Windows NT _ Windows 2000

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					Windows NT & Windows 2000

 Server Operating Systems

 Emily LeLacheur, Tammy Murphy,
 Mandy Powell & Oana Radu
Windows NT Server 4.0

  A graphical operating system that has
   a similar look and feel of Windows
   98, but it is a completely different OS
  It is a more robust design, with
   advanced security and administration
Windows NT Server Release Dates

    May 24th, 2003 – Windows NT 3.1

    Sept 21st, 1994 – Windows NT 3.5

    Sept 3rd, 1996 – Windows NT 4.0
Windows NT Server Requirements

  Processor: 486/33 MHz (but it is
   recommended to have higher)
  RAM: 16MB (32-64 MB recommended)
  Drive Space: 125 MB
  Drives: Runs from hard disk
  Video: VGA or better
  File Systems: FAT, NTFS
Windows NT 4.0 Advantages

  Supports other OS hardware
  Centralized directory for managing users
   and groups
  Excellent application support including
   message queuing, clustering and load
  Good Internet services including protocol
   support from SMTP and NNTP
Windows NT Server Advantages

  Multi-processing: NT supports up to 32
  Pre-emptive multitasking: you can run
   more tasks simultaneously with less
   overhead, better overall performance,
   and more responsiveness.
  Provides good fault tolerance
  Similar GUI to Windows 95/98
Windows NT 4.0 Disadvantages

    No longer sold, support phased out in June 2004
    Lacks a hierarchical directory
    Requires more system resources than a Unix
    May cost a lot to invest in system development
    Does not have a great reputation for stability
    Development tools for running such applications
     as web boards, chat rooms, web stats and email
     are not free as they are in a Unix environment
Windows NT User Friendliness
Windows NT User Friendliness

 Task Manager:
 Allows us view the
 server’s performance
 as well as any
 programs which
 might be causing us
Windows NT User Friendliness

 Lock Workstation
 This might be necessary if your server is
 not kept in a locked room
 and is easily
 accessible by
 students’ busy
Windows 2000 Server
  The Windows 2000 series is a
   graphical OS
  Microsoft's flagship product, offering it's
   most advanced technology. Windows 2000
   server is the follow up of Windows NT
  Adds NTFS support, improved stability,
   broader range of device drivers including
   USB and IEEE 1394 support
  Active Directory was added to improve
   manageability and security
Windows 2000 Server modes
    Standalone Server
     If you want to have a very powerful machine, but don’t want to
     share it with too many people, standalone is your choice.
     Applications run fastest on standalone because they are free
     from the administrative load of having to support too many user
    Member Server
     They are like the standalone ones in that they also have their
     local accounts database. Added ability to enforce security.
    Domain Controller
     They build the foundation of the network. You rely on them to
     physically house your Active Directory user accounts and take
     care of business of structuring and supporting your network
Windows 2000 Server Requirements

  Processor: Pentium 133 MHz or better
  RAM: 256 MB
  Drive Space: 1 GB
  Drives: Runs from hard disk
  Video: VGA or better
  File Systems: FAT, FAT32, NTFS
Hardware Requirements
Microsoft Server 2000
 Component   Microsoft      Good          Best          Maximum
             Minimum        Performance   performance   performance
 Processor   Pentium 133    Pentium II    Pentium III   Up to 4
                            233                         processors

 RAM         64 MB          128 MB        256 MB        4 GB

 HD Space    850 MB +       3 GB          4 GB          > 2TB
             100 MB for
             each 64 MB
             of memory
 HD System   IDE drive(s)   IDE, SCSI     Hardware      As many
                                          RAID          RAID
                                          controller    controllers
Windows 2000 Server Release Dates

  Feb 17th, 2000 – Windows 2000 Server
  July 31st, 2000 – Windows 2000 Server
   Service Pack 1
  May 16th, 2001 – Windows 2000 Server
   Service Pack 2
  July 31st, 2002 – Windows 2000 Server
   Service Pack 3
  June 26th, 2003 – Windows 2000 Server
   Service Pack 4
What is a Windows 2000 Service Pack?

     Service pack updates are a collection of
      fixes in the following areas:
         Application compatibility, Operating System
          Reliability, Security, and Set-up
   It allows you to easily service your entire
    Windows 2000 platform with one
   Based on customer feedback and
    continued Microsoft Internal Testing
Windows 2000 Server Advantages
    Designed from the ground up as an integrated
     multipurpose operating system
    Microsoft continuously provides support and
     updates via cumulative service packs
    Share files and printers reliably and securely.
    Active Directory
    Common Drivers
    Defragmentation program built in
    Device Manager
    Encrypting File System
Windows 2000 Server Advantages

    Disk Quotas
    IntelliMirror
    Internet Connection Sharing
    Distributed File System
    NTFS
    Dynamic volume management
    Plug and Play support
    Improved security from NT- Kerberos
    Increased scalability
Windows 2000 Advantages
 Active Directory
Windows Server 2000 Disadvantages

  Requires a lot of system resources
  Does not have a good reputation in
   terms of server stability
  May need to invest a lot of money in
   hosting services development tools
  HD requirements for Windows 2000
  Things to do prior to an installation - HCL
  Performing either a clean install or an
  Creating a dual boot between Windows
   2000 and another OS
  Licensing requirements for Windows
   2000 Server
Upgrade Paths

 Current OS   Upgrade OS   Future
 Windows NT   Windows 2000 Windows 2003
 Server       Server       Server
        HD profiles section               Modes

     This section is revered      Mixed - a mix of NT
      for laptops. The HD           and Windows 2000 is
      profiles section is           present in an
      meant to disable a            environment
      particular device            Native - only Windows
      should it be                  2000 Servers are
      incompatible with             present in an
      Windows 2000.                 environment
                                   What is the
Software Compatibility

  Old versus new applications
  Upgraded applications
  Certified and non-certified applications
Windows NT Compatibility

    Windows NT is compatible with the 16-
     bit FAT system, but not with FAT32.
Price List for Windows NT
Server 4.0
 Product                                       Price (US-$)

    NT Server 4.0 (5-user version)                         $809
    NT Server 4.0 (10-user version)                      $1,129
    NT Server 4.0 Enterprise Edition (25-user version)   $3,999
    NT Server 4.0 Enterprise Edition (50-user version)   $4,799
Price List for Windows 2000
 Product                                              Price(US-$)

    Windows 2000 Server & 5 Client Access Licenses      $999
    Windows 2000 Server and 10 CAL’s                   $1199
Stability: Windows NT Server

  It is a 32-bit windows system (it is much more
   stable, but is much less flexible from a desktop
  Much of the stability of this program is gained
   by virtualising the hardware and having
   software applications access the system APIs
   rather than the hardware directly as was done
   in DOS. With NT, all applications need to go
   through the Kernel before they can access the
   hardware, hence, the OS is always in control.
Stability: Windows NT Server
 Kernels are also used to gain stability in the program.
    Kernels are computer programs that act as a mediator
     between the user and the computer components and
     peripheral devices.
    The kernel is the heart of the operating
     system. Kernels keep track of files, starts programs,
     assigns memory and other resources to various
     processes, and recieves information from the network
     and sends information back to the network.
    They prevent anyone from accessing the hardware
     directly. The kernel provides protection for users from
     each other. When the OS is loaded, the module code
     resides in the kernel’s address space and executes
     entirely from the kernel.
Stability: Windows NT Server

  Most of the kernels are modular so some functions are
   loaded into memory when needed.
  The OS programs use the tools provided by the kernel
   to start various services required from an operating
Stability: Windows 2000 Server
 Stability of the system is also improved by:

    Rebooting - Microsoft has significantly reduced the need for
     rebooting. For instance, rebooting is not required for changing
     network parameters, adding drivers, or installing or upgrading

    Windows File Protection - This protects key operating system
     files. If a system file is changed or replaced, WFP will restore the
     original file to maintain the integrity of its core components.

    Windows logo program and driver certification standards -
     Microsoft has established stricter requirements to certify
     applications and hardware drivers for this OS. These stricter
     standards reduce incompatibilities between drivers and programs,
     resulting in fewer system crashes and increased uptime.
Stability: Windows 2000 Server
  Since Windows 2000 Server is an update of
   Windows NT Server, it uses many of the same
   features as Windows NT.
  More effort appears to have been made to
   protect the kernel memory from overwrites or
  Some new features which have been added
     NTFS5
     EFS
     WDM
Stability: Windows 2000 Server

      This is a new version of the NTFS file system.
      introduced quotas, file-system-level encryption
       (called EFS), sparse streams and reparse points,
       which are used to implement Directory Junctions,
       Volume Mount Points, Hierarchical Storage
       Management, Native Structured Storage and Single
       Instance Storage. By adding these features,
       Windows could compete with established file
       serving systems like Unix.
Stability: Windows 2000 Server

    This allows encryption of some or all files on
     the disk.
    Introduced strong file encryption into the
     Windows file world.
    It allows any folder or drive to be encrypted
     and was transparent once implemented.
Stability: Windows 2000 Server

      This provides a framework for the device drivers
       and is used as an enhancement for hardware
      Windows 2000 introduced the WDM driver model to
       the NT kernel.
      It is a multilayer driver model used to separate
       general functionality of devices from the specifics.
      The hardware vendor then only has to implement a
       driver that provides the functionality specific for
       whatever the device does. (Drivers are the leading
       cause of instability in Windows, and WDM
       addresses this).
  When comparing Windows NT to Windows
   2000, in most cases Windows 2000 is the
   most popular choice simply because it
   addresses and corrects the problems and
   bugs that occurred in Windows NT.
  Windows NT 4.0 was rendered 'obsolete' with
   the advent of Windows 2000 but is still in
   widespread use despite Microsoft's many
   efforts to persuade customers to upgrade to
   more recent versions.

  Administrators tend to favour Windows 2000
   Server because it is stable, easy to install,
   easy to configure and they are familiar with the
   older versions of the windows family
  Current updates are available on the web
  Provincial and government departments use
   Windows 2000 Pro Server
  Ideal for small businesses and departments


 Windows IT Pro
 Microsoft Windows 2000
 How Stuff Works
 Windows 2000 FAQ
 Windows NT Server
 Kernel / Operating System
 Microsoft Windows NT Server 4.0 versus UNIX
 Windows 2000 Online Demonstrations
 The OS Files
 HCL (Hardware Compatibility List)

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