                                                                                                     ! Option of left, right, or rear exit for return
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ! Vent!pipe and air intake pipe
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       30 psi ASME rated relief valve                                                                      !   Integral condensate trap
                                                                                                                                                       plumbing and gas piping

           Washers & Dishwashers
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               • VentAir purge first 2.5 feet is schedule 80 2" CPVC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Pipe - vent                                                                                           Outdoor Temperature Sensor with cover

                                               reduce with energy costs ! STAR Heating Systems
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     !                                                                                                     !
                                                                                                                                                     ! 8" clearance to side where exits for air intake,
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ! Service switch
                                                                                                                                                       gas, water and electrical installation                                                                     (provided), then schedule 40 3" PVC                                                                          LP Conversion Kit standard

                                                                   to ENERGY
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ! Service receptacle outlet
                                                                                                                                                     ! 8" clearance to top, 24" clearance to front and left
                                                                                                                                                       side, 12" clearance to rear for service                                                                         Microprocessor based 40 3" PVC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               • Air!intake – schedule modulating control
                                                                                                                                                     ! 0" clearance for vent and air intake pipes to                                                         ! Water Modulating. burner. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1-1/4" NPT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        In/ Out . . . . . . .                                                                               Options
                                                                                                                                                       combustible clearances                                                                                        ! Modulating automatic gas valve
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     In . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ! Gas ! Modulating. blower . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/2" NPT
                                                                                                                                                     ! Water content in heat exchanger is 2.6 gallons                                                                                                                                                                      !   Concentric Vent Kit

                          go                       green                                                                                              Connections
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ! Condensate Drain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/2" PVC
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ! Direct Spark Igniter

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ! Vent!length Reset casting temperature 15 ft.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Manual runs – minimum of switch
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           !   AMB Multiple Boiler Control – Outdoor reset, priority
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               override, lead boiler run time rotation. Available in
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               with!aAir proving / blocked vent safety assembly
                                                                                                                                                     ! 120 Volts AC, 60 hertz, 1 phase, less than 12 amps
                                                                                                                                                                                                                              At 95% Efficiency, Utica!s gas-fired UB    maximum of 100 equivalent ft.                                                                         two sizes to allow stage firing of up to 8 bases
        from ENERGY STAR Refrigerators,
                                                                                                                                                     ! Vent pipe and air intake pipe                                                                                 ! Integral condensate trap

                                                                                                                                                       • Vent Pipe - first 2.5 feet is schedule 80 2" CPVC                    condensing boilers are the most efficient
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ! Outdoor Temperature Sensor with cover
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ! LP Conversion Kit standard
                                                                                                                                                         (provided), then schedule 40 3" PVC

             Washers & Dishwashers
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                                                                                                                                                     ! Condensate Drain . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1/2" PVC                                   ! AMB Multiple Boiler Control – Outdoor reset, priority                                                                               USA Homeowner Assistance:
                                                                                                                                                     ! Vent length runs – minimum of 15
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                                                                                                                                                 condensing boilers are the most efficient                                                                                                                  Tel. 315-797-1310 • Fax 866-432-7329                                                             USA Contractor Assistance:
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                                                                                            new Front Load Washers are 83% more
                                                                                            energy efficient and use 56% less water                                            Dometic: Gas/ Electrical Refrigerators                                                                                                                                                       09/07/2007 05:58 PM

                                                                      new Front Load Washers are 83% more
                                                                      energy efficient and use 56% less water
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                                                                                                     your concerns about making sure
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                                                                                                                                                                                     Hotel Equipment

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                                                                                         Home   About Us   Press Room   Contact Us   Site Map   Search Site                          Compact Refrigerators                        A total capacity of 224 litres
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Rust-proof, wire-grill shelves
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Recreation Vehicle                                                                                                                                   Refrigerator
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                                      We stock most all Major Name Brand Appliances as well as                                                                                                                                                                                       Portable Refrigerators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             and Refrigerators
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Bottom rack with bottle fingersEnergycapacity for 2-litre bottles
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Big capacity Gas and
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                                    stock mostdemand gasNameheaters and Space heaters well
                                                                       as Rinnai on demand
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Ergonomical door handle                              Electric Refrigerator/
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Marine Equipment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Control panel with fuel selector, combined electric and gas
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Hotel Equipment
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             thermostat, piezo igniter and flame safety valve
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Compact Refrigerators     A total capacity of 224 litres

                                        Premier Gas Ranges & Dometic Propane Refrigerators                                                                                                                                                                                           Commercial Vehicle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  including a separate frozen food
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  compartment of 47 litres offers

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Total gross volume (l)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Refrigerator volume (l)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Wine Cellars
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                maximum storage volume. 240V LP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Gas Refrigerator/ Freezer - 2-door
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Operates on gas and electricity

                     Performance with ENERGY                   Make your home energy efficient with Home Performance with                                                                                                           Freezer volume (l)                                                                47                  Rust-proof, wire-grill shelves

                     STAR                                                                                                                                                                                                           Height (mm)                                                                       1613                Inner door with 4 adjustable racks
                                                               ENERGY STAR                                                                                                                                                          Width (mm)                                                                        592
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Bottom rack with bottle fingers and capacity for 2-litre bottles
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Battery powered interior lighting
                               173 Main Street Save money and energy with Home Performance with ENERGY STAR®
                       Steps to Success                                                                                                                                                                                           (802) 222-9211
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Depth (mm)                                                                         673
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Ergonomical door handle
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Weight (kg)                                                                        76                  Control panel with fuel selector, combined electric and gas
                        Downtown Bradford, New incentives and financing options are available in 2009 to help Vermonters improve the
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          thermostat, piezo igniter and flame safety valve

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                                                                   A Vermonters, Green Mountain Power, and Vermont Gas customers may qualify for -
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                       STAR                                                                                                                                                                                                         Energy consumption gas (g/24h)                                                    500
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Total gross volume (l)                                           224
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Max input 230V (W)                                                                325
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                     High Electric Bills?                             available incentives                                                                                                                                           Print                                                                                          Max input 230V (W)                                               325

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                                                                                                                                                                     ,20348,1207.aspx                                                                                                                                                Page 1 of 2
                     Home Electronics                          What Is Home Performance with ENERGY STAR?                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Frequency (Hz)                                                   50, 60
                                                                                                                May 4, 2009   Center ads   9

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batteries & electrical
10   Batteries & eleCtriCal             May 4, 2009

electricity                                           disconnected from the electrical utility company

                                                      sometimes have outlets which provide DC elec-
                                                      tricity. The Editor feels this is definitely not neces-
                                                      sary with today’s technology! This is because most
   The amount of flow of electricity is called        alternative energy systems store their energy in
amperage or “current” and is measured in              batteries which use DC electricity. To convert this
amperes, or “amps”(A) for short.                      electricity into AC electricity requires the use of
   A battery stores your electricity. If you flip     a inverter, to convert the DC to AC electricity.
a switch connecting batteries to a light bulb         People living off grid will often use only appli-
or some other load, electricity begins to flow.       ances and devices which can run directly off of
The higher the voltage of a battery bank, the         the DC electricity a battery bank can provide. The
greater the “pressure” of the electrons flow-         downside is that most common appliances only                    440 Old Stagecoach Rd.
ing the wire. As electricity is drained from          work with 120 or 220 volts AC. Again, the editor
the battery, the pressure (voltage) slowly            disagrees with any need to use DC. The invert-
drops.                                                ers today run effortlessly, which allow you to use
   A nominal 12-volt battery has most of its          normal Energy Star appliances without a glitch.

                                                                                                                about batteries
stored electricity available from just below          How Do solar Cells generate eleCtriC?
12 volts to 12.6 volts. Once the battery is             Photovoltaics or PV for short can be                                                                       can help prevent some moisture escape,
drained below 12 volts, there’s little amper-         thought of as a direct current (DC) electricity                                                              thus reducing watering frequency. The
age that remains.                                     generator powered by the sun. When light                     Batteries provide electrical storage in         other problem is the presence and accu-
   A solar electric panel (PV module) needs           photons of sufficient energy strike a solar               renewable energy (RE) systems. If you want         mulation of explosive gases. Hydrogen
to be able to produce at least 15 to 16 volts         cell, they knock electrons free in the silicon            to use your electricity anytime other than         and oxygen gases are extremely danger-
in order to charge a 12 volt battery.                 crystal structure forcing them through an                 when the system is producing it, you will          ous and must be properly vented—to
Power is Voltage MultiPlieD by aMPerage               external circuit (battery, inverter or direct             need batteries. It’s also true that if you have    the outside air. So it’s clear that with
   Electrical power (the ability to do work) is       DC load), and then returning them to the                  a wind turbine or solar panel array that is        FLA batteries, battery maintenance is an
a function of pressure (voltage) and                                                                            connected directly to the Utility Grid with-       essential part of system maintenance.
current (amperage). Double either                                                                               out batteries, you will not be able to use the        sealed batteries
one and you double the power                                                                                    power they produce during a grid power                One great advantage of sealed bat-
the current is carrying through                                                                                 outage. If you need to be able to use power        teries is that they can be placed in any
the circuit. The actual formula for                                                                             at any time, you need batteries.                   orientation: upright, on their sides, and,
calculating power is quite basic -                                                                                 deep cycle batteries                            in some cases, even upside-down. In
simply multiply the voltage by the                                                                                 Batteries used in RE systems are differ-        a sealed battery, the electrolyte is sus-
amperage. Power = Volts x Amps.                                                                                 ent from car batteries and that difference         pended in either an absorbed glass mat
This formula is known as Ohm’s Law.                                                                             is critical. RE systems by nature are cyclical:    (AGM) or in a gel. Sealed batteries cost
The watt (W) is the measure of the                                                                              energy is captured and stored, then later          more than flooded lead-acid batteries
power of electricity and will be our                                                                            consumed, in a (usually) regular charge            and don’t last as many charging cycles;
basic unit of measure for determin-                                                                             cycle. For example, in a battery-based solar       however, they are the preferred choice
ing the size of our electrical loads.                                                                           electric system, the energy produced daily         for applications requiring frequent
   A 1 watt load that is powered for one hour         other side of the solar cell to start the pro-            by the solar panels is stored in the battery       battery handling, or where the system
will consume one watt-hour (Wh) of power.             cess all over again.The voltage output from               bank, which is then used by loads at night         needs to be left unattended in a remote
A 100 watt load powered for 2 hours will              a single crystalline solar cell is about 0.5V             or on not-so-sunny days. This repetitive pro-      location. Like FLA batteries, sealed bat-
consumer 200 watt-hours. And so on.                   with an amperage output that is directly                  cess subjects the batteries to a slow, daily       teries have vents to allow hydrogen to
   A 100-watt load could consist of a 12-volt         proportional to the cell’s surface area                   charge and discharge pattern. Car batter-          escape when necessary, though this
appliance drawing 8.3 amperes or it might             (approximately 7A for a 6 inch square multi-              ies are not meant to be used in this way.          should not normally occur. The differ-
consist of a 120-volt appliance drawing .82           crystalline solar cell).Typically 30-36 cells are         They can release a great deal of their stored      ence is that because the batteries are
amperes (120V x 0.83A = 100W). And so                 wired in series (+ to -) in each solar module.            energy at once, to start the engine, then          sealed, there is no way to replace the
on.                                                   This produces a solar module with a 12V                   they immediately receive a rapid recharge          escaped moisture by adding water to
   Another unit of measure that you will              nominal output (~17V at peak power) that                  from the car’s alternator. They’re not meant       the cells; that’s why a sealed battery
come across is the kilowatt (Kw). A kilowatt          can then be wired in series and/or parallel               to recover their charge slowly, as would           won’t last as long as an FLA battery. Gel
is 1000 watts. A kilowatt-hour could result           with other solar modules to form a complete               happen in a solar electric system. A car bat-      cell batteries have traditionally been a
from a 100-watt load being power for 10               solar array.                                              tery in a RE system would quickly die and          bit more expensive than AGM batteries;
hours or a 1000-watt load being powered               Can solar eleCtriC Panels (PV) be useD for                need to be replaced. Deep cycle batteries,         however, they have the unique advan-
for just 1 hour.                                      water or sPaCe Heating?                                   on the other hand, can be gradually dis-           tage of performing better in very cold
 wHat is tHe DifferenCe between aC &                    No! Well, not without great expense. Photo-             charged by as much as half of their capacity       temperatures or in very deep-discharge
DC? Electricity flows in two ways: either             voltaics (solar electric panels) convert the sun’s        and will patiently await gradual recharge.         applications.
in alternating current or AC and in direct            energy into DC electricity at a relatively low            When properly maintained, a deep cycle                In most cases, FLA batteries are an
current or DC. The difference between AC              efficiency level (14-17%), so trying to oper-             battery can last 10 years.                         excellent choice for RE systems because
and DC has to do with the direction in which          ate a high power electric heating element                    There are two divisions and three main          of their cost-effectiveness, particularly
the electrons flow. In DC, the electrons flow         from solar electric panel array would be                  types of deep cycle batteries used in RE sys-      for those systems which require a lot
steadily in a single direction, or “forward.” In      very inefficient and expensive. Solar ther-               tems. The divisions are flooded and sealed         of energy storage. But FLA batteries do
AC, electrons keep switching (alternating)            mal and passive solar design is the direct                batteries. Flooded batteries use a fluid elec-     require maintenance! Regular monitor-
directions, sometimes going “forwards” and            heating of air or water from the heat of the              trolyte, have ports to access their cells’ fluid   ing and maintenance will ensure your
then going “backwards.”                               sun and is much more efficient (55-85%)                   reservoirs, and require maintenance (adding        system functions properly and your
   The power that comes from our wall out-            for heating applications than solar electric              fluid). Sealed batteries use non-fluid electro-    batteries live a long, healthy life. On
lets is AC, the more common type of electric-         panels. ♻                                                 lyte contained in inaccessible cells. There’s      the other hand, if you’re using the bat-
ity. However, homes which are completely                                                                        only one flooded type: flooded lead-acid           teries in a remote area where regular
                                                                                                                batteries. Sealed batteries include AGM bat-       maintenance is not possible, sealed

                                                      12- 24- 48 VOlTs?
                                                                                                                teries and gel cell batteries.                     batteries will be a better option. Fur-
 Batteries are the                                                                                                 flooded lead-acid (fla) Batteries
                                                                                                                   Flooded lead-acid batteries, also called
                                                                                                                                                                   thermore, sealed batteries conform to
                                                                                                                                                                   situations with space constraints that
   ‘engine’ of an                                        The PV industry really began with the 12V
                                                                                                                “wet cells”, are commonly used in solar,
                                                                                                                wind and hydroelectric RE systems. They
                                                                                                                                                                   require you to store your batteries in
                                                                                                                                                                   unusual orientations or where venting
     off grid or                                      radio communications market. These systems
                                                      were typically small (1-2 solar modules) and had
                                                                                                                are often the least expensive type of deep
                                                                                                                cycle battery and can last the longest. They
                                                                                                                                                                   is not possible.
                                                                                                                                                                      All batteries are sized based on their
     emergency                                        all 12 VDC loads. As the solar industry matured
                                                      and entered the home market, systems became
                                                                                                                also come in a wide range of sizes. In FLA
                                                                                                                batteries, a sulphuric acid solution is the
                                                                                                                                                                   nominal voltage and Amp-hour Capaci-
                                                                                                                                                                   ty (Ah) of storage. For an off-grid system,
 back-up system.                                      much larger (16+ solar modules) and no longer
                                                      used DC loads exclusively. Most home systems
                                                                                                                electrolyte which reacts with the lead plates
                                                                                                                in the cells to produce electricity. When FLA
                                                                                                                                                                   the nominal voltage of the battery bank
                                                                                                                                                                   must match that of the solar array unless
  Installing and                                      today are 24 or 48 VDC since the higher system
                                                      voltage gives you a lot more flexibility as to how
                                                                                                                batteries are recharged or equalized, the
                                                                                                                electrolyte fluid boils, producing hydrogen
                                                                                                                                                                   you are using an MPPT charge controller
                                                                                                                                                                   that can accept a higher input voltage
   maintaining                                        far away you can place your solar modules from
                                                      the battery bank as compared to a 12V system.
                                                                                                                and oxygen gases in a normal process called
                                                                                                                “outgassing”. These gases may escape the
                                                                                                                                                                   than the battery bank voltage. Sizes vary
                                                                                                                                                                   greatly. The smallest batteries hold less
  them properly                                       For a given power output, a higher system volt-
                                                      age reduces your amperage flow (but not your
                                                                                                                cells through the filler/vent caps, creating
                                                                                                                two problems: the fluid loss means that the
                                                                                                                                                                   than 20 Ah; the largest approach 2,000
                                                                                                                                                                   Ah of storage. Usually, these very large
  means a long,                                       power) which allows you to use a smaller & less
                                                      expensive gauge wire for your solar to battery
                                                                                                                fluid level in the battery goes down, poten-
                                                                                                                tially exposing the normally “flooded” lead
                                                                                                                                                                   batteries are only 2 volts each. If you
                                                                                                                                                                   want to use them in a 48-Volt system,
 problem-free life                                    and battery to inverter wire runs. Of course, if
                                                      you already have a lot of 12VDC loads, that may
                                                                                                                plates—not a good thing. So using FLA
                                                                                                                batteries in your system means that you
                                                                                                                                                                   you will need 24 of them, wired in series.
                                                                                                                                                                   Such large batteries could weigh 200-
 for your system.                                     be your deciding factor as to what voltage you
                                                      set your system up at. Most grid-tie systems
                                                                                                                are committed to regularly monitoring and
                                                                                                                maintaining them by adding distilled water
                                                                                                                                                                   300 pounds or more. Often size and
                                                                                                                                                                   weight constraints affect the final bat-
                                                      operate at 48 volts or higher. ♻                          to each cell as needed. Water Miser vent caps      tery choice. ♻
solar hot water
                                                                                                                                                                         May 4, 2009         solar hot water/plumBinG & heatinG       11

                                                                                                                                                            plumbing & heating
By National Renewable Energy Laboratory
water heating accounts for a substantial portion of energy
use. solar water heating systems can efficiently provide up
                                                                  use focusing curved mirrors to concentrate sunlight. high
                                                                  temperature systems are required for absorption cooling
                                                                  or electricity generation, but are used for mid-temper-
                                                                                                                                   masonry Heaters
to 80% of the hot water needs.                                    ature applications such as commercial or institutional               MASONRy HEATERS are heat stor-
solar water heating is a reliable & renewable energy tech-        water heating as well. due to the tracking mechanism             ing fireplaces. They have been used
nology used to heat water. sunlight strikes & heats an            required to keep the focusing mirrors facing the sun, high-      for centuries in Finland, Sweden, and
“absorber” surface within a “solar collector” or an actual        temperature systems are usually very large & mounted on          Russia.
storage tank. either a heat-transfer fluid or the actual po-      the ground adjacent to a facility. evacuated tube collec-        The heat from a short hot fire is trans-
table water to be used flows through tubes attached to the        tors themselves cost about $75/sq. ft., but use of curved        ferred to the masonry mass, which
absorber & picks up the heat from it. (systems with a sepa-       mirrors & economies of scale get this cost down for large        then radiates for 24 hrs or more.
rate heat-transfer-fluid loop include a heat exchanger that       system sizes to a relatively low cost of $40-70/sq. ft.          A Masonry Heater… burns a load
                                                                                                                                   of wood fast and clean, in excess of
then heats the potable water.) the heated water is stored
in a separate preheat tank or a conventional water heater
                                                                  in addition to solar collectors, all solar hot water systems
                                                                  have thermal storage, system controls, & a conventional          1500F degrees, meaning maximum
tank until needed. if additional heat is needed, an on-dem&
heater is ideal.
although solar water heating systems all use the same basic
                                                                  back-up system.
                                                                  For small systems, storage is most often in the form of
                                                                  glass-lined steel tanks.
                                                                                                                                   combustion efficiency,very low emis-
                                                                                                                                   sions, and zero creosote • stores heat
                                                                                                                                   from the complete combustion of
method for capturing & transferring solar energy, they do so      conventional back-up heater solar water heaters save en-         wood in the ceramic coreand in the                                 MASONRY HEATERS 
with three technologies that distinguish different collectors     ergy by preheating water to the conventional heater. solar       masonry facing • radiates heat all day                                            
& systems. the distinctions are important because different       dhw systems are usually designed to meet 40% to 70% of           from one short burn • is made entirely                              A Radiant fireplace design  
water heating needs in various locations are best served by       the water-heating load. a back-up, conventional heater is        of ceramic and stone, and the warmth                                      from Finland 
certain types of collectors & systems.                            still needed to meet 100% of the peak hot water demand           is just like sunshine • is a unique work
• Low-temperature unglazed systems operate at up to 18°F          for cloudy days.                                                 of art hand crafted by a local mason
                                                                                                                                                                                                         Made in Vermont, USA 
above ambient temperature, & are most often used for              solar water heating systems should be designed to mini-          • can be made of a wide variety of                                                
heating swimming pools.                                           mize life-cycle cost. it is never cost-effective to design a     materials including brick, fieldstone,                                    The Efficient, 
Mid-temperature systems produce water 18 to 129°F above           system to provide 100% of the load with solar because            Soapstone, Granite, and Ceramic Tile •                             Clean‐burning, Heat‐Storing 
outside temperature, & are most often used for heating            of the excessive investment in collector area and storage        can be designed to heat over 2000 sq.
                                                                                                                                   ft. of living space • can incorporate do-
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Wood‐burning Alternative 
domestic hot water (dhw). however, it is also possible to         volume. Minimize life-cycle cost by designing a system
use mid-temperature solar hot water collectors for space          that meets 100% of the load on the sunniest day of the           mestic hot water baking, cooking, and                                             

heating in conjunction with fan-forced convection or radi-        year. such a system                                                                heated benches • heats                              ROYWOOD HEATERS  
ant floors.                                                       will usually produce                                                               long after the fire goes                            NEWBURY, VERMONT 

                                                                                               hot water
• Mid-temperature collectors are usually flat plates insulated    about 70% of the                                                                   out, so you can leave
                                                                                                                                                                                                            (802) 439‐6370 
by a low-iron cover glass & fiberglass or polyisocyanurate        annual load. other                                                                 the house or go to bed

insulation. reflection & absorption of sunlight in the cover      design considerations                                                              without concern for an                     

glass reduce the efficiency at low temperature differences,       include maintenance,                                                               untended fire. ♻                                 WWW.MASONRYHEAT.COM 
but the glass is required to retain heat at higher tempera-       freeze       protection,
tures. a copper absorber plate with copper tubes welded to        overheating protec-
the fins is used. in order to reduce radiant losses from the      tion, aesthetics of the
collector, the absorber plate is often treated with a black       collector mount, and                     •Affordable •
nickel selective surface, which has a high absorptivity, but      orientation. also, util-
a low-emissivity. Mid-temp. systems range in cost from $90        ity rebate programs                        Efficient •
to $120/sq. ft. of collector area.                                may impose addi-
• High-temperature systems utilize evacuated tubes around         tional design require-          Evacuated-Tube Heat Pipe
the receiver tube to provide high levels of insulation & often    ments. ♻
                                                                                                       20-Tube Array
Design a solar H20 system
1. Properly locate the solar collectors. The best annual energy de-
                                                                                                       • Ten year Warranty •
livery is achieved by facing toward the equator with a tilt up from
the horizontal equal to the local latitude. Recent studies show               Wholesale Dealers
that adequate performance may be obtained with tilt angles and                          Wanted!
orientations that vary considerably. In the USA, for max perfor-
mance, collectors should be rotated within 30° of true (not mag-                 Solar Hot Water Systems
netic) south. Surfaces tilted up from the horizontal at an angle of              413.883.3960
latitude minus 15° maximize summer solar gains, but reduce win-
ter gains. Surfaces tilted up at latitude plus 15° maximize winter
solar gains and result in a solar delivery that is uniform through-              bnuttelman
out the year; such a tilt angle may be the best choice for solar
water heating systems, as it can reduce the risk of summertime
                                                                       * price for 20-Tube collecTor only
overheating while maximizing use of limited wintertime sunlight.
It is usually acceptable to mount the collectors flush on a pitched
roof close to the optimal orientation as possible in order to reduce installed cost and improve
aesthetics. Resource maps and tables of solar resource information throughout the U.S. are post-
ed at the Solar Radiation Resource Information Center(SRIC).
2. Protect against freezing. Damage can be caused if water freezes in the collector flow pas-
sages or connecting piping. There are several strategies for prevention of freeze damage. The
most common is to circulate a solution of propylene glycol (never use toxic ethylene glycol)                                               
and water in the collector loop of an indirect system. Another strategy is to drain the water
from the collector back into a small drain-back tank. This drain-back configuration has the
added advantage of protecting the system from excessive temperatures if hot water con-
sumption is reduced due to seasonal use patterns, remodeling, or vacations. Where freezing
is uncommon, a controller function that simply circulates water in the collector loop when
temperatures approach freezing in conjunction with freeze protection values may be ade-
3. Provide a tempering valve and bypass capability The tempering valve is very important to
assure consistent temperature water is delivered at the taps. Bypass piping and valves allow the
conventional system to provide hot water if the solar heating system is down for any reason.                                                              

4. Provide periodic maintenance for all systems Check for obvious damage such as broken
collector glazing or wet pipe insulation. Ck pH and freeze point of heat transfer fluid. Ck con-
trol temperature sensors against thermometers to be sure sensors are functioning. Ck proper                                                                                                      
pump operation, etc. Ck the preheat tank temperature, it should be hot after a sunny day.
Preliminary Screening To determine if your project is a possible candidate for solar hot water heating use Federal Renewable          
Energy Screening Assistant (FRESA) software. Developed by NREL, this software tool screens federal renewable energy projects                     
for economic feasibility. It is able to evaluate many renewable technologies including solar hot water, photovoltaics, and wind.

Alternate financing is available for solar hot water systems: Energy Savings Performance Contracting (ESPC) and utility pro-
grams including: DOE’s Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) has established an Indefinite Quantity Contract (IQC)               
under which any Federal agency can issue Delivery Orders for parabolic trough solar water heating systems in an ESPC ar-            
rangement. See FEMP’s Solar Thermal Concentrating Super ESPC. Several utilities offer rebates, leases, or other solar water          

heating programs. A complete listing of incentives is provided in the Database of State Incentives for Renewable Energy. ♻
solarfest’s place in the sun f e d e r a l
12    Community/inCentives              May 4,, 2009
                                                                                                                                                                audits & inCentives
                                                                                                                                                                for enerGy effiCienCy
                             tax Credits
by Carol Tashie and Melissa Chestnut-Tangerman                                                                                                                     SERG continues to provide Home Performance
Fifteen years ago, the idea of a solar-powered          but solarFest is not just for those with a desire      for enerGy effiCienCy                            Assessments, including blower door tests, infra-
music and renewable energy festival seemed, if not      to learn the ins and outs of renewable energy          improvements                                     red scans and a detailed report on how you can
revolutionary, then at least “way out there.” but the   and green building. our sustainable agriculture           Great news: Congress reinstated the tax       improve your home’s health, comfort, safety and
right idea at the right time attracts its own energy;   workshops provide gardeners and “eaters” with          credits for improving your home’s energy         energy efficiency. you can find more detail on
and each year more and more people find their way       information on topics as diverse as season             efficiency and the American Recovery and         SERG’s website at the “Residential Assessment
                                                                                                               Reinvestment Act expanded the amount of          and Survey” link. Fill in the first 2 items on the
to solarFest as attendees, workshop presenters,         extension, beekeeping and the development of
                                                                                                               those tax credits! For 2009 and 2010, you        survey and it will automatically calculate how effi-
exhibitors, vendors and passionate volunteers. as       sustainable food systems. our thriving locally track   can take a tax credit for 30% of the cost, up    ciently your home is heating. Many folks dodged
“green” becomes mainstream, so does solarFest’s         offers an array of practical, as well as thought-      to $1,500, for approved replacement doors        a bullet this year as fuel prices fell, while others
reputation as a reliable, comprehensive and fun         provoking, sessions about sustainability. we           and windows, insula-
place to learn about all aspects of sustainability.     even offer a workshop track designed specifically      tion, biomass stoves,
                                                                                                                                           S U STA INAB LE E NER GY R E SOU RCE G R OU P
For three days (July 10-12), on an idyllic horse farm   for young people, appropriately titled the solar       and more. Better yet,
                                                                                                               tax credits for 30% of
                                                                                                                                                         HOME PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENTS
in tinmouth vermont, the “alternative” becomes          generation. these workshops provide our pre-teen
                                                                                                                                                            Cut your fuel use and save money while
the mainstream. thousands of people from all            through 20-something attendees with hands-on           the cost, with no
                                                                                                                                                          improving home health, comfort and safety.
over the country come to solarFest to enjoy world-      skills and inspiration to prepare them to take            upper limit, are
class music, innovative workshops, inspirational        their places as leaders in a world that embraces       available through              Details & free home heating efficiency calculator at
                                                                                                               2016 for qualifying   - Residential Assessment link
keynotes and unparalleled fun, powered entirely         renewable energy and community values.
                                                                                                               geothermal heat
with renewable energy. the electricity for our two      there is no doubt solarFest is the region’s premier    pumps, solar panels,
stages, six workshop tents and huge vendor arena        educational experience – presented within the          solar water heaters,
comes from solarFest’s permanent pv array and           fun and celebratory environment of a music and         small wind energy sys-                802-785-4126 •
our installed-each-year mega pv system and small        arts festival. From mid-day until midnight, top-       tems, and fuel cells. To
wind turbine.                                           notch musical acts grace both our Main and Family      find out more about
For those interested in obtaining comprehensive         stages. a singer-songwriter contest showcases up-      what improvements qualify for the federal have been hammered as they locked in at high
knowledge and skills in solar energy technology         and-coming performers from all over the country,       tax credits, visit and prices for the season. Rest assured that fuel prices
and installation, solarFest offers a week-long in-      as they vie for the coveted prize of performing on     click on the Tax Credits for Energy Efficiency will rise again. Take this opportunity to tighten up
depth pre-festival pv workshop run by long-time         solarFest’s Main stage. theater-in-the-woods,          link at the bottom left of the homepage. For your home to save energy and money.
                                                                                                               information on State tax credits contact            There are a wide variety of state incentives in
leaders in the field of solar power, richard gottlieb   a long-standing festival favorite, highlights the
                                                                                                                  Efficiency Vermont at 888-921-5990 or VT. They come from a variety of sources and are
and carol levin. this intensive workshop provides       talent of the youngest members of our solarFest        the NH Office of Energy and Planning, (603)- too complex to detail here, but you can get
participants with real hands-on experience - the        community as they perform original productions         271-6359. (thanks to Alice Stewart form TEC         information on the broad array of incentives
opportunity to create and install the festival’s        with playful but powerful messages. and you will       for this info.) ♻                                 by contacting Efficiency Vermont. Call your local
complex power system. but register soon, as this        not want to miss our world-class professional light                                                      bank to see if they offer low interest loans for
small intensive class fills up quickly.
during this three-day festival, over 70 workshops
                                                        show, as it dramatically demonstrates the sun’s
                                                        awesome power.
                                                                                                               federal stimulus                                  energy efficiency retrofits. ♻

are offered in five educational tracks. renewable       For 15 years, solarFest has been a family-friendly     funds in vt anD nh 2009 federal tax inCentives
energy and green building workshops, taught by          event that has something for everyone, at a               VT and NH have each received tens of          for enerGy effiCienCy
knowledgeable green builders, veteran renewable         remarkably low price. a three-day ticket gives you     millions of dollars for their Weatherization       you can find a summary of 2009 fed-
                                                                                                               Assistance, State Energy and Conservation        eral tax credits for energy efficient doors,
energy entrepreneurs and installers, and leading        access to everything solarFest has to offer – music,
                                                                                                               Block Grant Programs. Each state is in the       windows, insulating material, geo-thermal
visionaries, provide innovative and informative         education, theater, demonstrations, exhibitors –
                                                                                                               process of working out how these funds           units, solar hot water and PV systems, and
presentations for both the novice and the               and costs less than $50. children under 12 are free.   will be dispersed to these various programs.     biomass (i..e. wood) stoves (including pellet
experienced. Festival attendees looking to develop      the time for change is now. come to solarFest and      More information will be forthcoming over        stoves) at:
their personal or professional skills in these areas    experience the power of positive energy! it’s the         the coming weeks and months. When             index.cfm?c=products.pr_tax_credits#c1
will not be disappointed, as workshops on topics        best place to learn what you, your business, your      they have any information,it will be posted        Here is a link to a Consumer Reports blog
such as solar hot water, straw bale construction,       family and your community can do to be on the          at: Vermont:            about these credits: http://blogs.consumerre-
small scale wind projects, and active and passive       leading edge of this change. visit www.solarfest.      New Hampshire: ♻        
solar homes are offered throughout the three days.      org for more information. ♻                              ~ Contributed from SERG. Thx, Bob!             info: ♻

       Green energy times asked Natural Design/Build’s owner, Ben Graham to describe a Natural Builder…                                                            Wind & hydro energy sources are
     Ben replied: “I would describe natural building as considering the ecological, social and biological health of your project above                                most often developed as a
     all else. Natural building projects are known for using local materials that are minimally processed and retain their original feel.
     In the Northeast these include clay paints, plasters and floors, light clay infill walls, timber frames and site harvested wood frames
                                                                                                                                                                  booster or bad-weather helper for
     and finishes, strawbale walls, thatch, slate and wood shingle roofs, wattle and daub walls dry stone walls and more.
                                                                                                                                                                        a solar-based-system.
     Natural building is low impact construction that is in harmony with nature and works towards regenerative and healthful practices.”                            These hybrid systems have the
     Ben is owner of Natural Design/Build in Plainfield, Vermont. He is not only a builder, but also teaches at Yestermorrow School. ♻                            advantage of being better able to
                                                                                                                                                                   cover power needs throughtout
                                         Real success requires hard work and dedication                                                                           the year & are less expensive than
                                         There is no "magic bullet" or quick way to long-term carbon emissions reduction. Real success
                                                                                                                                                                   a similar capacity system using
                                         requires hard work and dedication on your part, but it will be worth it. You must be willing to                               only one power source.
  A voluntary statewide program          make sacrifices for a carbon-friendly lifestyle: less mindless energy use, a few minutes to plan
  encouraging everyone to save energy    your commute and efficient transportation choices, and exploring significant long-term
  and reduce annual greenhouse gas       reductions to energy use and waste.
  emissions by at least 10 percent.

  Accept the Challenge! Sign-up at       Get rid of the thought that consumption of resources comes easy to everyone but you. and         We can help Vermont move away from its dependence on fossil fuels by using less and invest
  calculate your household and           those savings into energy efficiency and renewable energy solutions. The truth is that those
  business emissions online.             who are successful work each and every day to be so.

  Begin taking actions today to          Way to Go! Commuter Challenge is a one week event encouraging everyone to use a cheaper,
  reduce energy use and solid            healthier more earth-friendly transportation alternative. Sign up as an individual, business,
  waste. Worried about your              school or community and walk, pedal, carpool or bus your way to a cleaner environment and,
  transportation impact? Try using       along the way, save money and create a healthier lifestyle too, May 4-8th at
  alternative transportation for
  commuting and errands at least
  twice a week (e.g., walk, bike,
                                          Curbing your car habits
                                                                                                                                                                    Natural Finish Building
                                                                                                                                                                    Natural Finish Building
  carpool, bus or telecommute)
                                                  Group your errands
  CCA collaborates with other                     Plan ahead, bring your lunch to work, school or play
                                                  Talk to co-workers, neighbors and friends about carpooling
                                                                                                                                                                       and Living Goods
                                                                                                                                                                    & Living Goods
  entities to help make it fun and
  easy to save energy at home and                 Post a street map to encourage carpooling to and from your workplace--Ask co-workers
  in the workplace. Two exciting                  to identify their home locations                                                                                  Wall finish Bedding Mattress
                                                                                                                                                                    Wall finish Bedding Mattress
                                                  Design your work schedule to avoid out of workplace trips at least two days a week
                                                                                                                                                                    Kitchen Floors Furnishings
  spring projects include: Way to
  Go! Commuter Challenge and                      Be aware of driving habits [rabbit starts, gliding to and between a stops, avoid                                   Kitchen Floors Furnishing
  Vermont Lawn Mower Exchange.                    unnecessary idling]                                                                                                  Organic Baby Nursery
                                                                                                                                                                          Gifts and decorating.
  Links to Transportation                Tired of your old, polluting gas lawn mower? Deep discounts for cleaner option                                               Gifts and Decorating

  Way to Go! Commuter Challenge
                                         Want a cleaner, quieter, and more efficient option? Here’s your chance to get a brand new                                        Main Street
                                                                                                                                                                     2121 2021 Main Street
                                         Neuton® Battery-Powered Mower from Country Home Products - based in Vergennes, Vermont
                                                                                                                                                                     Bethlehem, New Hampshire
                                                                                                                                                                      Bethlehem, New Hampshire
                                         - at a greatly discounted price ($150 discount, while supplies last (14” model for $264 and                                                      03574
                                         $370 for 19” model) , and to recycle your old gas guzzler for free. Learn more about “Easy Tips                                                                 03574
  Go Vermont
                                                                                                                                                                             603-616-6499            for Healthy Lawns” and how to get a discounted mower at one of the three upcoming one-day
                                         events or All three events will be
  Vehicle Idling                         held on Saturdays from 9-1:00 p.m. [May 2 – Middlebury; May 9 – Brattleboro; and May 16 –                     Upper Valley, Hartford].
micro-hydro power
                                                                                                                                                                                      May 4, 2009       hydro power              13

       Despite the careful design needed           generate from your location multiply the
to produce the best performance, a micro           head (in ft.) by the flow rate (in US gal-
hydro system isn’t complicated. The system         lons per minute) & then divde by ten: Head
is not difficult to operate & maintain. Its        (ft.) x Flow (US gpm) / 10 = Output (Watts)
lifespan is measured in decades. Micro hydro               For example, let’s say you had a site which

                                                                                                                                 ONE STOP
power is almost always more cost-effective         had a head of 60 ft. & 100 gallons per minute.
than any other form of renewable power.            your instantaneous power available would be
       Who should buy a micro hydro sys-           60 x 100 / 10 = 600 Watts. This may not sound

                                                                                                                               ZERO ENERGY
tem? In North America, micro hydro is cost-        like a lot of power, however, remember that
effective for any off-grid site that has a suit-   in most cases the river is flowing all day & all
                                                   night long. As a result, to estimate the total

able water resource, & even for some that are
on-grid. Homeowners without utility power          daily energy being produced you would multi-
have three options: purchasing a renewable         ply the 600 watts times 24 hours, which equals
energy system, extending the utility transmis-     14,400 watt-hours. Over the period of a month
sion line, or buying a gasoline or                                (~30 days) that would be 432,000
diesel generator. Transmission       Micro hydro                  watt-hours (or 432 kilowatt-hours).

                                                                                                                     FREE HEAT
line extension can be expensive                                   This particular scenario would pro-
because its cost depends on dis-
tance & terrain. Even the initial
                                    electric power                vide enough electricity to power
                                                                  most energy efficient homes.
cost of a hydro system may be        is one of the                         Determing flow rate of a

                                                                                                                     & HOT WATER
lower. A gasoline generator may                                   stream or a river is usually more
be cheaper to purchase but is
expensive to operate & maintain.
                                     least expen-                 challenging than determining the
                                                                  head. One method for determin-
The life-cycle cost of the hydro
system (3-25 ¢/kWh) is much
                                       sive ways                  ing the flow rate is to see how
                                                                  quickly the stream fills up a bucket
lower than that of a generator
(60-95 p/kWh).
                                      to generate                 of a known volume (e.g. a 5 gallon
                                                                  bucket). For instance, if a five gallon
                                    electricity for               bucket can be filled up in 10 sec.,

                                                                                                                                        Got Questions?
       Once the hydro system
is paid for, there’s no monthly                                   then you know that over a period
electricity bill & minimal main-      your home                   of a minute (60 sec.) there would be

tenance costs. Since utility rates                                35 gallons (5 gallons x 6 re-fills of
tend to rise, the value of the
power increases, making your
                                     with renew-                  the bucket in a minute), or 35 gal-
                                                                  lons per minute (gpm). This meth-
It is estimated that only 5% of
                                     able energy.                 od is somewhat challenging as you
                                                                  sometimes need to dam up & di-
the population in North America is fortu-          vert the stream entirely through a single tube
nate enough to have a location suitable            that outputs into your bucket of known qty.                               439 Cliff Street                       St. Johnsbury VT 05819
for generating microhydro electric power.                  Another method for estimating the
To take advantage of this form of renew-           flow rate of a river or stream is to figure out
able energy, you need a river or stream            how how fast the water is travel through
that provides sufficient water flow rate &         a particular cross-section. To do this you
head. Head is the vertical distance between        need to find a length of the stream which
where you would divert the water to your           is relatively consistent in its width & depth.
turbine & where it would re-emerge to be           Measure what those cross-sectional dimen-
joined back with the original water source.        sions are (width & depth). Then at the be-
you can have heads as low as 6 ft. (2 meters)      ginning of that known stretch of the stream
but you will need to have relatively high          drop in a floating object such as a ball or                   • Greater efficiency                                            • easily expanded.
flow rates to generate any significant power.      stick & time how long it takes to float to the                  - reduced installation cost                                   • impressed current
       To estimate the amount of in-               other end of that known stretch. With this                      - faster payback                                                 protection insures
stantaneous power (watts) you could                info, you can estimate the total float rate. ♻                • superior performance                                             system will never rust
                                                           - written by Paul Cunningham & Barbara Atkinson           in wet clay soils

Determine Flow                                                                                                   802.373.7793                                                        Jim Lyman, technician
- Washington St. Dept of Ecology                                                                                                                       monkton, Vermont
      If a flow meter is not avail-
able or a rough estimate is ade-
quate, you can measure flow by
using a float. The float can be

any buoyant object, such as an
                                                                                                                                                                     cathodic protection that can assure long life to the system.
orange or a partially filled plas-
                                                                                                                                                                          We talked with Jim Lyman of Techno Metal Post of
tic water bottle. It needs to be
heavy enough so that about an                                                                                teCHnology                                              Vermont and learned about this new Hydro system.
                                                                                                                                                                     Jim says: “This is the most energy efficient vertical loop
inch of it is below the water line.                                                                               GeoExchange is the industry’s term used to
                                                                                                                                                                     system available today. In the Thermo Post the water
(Don’t use glass or any material                                                                             describe an alternative to traditional oil- gas- or
                                                                                                                                                                     is in direct contact with the inside of the steel pipe for
that may cause problems if you                                                                               coal-fired heating, ventilation and air condition-
                                                                                                                                                                     maximum thermal transfer. In the vertical drilled well
can’t retrieve the float after the                                                                           ing systems (HVAC). A geothermal system in-
                                                                                                                                                                     type the water runs through a plastic pipe loop inside
measurement.)                                                                                                stalled in an average-sized home reduces fossil
                                                                                                                                                                     the well casing. Consequently, the Thermo Post system
      Measure off at least 50 ft.                                                                            fuel emissions as much as taking two cars off the
                                                                                                                                                                     requires 2-3 times less length of pipe to achieve the
along the bank of a straight sec-                                                                            road, or planting an acre of trees.
                                                                                                                                                                     same result.
tion of stream. If possible, string                                                                              The idea is to take advantage of the ground
                                                                                                                                                                           The ThermoPost System requires between five to
a rope across each end of the                                                                                heating and cooling properties (the same prop-
                                                                                                                                                                     eight 10 foot posts per ton of heating/cooling depend-
50-foot length                                                                                               erties that make any basement cooler in the sum-
                                                                                                                                                                     ing on moisture levels in the soil. The wetter the soil, the
   1. Estimate the cross-sectional                                                                           mer and warmer in the winter) to heat or cool
                                                                                                                                                                     faster the thermal exchange takes place and the fewer
area of the stream at one of these ends by            If the distance roped off is 50 ft & the               entire buildings.
                                                                                                                                                                     the posts needed.
using the total stream width & the average            orange took an average of 100 sec. to                       The Thermo Post system is a Techno Metal
                                                                                                                                                                           Since the system requires no combustion, savings
depth. (Calculate the average depth from              get there, the velocity is 0.5 ft/sec.                 Post combined with an internal patented ther-
                                                                                                                                                                     of up to 70% on heating/cooling expenses can be real-
depths measured at 1- to 2-foot intervals.)              4. Correct for the surface versus mid-              mo sheath that performs the heat transfer with
         Total width (ft) x Average depth (ft)        depth velocity by multiplying the sur-                 the ground. As a fluid is circulated through the
                                                                                                                                                                       Advantages of the Thermo Post system:
= area (ft2)                                          face velocity by 0.85. 0.5 x 0.85 = 0.43               Thermo Post, the heat is attracted from the sur-
                                                                                                                                                                     • Can be installed in areas where a big rig can’t get to.
    2. Release the float at the upstream site.        ft/sec                                                 rounding ground or is dissipated into it. The fluid
                                                                                                                                                                     • Greater efficiency means reduced installation
Using a stopwatch, record the time it takes              5. Calculate the discharge in cubic                 returns to the heat pump or other exchanger to
                                                                                                                                                                        cost and faster payback.
to reach the downstream tape. (If the float           ft/sec. (cfs) by multiplying velocity (ft/             heat or cool down a building.
                                                                                                                                                                     • Superior performance in wet clay soils.
moves too fast for an accurate measure-               sec) by the cross-sectional area (ft2) of                   The Thermo Post system performs heat ex-
                                                                                                                                                                     • System can be easily expanded by simply
ment, measure off 75 or 100 ft. instead of            the stream. 0.43 ft/sec x 10.73 ft2 =                  change with the soil through steel which is more
                                                                                                                                                                        adding more posts to the group.
50). Repeat the measurement two more                  4.62 cfs                                               efficient than plastic. As a result, the length of
                                                                                                                                                                     • Impressed current or cathodic protection
times for a total of three measurements.                 6. Now convert cfs to gal/min. (gpm)                heat exchanger will be shorter for equivalent
                                                                                                                                                                        insures the system will never rust.
      3. Calculate the velocity as distance           4.62 cfs x 7.4805 gal/ft3 x 60 sec/min =               performance. This new technology is ideal for re-
                                                                                                                                                                     • System can be used with just a circulator pump to keep
traveled divided by the average amount of             2073.6 gal/min (ie. 2073.6 gpm). ♻                     stricted or limited areas such as residential zones.
                                                                                                                                                                       a garage, camp, warehouse etc. above freezing during
time it took the float to travel the distance.         MORE HYDRO IN THE SPRING ISSUE!                       Finally, the Thermo Post System is rustproof with
                                                                                                                                                                       the winter.” It also works well for Radiant heat in floors. ♻
14       May 4, 2009   resourCes/Books…

solar & renewaBles links:
                                                                                                 book reviews
                                                                                                 From CHELSEA GREEN PUBLISHING - a local publisher of sustainable living books:
                                                                                                 The Transition Timeline, by shaun chamberlin, lightens the fear of our uncertain future, providing
                                                                                                                       a map of what we are facing and the different pathways available to us. it describes is        a Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy
                                                                                                                       four possible scenarios for the uk and world over the next twenty years, ranging from
must go to site for immeasurable info      Clearinghouse (EREC): ;
                                                                                                                       denial, in which we reap the consequences of failing to acknowledge and respond to
SEIA/ Solar Energy Industries Association:                                                                             our environmental challenges, to the transition vision, in which we shift our cultural
                                           nl6/Sources.html. The SEIA Tax Man-                                                                                 assumptions to fit our circumstances and move into a more fulfilling, lower energy world.
ual to answer your solar related tax ques- Federal Energy Regulatory Commission                  the practical, realistic details of this transition vision are examined in depth, covering key areas such as
tions.                                     (FERC):                                 food, energy, demographics, transport and healthcare, and they provide a sense of context for communities
DSIRE/ Database of State Incentives for       National Association of Energy Service Com-        working towards a thriving future. the book also provides a detailed and accessible update on climate change
                                              panies (NAESCO):                   and peak oil and the interactions between them, including their impacts in the uk, present and future. Renewables &
Efficiency. Find state, local, utility, & federal National Renewable Energy Laboratory           *G.E.T. highly recommends that you all read this book. A hopeful future is in our hands. We’re very excited about it!
incentives for renewable energy & energy (NREL):
                                                                                                 Wind Energy Basics, Second Edition, by paul gipe, is as soberly critical of past energy mistakes as
                                                  Solar Energy Industries Association (SEIA):                       convincingly optimistic about the future. the overwhelming challenge of transforming REW/                                                                     our world from one of fossil carbon to one of clean power seems daunting at best—and
RE World Industry news of RE.                                                                                       paralyzingly impractical at worst. wind energy basics offers a solution.
                                                  U.S. department of energy, Energy Ef-
IREC/ Interstate Renewable Energy Coun- ficiency & Renewable Energy: www.eere.                                    gipe offers a how-to for home-based wind applications, with advice on which wind turbines
cil: RE educational info. Guide to energy                                   to choose and which to avoid. he guides wind-energy installers through considerations such
                                                  efficiency                                     as renewable investment strategies and gives cautionary tales of wind applications gone wrong.
NABCEP/ North American Board of Certi-
fied Energy Practitioners: www.nabcep. Online Calculations                                       *This is a brand new book that is actually an up-to-date Wind Energy guide. It is a must read!
org This organization that tests & certifies
PV system installers. Individuals are Certi-
                                                                      The Passive Solar House, by James kachadorian, is a complete guide to heating and cooling your home.
fied, companies are not.                          AEE Solar:                                        the new edition of this best-selling guide includes csol passive solar design software,
                                                                                                                     making it easier than ever to heat your home with the power of the sun. profiles of
NESEA/ Northeast Sustainable Energy As- Solar Components catalog:                                         successful passive solar design, construction, and retrofit projects from readers of the first
sociation: Focused on                                                                  edition provide inspiration to first-time homebuilders and renovators alike.
N.E. US, for consumers & industry with RE
& clean building info, events…
                                          Solar Depot:                                            *A new edition that is full of proven techniques for the entire house. The author is from Vermont!
                                          AAA Solar Supply:                     The Carbine-Free Home, by rebekah hren, stephen hren. read this book—then grab your handsaw,
NHSEA/ New Hampshire Sustainable En
ergy Association  Specialize in                                        tape measure, and drill, and get started! a life powered by the sun is waiting for you.
                                          solar for off-grid.                                                         Meant as a guide for renovating existing homes, the carbon-Free home gives you the
NySEIA/ New york Solar Energy Industries                                                                              hands-on knowledge necessary to kick the fossil-fuel habit, with projects small and large
Association:                                                                     listed by skill, time, cost, and energy saved. For every aspect of your life currently powered REV/ Renewable                                           by fossil fuels, the carbon-Free home offers alternatives you can accomplish yourself to
Energy Vermont                                                                                                        get started using renewable and sustainable sources of power.
Clean Power Estimator: www.consumer- cost energy loans                                           *This is not just a book of energy tips. It is an actual guide to help everyone reduce their reliance on fossil fuels.                                                            Visit for more sustainable books from Chelsea Green Publishing!
                                  Unbiased advice
The Energy Grid:           about today’s energy choices. Find ways to
                                           save, lower your bills & help the earth’s envi-
Find Solar:
                                           ronment.                                                                                                                     Burned out CFl bulbs can Energy
                                  Interactive site to help                                                                                     be recycled at:
Star, Federal Tax Credits for energy effi-
                                           you identify & calculate energy savings
                                           opportunities in your home. A lot of great
                                                                                                                                                                              • True Value
Tax Incentives Assistance Project (TIAP): information!                                                                                                                      • Ace Hardware                                                                                                                                              In Vermont: see link at bottom of
American Solar Energy Society (ASES): htm Consumer guide to home energy sav-                                                                                     for complete list.
                                                                                                                                                                              • True Value in NH
                              Go to                                                                                                                        default.asp?link=recycle

                              for more information                                                                                                                      participating upper Valley
                                                                                                                                                                               stores include:
                              about Bicycle events in VT.                                                                                                                    • Fogg’s Hardware
                              Email: info@vtbikeped.                                                                                                                       • Hanover Hardware
                              org or Call 802-225-8904.
   small hydro
   systems are                                         Custom Wall & Roof Systems
    well worth
   even if used
    only a few                                                                                  STRUCTURAL INSULAT E D PA N E L S
   months out                                                                                   An energy-efficient alternative
  of the year, if                                                                                to stick frame construction
  those months
                                                                                                 Reduce fuel bills by 50%!
  coincide with
   your highest
  power needs.                     West Chesterfield, NH •

                                        Fast • Affordable • Energy-Efficient
                                                                                                                           green products Kitchen Composter
                                                                                                                                                                            May 4, 2009      Green produCts              15

 green energy times (g.e.t.)                                                  The Greenest Apples ever…
                                                                              Systems Plus Computers, Inc.
1749 Wright’s Mountain Road • Bradford, Vermont 05033                                                                                                               By Lec Watkins
Tel/fax: 802.439.6675 •                                   offers the greenest MacBook® and
                                                                                                                                                                       A kitchen composter ‘does exactly what it

                                                                                                                            Green Cleaning
                                                                              MacBook Pros ever—featuring the
publisher/editor/production … nancy rae Mallery                                                                                                                    says on the tin’ so to speak. With it, you recycle
                                                                              sleek aluminum unibody design.
printer … upper valley press, n.haverhill, nh (a local printer)                                                                                                    all your kitchen scraps and organic household
all newsprint has recycled content with variable soy content in ink.          ■   More energy efficient                      By Lec Watkins                         waste into lovely friable hummus. Because it
upper valley press is a conscientious, green company. they freely             ■   Highly recyclable
                                                                                                                              About the Author: Living off-grid    works through fermentation rather than aero-
                                                                                  Reduced packaging
incorporate green policies within their company.                              ■

                                                                              ■   Aluminum unibody
                                                                                                                    n       in Spain. Growing all our own veg-     bic decomposition, you can actually site your
Distribution Coordinator … leslie battistoni                                  ■   EPEAT Gold                         dy
                                                                                                               unibo re     gies organically. Raising poultry.     compost bin indoors.
                                                                                  Mercury, PVC and
                                                                                                                            Writing about our successes and            I admit, I was very sceptical at first. But, it
                       about g.e.t.

                                                                                  Arsenic Free

                                                                                                                            failures trying to live sustainably.   really does make sense. If you seal air out from
the green energy times is powered by 100% solar, off-grid with                                                                                                     organic waste, rather than rot, it will ferment. If
a 3.8 kw pv system. we are extremely involved in promoting
renewable energy. we know how smoothly it all works! there is no              MacBook: Starting at $1299                       It really is quite scary when you   you introduce helpful yeasts and bacteria into
reason we have to be dependent on oil!                                        MacBook Pro: Starting at $1999                hit the supermarket and see just       the mix it will start fermenting even quicker.
Our mission is to motivate people, right where we live-to move
                                                                              South Street › Hanover, NH                    how many different cleaners there          The beauty of the kitchen compost bin is
on into an educated, Renewable Energy lifestyle, to reduce                                                                  are. Surely the dirt in our homes      that you add literally all food waste including
their carbon footprint, and to become energy independent                      Centerra Parkway › Lebanon, NH
now! Believe in our future! Believe in this earth! Solar works!               p: 643 • 5800 ›                  isn’t that different from room to      bones, processed and cooked foods. Because
… anywhere! under the sun!                                                                                                  room? I am pretty sure nothing         you are keeping all the kitchen waste in a
g.e.t. will be published quarterly, starting in January, 2010, by nrM                                                       needs to be cleaned as much as my      sealed environment you need not worry about
advertising company. it is distributed free of charge in the upper
valley - vt and nh, woodstock, windsor, weathersfield, ludlow,
                                                                                                                            kitchen surfaces. They get greasy      vermin. This means you get to recycle more and
barre, Montpelier, Moretown and waitsfield.                                                                                 and grimy, becoming breeding           get more viable compost too. your green cre-
we encourage you to patronize our advertisers. we strive to                                                                 grounds for bacteria. This is the      dentials increase as you send less food waste to
selectively include those that we feel can offer trust-worthy services                                                      most important area of my home         municipal landfill. It is a win-win situation!
and products. g.e.t. cannot be held responsible for advertising claims.

                                                                            1 CFL = $42 savings!
                                                                                                                            with regards to cleanliness. If I          All you do is introduce a ‘starter’ to your
To advertise in G.e.T. contact the publisher: 802.439.6675                                                                  find a green cleaning product          kitchen composter. This can be a cheaply
email: web:
                                                                                                                            that tackles the dirt there surely     bought product, usually made of rice, sawdust
subscriptions: $18/yr. contact g.e.t. by email, for subscription form
Our next issue will be on the stands on September 3rd, 2009.               Switch 6 bulbs - save $250!                      it should cope with anything else
                                                                                                                            my house can offer, with ease.
                                                                                                                                                                   or wheat. The rice, wheat or sawdust is impreg-
                                                                                                                                                                   nated with special cultures to provide your
                                                                          1 CFL = 10 incandescent bulbs!
g.e.t. wants to thank everyone who has submitted articles or helped                                                            Well I do use a variety of green    compost bin with all the enzymes necessary
in any way to make this all a reality. we want to also thank our
advertisers and ask that you support them. say that you saw them                                                            cleaning products. Vinegar, baking     to get things started. you can even make your
in Green Energy Times. now let’s all g.e.t. moving ahead towards a
clean, renewable future - one where our children and grandchildren          CFL’s can last 6-10 times                       soda, soft soap and microfiber         own kitchen compost ‘starters’, with newspaper

                                                                          longer than incandescents !
                                                                                                                            cloths being the basics. The abso-     and yogurt. There is lots of free information
will be able to breathe and grow and live and love this beautiful
land where we live. thank you, the reader, for reading g.e.t. send                                                          lute ‘must have’ member of my          online with clear instructions.
your comments and suggestions by email or snail mail to adress                                                              cleaning cabinet, though is plain          I would recommend using a commercial
above. together we can make a wonderful world. peace! ♻                                                                     old mild dish-washing liquid. This     starter to begin with though, so you can see
                                                                                                                            liquid, we all seem to have sitting    exactly how the process works. That way, once

DiY Household Cleaners                                                                    stainless steel:
                                                                                  Baking soda & White vinegar
                                                                              Apply baking soda with a damp cloth,
                                                                                                                            at our sinks is an invaluable multi-
                                                                                                                            purpose cleaner.
                                                                                                                                                                   you start making your own you will know if it is
                                                                                                                                                                   working correctly. No-one wants a pile of fetid
  The healthiest, least-toxic cleaners you can find                                                                            Ideally, to make cleaning Eco       vegetable matter in the corner of the kitchen!
are the ones you make yourself. They’re effective                             using the vinegar to eliminate spots.         friendly, I would suggest using a          The ‘original’ kitchen composter is the
too: According to a study at Virginia Tech, spray-                                  Bathroom: toilet Bowl                   green hand dish-washing liquid.        Bokashi kitchen compost bin. Used widely in
ing hydrogen peroxide & vinegar right after                                       Baking soda & White vinegar               But, to be honest, a quick look at     the Japanese school system to recycle school
one another is just as effective at killing germs                           To clean and deodorize, sprinkle toilet         the labels on the conventional         dinners, the idea has also been taken up in
as lung-irritating, stream-polluting chlorine                             bowl with baking soda, add white vinegar          products may surprise you. They        the United States school system too. Although
bleach.                                                                           and scrub with a toilet brush.            are not ideal. Many are made from      Bokashi is the original, there are other brands,
  Here are a few easy cleaner recipes to kick-start                                         tub and tile                    petroleum derived detergents.          probably the biggest is the Happy Farmer
your Saturday chores.                                                                   1/2 lemon & Borax                   But, most are now biodegradable        Kitchen Compost Bin. These are widely avail-
   EIGHT ESSENTIALS make up the basic ingre-                              Dip the face of the lemon half in borax to        and mild on our skin. Compared to      able worldwide and come with their own
dients for nearly every do-it-yourself cleaning                            create a hand-held scrubber for dirty ar-        most con-                              brand of enzyme starter.
recipe.                                                                   eas. Rinse and dry the surface afterwards.        ventional                                  Although names and colours may vary every
Baking soda: provides grit for scrubbing & re-                                                kitChen                       clean-                                 kitchen composting system is pretty similar.
acts with water, vinegar or lemon by fizzing,                                               Countertops                     ers the                                Indeed, there is nothing overly complicated
which speeds up cleaning times                                             marble: Mix one Tbsp castile soap with           ‘washing                               involved. you can make your own, you just
Borax: disinfects, bleaches & deodorizes; very                              a qt of warm water, rinse well, then dry        up liquid’                             need a sturdy plastic bin with a very well fit-
handy in laundry mixes                                                                  with a warm cloth.                  has been                               ting lid.
distilled white vinegar: disinfects & breaks up                           other surfaces: half a lemon and dip the          a greener                                  As foodstuffs ferment they will produce
dirt; choose white vinegar over apple cider or                             face in baking soda to scrub off residues.       cleaner for years.                     moisture. Each commercial bin for kitchen
red vinegars, as these might stain surfaces                                Follow up by spraying with glass cleaner            An Eco cleaning product will        composting includes a tap, to drain off that
hydrogen peroxide: disinfects & bleaches                                                     mix (below).                   be less damaging to the environ-       excess liquid. If you make your own Bokashi
lemons: cut grease; bottled lemon juice also                                                   drains                       ment. Most are made of coconut         style composter make sure to add a drainage
works well, although you might need to use bit                                 1 cup baking soda & 1 cup vinegar            or vegetable fats, and most of us      tap too. ♻
more to get the same results                                               Add baking soda and vinegar to a pot of          would rather support a coconut
olive oil: picks up dirt & polishes wood; cheaper                           boiled water and pour down the drain,           plantation than an oil refinery!
grades work well                                                          then flush with tap water. For more stub-         But, lets be realistic, ditching a        Daystar Trail Lodge
vegetable based (liquid castile) soap: non-                               born clogs, use a “snake” plumbing tool to        whole range of other more toxic                     802.439.6675
petroleum all-purpose cleaners                                            manually remove blockage, or try suction          products in favour of even a stan-
washing soda: stain remover, general cleaner,                             removal with a plunger. To prevent clogs,         dard hand dish-washing liquid, is
                                                                                                                                                                      now taking reservations
helps unblock pipes; should be handled with                                install inexpensive mesh screen, available at    a vast improvement in the greener
gloves due to its caustic nature. Washing soda is                            home improvement and hardware stores.          cleaning stakes.
usually found in the laundry aisle of grocery &                                                 Glass                          That mild detergent by the sink
drug stores.                                                                1/4 cup vinegar or 1 Tbsp lemon juice           can clean floors, walls, bathrooms,         Solar Powered Lodge
  Don’t forget to pick up an empty spray bottle at                          2+ cups water Fill a clean spray bottle         kitchens and cars. It can remove                 on our small farm.
the hardware store, & keep those old rags & used                          w/ water & either white vinegar or lemon          spots and stains on laundry or be           Situated on 26 secluded
toothbrushes for wiping up & scrubbing.                                    juice; wipe with a rag or old newspaper.         a mild liquid laundry detergent for         acres with 360º Mtn Views.
   whole house: All-Purpose Cleaner                                                             oven                        those delicate items you need to            Our charming place is a fully
       1/2 cup borax & 1 gal hot water                                                 Baking soda & Water                  wash by hand. The windows, doors            equipped cabin apartment
   Mix in pail (or use smaller amounts in a                                Sprinkle baking soda on surfaces, spray          and furniture can all be given the          with an open floor plan…
  spray bottle: 1/8 cup borax to 1 quart of                               water, then let soak several hours or over-       green clean with liquid hand dish-          Compost toilet. Re♻cycling.
hot water) dissolving the borax complete-                                             night. Rinse with water.              washing detergent too.                      Great outdoor shower-heated
            ly; wipe clean with rag.                                        stovetop and oven Grease remover                   I find, the best green cleaning          with an on-demand system!
                 floors: wood                                             1/2 tsp washing soda; 1/4 tsp liquid soap         product is this one I keep by the           Walk to hiking trails. Kayaking,
 1/4 cp white vinegar & 1 gal warm water                                                  2 cups hot water                  sink because it is so versatile. I          swimming, great restaurants,
       linoleum: 1 cup white vinegar                                      Add washing soda and soap to hot water            save money, as it is traditionally          shopping, farmers markets…
             2 gallons warm water                                            in spray bottle. Since washing soda is         one of the cheapest items in the            This is a green vacation!
     Mix in mop bucket, rinse afterwards.                                              caustic, wear gloves.                cleaning aisle. It stops me being           We really believe in doing what we
                furniture polish:                                                        laundry room                       tempted by more toxic chemical              can to make our footprint on this
   1/2 cup white vinegar & 1 tsp olive oil                                 Bleach alternative; 1/2 cp hydrogen peroxide                                                 earth as small as possible.
                                                                                                                            cleaners dedicated to specific
   Mix & apply with a clean rag to dust & polish.                                                                           tasks. It improves my health as I no                Fresh organic eggs
                                                                                                                                                                               & veggies available.*
   Reduce the olive oil if wood looks too oily.
        metal polish: Copper & Brass
                                                                            transportation is                               longer spray fine mists of chemi-
                                                                                                                            cals around the bathroom just                   A Smoke-Free Environment!
         2 Tbsps salt & White vinegar
   Add vinegar to salt until you’ve created
                                                                           responsible for be-                              to clean up the mirror. All in all,                  Ask for our E-brochure:
a paste. Adding flour will reduce abrasive-                                 tween 25% & 50% of                              I cannot recommend using your
                                                                                                                            washing up liquid everywhere                           bradford, vermont
      ness. Apply with a rag & rub clean.
                                                                           your carbon footprint                            enough! ♻
                                                 C   M   Y   CM   MY   CY CMY   K
16   BaCk Cover    May 4, 2009



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