# Allemenschen Cemetery Presentation

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```					Allemenschen Cemetery
Presentation
Topic 1: the chronological sequence of the
cemetery Annabel Mills-Baker & Theodora Demetriou (Stratified Random Sampling)
Locations of the different phases of graves within the sample selected by Annabel Mills-Baker

114

Archaeological Question                                  112

Is there a relationship between the
location of graves and phases of
110

cemetery?                                                                                                                                                           Phase A

Northings (m)
108                                                                                                            Phase A
B
Phase A
B
Phase A
C
Phase A
B
C
Phase B
D
Phase C
106                                                                                                            Phase D
Phase E

Raw Data                                                 104

Eastings/Northings of each grave                         102

with it’s assigned phase.                                100
190    200       210        220       230        240        250       260       270        280        290
Eastings (m)

Exploratory Technique
Chose to use a scatterplot.

Exploratory technique results
It can be seen clearly that from Phase A
the cemetery expanded out from the
centre, both eastwards and westwards in
the correct chronological sequence (see
scatterplot).
Statistical Technique
T-tests with the null hypothesis that
there is no difference in the mean
distance of the graves in each phase from
the centre of the cemetery.

Statistical Conclusion
t-Test: Two-Sample Assuming Unequal Variances

The null hypothesis was false indicating                                   Variable 1 Variable 2   Phase D-Phase E
there is a difference in the distances in   Mean
Variance
27.76818 36.62111
7.048916 5.002011
each phase.                                 Observations                           11          9
Hypothesized Mean Difference            0
df                                     18
Archaeological Interpretation               t Stat
P(T<=t) one-tail
-8.09309
1.04E-07
t Critical one-tail             1.734064
The expansion of the cemetery in two        P(T<=t) two-tail                2.08E-07

different directions perhaps indicates
t Critical two-tail             2.100922
Theodora Demetriou

some sort of social divide.
•Strong pattern noticed before t-test
•Both people achieved same results
• Results from other topics may help to
explain this apparent divide.
•Positive: Results strong so larger sample
not required
Topic 2: Topographical basis of the layout of the
cemetery Thomas Booker (Simple Random) & Sarah Doherty (Systematic)
Archaeological Question
Is there a relationship between
orientation of the grave and its
position within the cemetery?

Raw Data
Eastings & Northings of each grave                                                                        Sarah
with orientation.

Exploratory Technique
Orientation Against Easting

110

Chose to use scatterplots
90

Exploratory technique results             Orientation

Sarah and Thomas got different results,
however it seemed that there was a
70

pattern with the eastings in Thomas’
and northings in Sarah’s.                            50
150   170   190          210              230    250    270   290
Eastings

Thomas
Statistical Analysis
Chose to use a Correlation and
Regression with the null hypothesis
that there was no relationship
between location and orientation.

Statistical Conclusion
In basic terms (or those that will fit on
a slide) the null hypothesis was
rejected as there is a weak
relationship there. The greater the
easting, the less the orientation for
Thomas’ the same but with northings
for Sarah.

Archaeological Interpretation
There was a change in burial practice
across the cemetery, and in comparing
this to Topic 1 this could indicate a
chronological change of some kind.

A larger sample is not necessary
Further work could be done on the
question of why orientation changes         Sarah
through the eastings.
Topic 3: The gender balance of the cemetery
James Lee (Cluster) and Valentina Bernardi (Stratified Random)

Archaeological Question
Is the ratio of males to females
50:50 across the cemetery?

Raw Data
Locations and the assigned genders.

Exploratory Technique
Chose to use scatterplots

Exploratory technique results
It seems to be that there is a fairly
equal spread of males and females
from the scatterplots.

Valentina
Statistical Analysis
Chose to use a binomial and t-test with
the null hypothesis of the ratio being
50:50.

Statistical Conclusion
The null hypothesis for the binomial test
was confirmed, therefore it is very likely
ratio of male to female in the cemetery is
50:50. The t-test shows that there was no
segregation of the sexes as the variable
in minimal.

Archaeological Interpretation
People were buried in any part of the
cemetery and there were no division
according to gender.

Valentina
Topic 5: Possible chronological changes in
burial practice Rachael Billson (Cluster) and Gemma Norburn (Systematic)
All
Archaeological Question                    Actual Table
Phase     Upper    Middle    Lower    Totals
Is there a change over time of             A                1         2        3         6
burial practice in relation to the     B                2         4        1         7

wealth of the graves (based
C                4         3        2         9
D                0         5        2         7
upon a class).                         E                4         5        2        11

Raw Data
Totals          11        19       10        40

Rachael’s – Phase of grave and             Female

number of artefacts.                   Actual Table
Phase     Upper        Middle        Lower           Totals
Gemma’s – Phase, gender and                A                  0             2               3             5
wealth based upon a points             B
C
1
2
1
2
1
1
3
5
system (initially based upon the       D                  0             2               1             3
artefacts possessed and their          E                  2             3               1             6
rarity).                               Totals             5            10               7            22

Exploratory Technique                       Male
Pivot Tables of Class in each phase.        Actual Table

Exploratory technique results
Phase     Upper           Middle        Lower           Totals
A                     1             0               0             1
Shows a general trend in people             B                     1             3               0             4

becoming wealthier, or having           C
D
2
0
1
3
1
1
4
4
more artefacts buried with              E                     2             2               1             5
them.                                   Totals                6             9               3            18

Gemma
Statistical Analysis
Chose to use the chi-squared test with
Upper        Middle    Lower       total
the null hypothesis that there was no        A                0         2           0            2
relation between the phase and wealth of     B                3         8           1           12
a grave.                                     C                2         3           1            6
D                4         5           0            9
Statistical Conclusion                       E                4         4           1            9
total           13        22           3           38
The null hypothesis seems to be true, the
result of the chi-squared being close to 1         Upper    Middle          Lower    Total
or at least above 0.5 in all cases.          A      0.68421 1.1579           0.15789        2
B      4.10526 6.9474           0.94737       12
Archaeological Interpretation                C      2.05263 3.4737           0.47368        6
D      3.07895 5.2105           0.71053        9
Conclude that the wealth of a burial does    E      3.07895 5.2105           0.71053        9
not have any relation to phase therefore     Total       13      22                3       38
burial practice does not change.                                                     CHITEST= 0.835368

•Pattern in pivot table not recognised in
chi-squared.
•Both people achieved similar results
even though methods were quite
different
•A larger sample may be required for
pattern to be recognised.
In Conclusion…
•There is an outward growth of the
cemetery over time
•There was no segregation in the
cemetery according to gender and also an
fair ratio of roughly 50:50 male to female.
•The orientation of the graves decreases
the further east it is (with possible link to
chronology.)
•There is no evidence for any change in
burial practice (in reference to the
‘wealth’ of the graves.)
Credits
Created by     Thomas Booker Theodora Demetriou
Gabby Turney       Sarah Doherty
Rachael Billson    Valentina Bernardi
Annabel Mills-Baker James Lee
& Gemma Norburn

With special thanks to Claire Cohen!!!!

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