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					        Beam Instrumentation
                 &
         Beam Diagnostics
Today
                  CAS 2003

        Rhodri Jones [Hermann Schmickler]
                      (CERN)
               Outline for Today
                                                         That is what
• Optimisation of Machine Performance                    gets reported
         (“the good days”)                                   on in
                                                         conferences
   → Orbit measurement & correction
   → Luminosity: basics, profile and β - measurements
• Diagnostics of transverse beam motion
   → Tune & chromaticity measurements
   → Dynamic effects: tune and chromaticity control
   → On-line β measurements

• Trying to make the machine work
           (“the bad days”)
   → The beam does not circulate!
   → The beam gets lost, when changing the beta*
                 CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
            Orbit Acquisition




                                                   Horizontal




Vertical
           CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)           Beam Diagnostics
Orbit Correction (Operator Panel)




       CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
Orbit Correction (Detail)




   CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
  Luminosity & Beam-Beam Tune Shift
                                                     MN 2
                                         L = f rev
• Luminosity                                         4πσ*
                                                        2


                                               σ*
                                                2

• Normalized emittance                  εN = γ
                                               β*
                                                Nrp
• Beam-beam tune shift               ∆ν bb =           ≤ 0.006 ( LHC)
                                               4πε N


                                 MNγ∆ν bb
               ∴       L = f rev
                                   β*
• To maximize L and minimize the stored energy,
  increase N to the tune shift limit, choose large M
  and small β*
               CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)                    Beam Diagnostics
            The LHC Emittance Budget
•   From the particle source to “colliding beams” in the LHC
    the emittance may grow by 30% for nominal machine
    performance
    → from LHC injection to collisions this means a “Budget” of 7%
    → we have to measure emittance to a precision of a few (1..2) %
     • Precise profile measurements
     • On-line β measurements
    → when:
     1) at the moment of injection
     2) with circulating beams



                    CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
          Measuring Beam Size
• Beam Profile Measurement Methods
  → Wire Scanners
  → Monitors based on interaction of beam
    with (rest)-gas in vacuum chamber
  → Synchrotron light monitors
  → Beam interaction with screen
    (semi or fully destructive)
  → SEM monitors
  → Others...


            CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
Rotative Wire Scanner




 CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
Linear Wire Scanner




 CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
Measurement Results




 CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
          Measuring Beam Size
• Beam Profile Measurement Methods
  → Wire Scanners
  → Monitors based on interaction of beam
    with (rest)-gas in vacuum chamber
  → Synchrotron light monitors
  → Beam interaction with screen
    (semi or fully destructive)
  → SEM monitors
  → Others...


            CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
                  Luminescence Profile Monitor
                      PM Tube
                                                                                        To signal
                                                                                CCD
                        Filters                                                        processing
                                                                             I [MCP]




                                                                                        N2 injection

                             H & V Reference Screens

                                                        Beam
                                         N2 injection




                                      Beam
                                                               400 l/s                          400 l/s
                                  H profile MCP & CCD




V profile MCP & CCD

                                     CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)              Beam Diagnostics
           Luminescence Profile Monitor
Time



                    2D
                 Side view




                                              3D
                                             Image



          Beam Size

CERN-SPS Measurements
                                                Be
• Profile Collected every 20ms                    am                 e
                                                                 m
• Local Pressure at ~5×10-7 Torr
                                                       Si
                                                          ze   Ti

                      CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)    Beam Diagnostics
           Luminescence Profile Monitor
                                           Single shot (840 SPS turns)
                       σΗ = 670 µm
                                             → 6×10-5 Pa ( 5×10-7 Torr )
                                             → 2×1013 protons (140 mA) at 450 GeV




                                                  σΗ = 1070 µm




Single shot (840 SPS turns)
→ 8×10-5 Pa ( 6×10-7 Torr )
→ 9×108 Pb ions (540 mA) at 450 GeV

                      CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)                Beam Diagnostics
(Rest Gas) Ionisation Profile Monitor - IPM




          CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
      IPM Beam Profiles during Acceleration


                         CCD camera
                        20ms per profile
34 GeV
  •                                              450 GeV




              150 GeV



               CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)       Beam Diagnostics
           IPM Single Bunch Measurements
                 ( CCD - 870 SPS turns (20 ms) per profile )
6×1010 p/bunch                                                     2×1010 p/bunch
                        108 profiles                108 profiles




                        CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)         Beam Diagnostics
          Measuring Beam Size
• Beam Profile Measurement Methods
  → Wire Scanners
  → Monitors based on interaction of beam
    with (rest)-gas in vacuum chamber
  → Synchrotron light monitors
  → Beam interaction with screen
    (semi or fully destructive)
  → SEM monitors
  → Others...


            CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
LEP X-Ray Monitor (BEXE system)




      CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
              The BEXE Detector


       Be-window




                                                        Ceramic substrate
Beam
         Synchrotron
          Radiation

                CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)             Beam Diagnostics
     X-ray Beam Intercepting Strip Line Detector
                     (Cd-Te photo-conductors)




The detector is made from a 4 micrometer layer of photoconductive CdTe
deposited on a 20 X 50 mm ceramic substrate

                   CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)       Beam Diagnostics
The BEXE Detector

                      Ceramic substrate




CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)     Beam Diagnostics
             Online Display in LEP Control Room
              ( e+ & e- vertical beam size versus time )




Histograms
    of
Individual
  Cd-Te
 Channels

                                          Stable Beams in
                                             Collision


                     CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
          Measuring Beam Size
• Beam Profile Measurement Methods
  → Wire Scanners
  → Monitors based on interaction of beam
    with (rest)-gas in vacuum chamber
  → Synchrotron light monitors
  → Beam interaction with screen
    (semi or fully destructive)
  → SEM monitors
  → Others...


            CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
     Measuring Profiles using Screens
 • Al2O3 screens for set-up and “bad days”
 • OTR screens for nominal operation
 • Can combine both into one instrument
        OTR            Free passage                   Al2O3 [Cr]



42                                                                     30
                             Beam


         60                 60 x 60                      60

              CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)                Beam Diagnostics
     Optical Transition Radiation Monitors
As Beam hits the 12µm Titanium foil 2 cones of radiation are emitted

     OTR Screen

 Beam



                  Intensifier -
                     CCD

 Mirror


Capturing emitted radiation on a CCD gives 2D beam distribution
                   CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
             Turn-by-Turn OTR Results
                                                         8000


                      Next                               7000

                                                         6000

                    injection                            5000




                                          H size [um]
                     +1 turn                             4000

                                                         3000
                                                                                                                      Hsize


                                                                                           y = 44x + 4838
                                                         2000

                                                         1000

                                                           0
                                                                0    5   10   15      20      25        30       35
                                                                              SPS Turns



                                                         4000
                                                                    Very poor matching!!
                                                         3500

                                                         3000

                                                         2500
                                           V size [um]
                                                         2000                                                         V size
                                                                                                y = 22x + 2406
                                                         1500

                                                         1000

                                                          500

                                                            0

β-Mismatch at injection seen as a
                                                                0    5   10   15      20      25       30        35
                                                                              SPS turns

  beating in the beam profile
                     CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)                                                  Beam Diagnostics
                   Quadrupolar Pick-Up
                                                                  Pick-up seen along
• Position contribution can not                                            beam path
  be avoided, but can be
  measured and subtracted.
                                                              D        A

• Design suppresses the
  dominating intensity signal
  by coupling to the radial
  magnetic field component.                                   C        B


                                                                          Beam
                                                                       Flux line
                                                                  Induction loop
                x y        σ x2 − σ y + x 2 − y 2
                                       2
                                                        
A ∝ ib  0 + 0.41 −  + 1.23                        + K
                r r                  r 2             
                                                       

                      CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)                Beam Diagnostics
Installation in the CERN-PS




                                             βh      βv           Dh
                               SS 03        22 m    12 m        3.2 m
                               SS 04        12 m    22 m        2.3 m

                                      “One pick-up per plane”

    CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)                Beam Diagnostics
                    Measurement of Matching
                                                                                     10 free parameters, 20 data points
                                                                           60




                                                 Quadrupole moment [mm2]
                                                                           50
κ ∝ σ x −σ y =
      2    2
                                                                           40
  ε x ( β x + ∆β x ) − ε y ( β y + ∆β y ) +
              {                                                            30
                                 {
              2qx                    2qy                                   20

   + σ 2 ( D x2 + Dx ∆Dx + ∆Dx2 − ∆D y )
                                     2                                     10
       p             { { {                                                 0
                      qx       2qx         2qy
                                                                                0     2        4          6     8         10
                                                                                                   Turn


• Simultaneous fit to the                                  • Input parameters
  two pick-up signals gives:                                                    → βH, βV, DH
    → Injected emittances.
                                                                                → ∆µH, ∆µV
    → Betatron mismatches.
                                                                                → σp, qh, qv
    → Horizontal dispersion
      mismatch.                                            • Most input parameters can
                                                             be checked experimentally
                              CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)                                            Beam Diagnostics
               Outline for Today
• Optimisation of Machine Performance
         (“the good days”)
   → Orbit measurement & correction
   → Luminosity: basics, profile and β - measurements
• Diagnostics of transverse beam motion
   → Tune & chromaticity measurements
   → Dynamic effects: tune and chromaticity control
   → On-line β measurements

• Trying to make the machine work
           (“the bad days”)
   → The beam does not circulate!
   → The beam gets lost, when changing the beta*
                 CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
    Measurement of Q (betatron tune)
          QD    QF          QD
    QF                                QF          Characteristic Frequency
                                                   of the Magnet Lattice
               SF      SD
                                                  Produced by the strength of the
         SD                      SF
    SF                                                Quadrupole magnets

• Q – the eigenfrequency of betatron oscillations in a
  circular machine
   → One of the key parameters of machine operation
• Many measurement methods available:
   → different beam excitations
   → different observations of resulting beam oscillation
   → different data treatment


                     CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)               Beam Diagnostics
       Principle of any Q-measurement




                                                        Observation of
                                                       Observation of
                                                      Transverse beam
                                                      Transverse beam
Beam                                                      Oscillations
                                                         Oscillations
                                                         -e.m. pickup
                                                        -e.m. pickup
            Excitation Source for
            Excitation Source for
               Transverse beam
                                                         resonant BPM
                                                      --resonant BPM
              Transverse beam                               -others
                  Oscillations                             -others
                 Oscillations
                stripline kickers
             --stripline kickers
                 pulsed magnets
              --pulsed magnets

              CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)             Beam Diagnostics
 Principle of any Q-measurement




G(ω)                                           H(ω)
             BTF:= H(ω)/G(ω)
             Measurement of
             betatron tune q:
             Maximum of BTF




       CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)          Beam Diagnostics
         Simple example: FFT analysis

   G(ω) == flat;
   Made with random
   noise kicks



Measure beam position over
many consecutives turns
-> apply FFT ->H(ω);
        BTF = H(ω)

                   CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
               Network Analysis
1. Excite beams with a
   sinusoidal carrier

2. Measure beam
   response

3. Sweep excitation
   frequency slowly
   through beam
   response

               CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
         Time Resolved Measurements
• To follow betatron tunes during machine transitions we
  need time resolved measurements. Simplest example:
   → repeated FFT spectra as before (spectrograms)




                   CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
       Principle of PLL tune measurements
  This PLL system
  looks to the 90 deg.
  point of the BTF

                                                             BPM
                                                      B sin(ωt+ϕ)
 Beam
                                             Phase detector
 Read VCO            VCO                  AB sin(2 ωt +ϕ)cos(ϕ)
 Frequency=       Voltage controlled
    tune!             oscillator
                                       Frequency control:
  At regular
Time intervals
                  A sin(ωt)                                    Lowpass
                                       ABcos(ϕ)

                     CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)               Beam Diagnostics
    Illustration of PLL tune tracking

A                                          Single carrier PLL locks
                                           on 900 point of BTF;



                                                      q
Φ




                                                      q


           CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)            Beam Diagnostics
Example of PLL tune measurement


                                       In this case continuous tune
                           qh          tracking was used whilst
                           qv          crossing the horizontal and
                                       vertical tunes with a power
                                       converter ramp.


     qh -qv                            Closest tune approach is
                                       a measure of coupling



        CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)            Beam Diagnostics
       β Function Measurement by k-Modulation
• Purpose:
    → measurement of < β > within a quadrupole
    → optics knowledge
    → emittance determination: ε = σ2rms / β

• Principle:
    → a (small) strength variation ∆k within a quadrupole induces a tune
      variation ∆Q
                                                                                      1/ 2
          ∆Q     = ∆k/4π ∫Quad β(s) ds             δ 〈β 〉    δk 2  δq 2  δL 2 
                                                          = 2       + 2  +
        < βH,V > = (4π ∆QH,V / L∆k) (1+ε(∆Q)) 〈 β 〉   ∆k   ∆q   L  
                                                                       
                                                                                       

          • L is the quadrupole magnetic length
          • ∆Q is small enough to keep second order term contribution < 1%

•   ∆k modulated using k-modulation facility in LEP to test:
    → What is the smallest possible perturbation? (LHC emittance budget)
    → Can it work with beams colliding head ON ?
                          CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)              Beam Diagnostics
β Measurement using k-Modulation in LEP
                              Effect of Q feedback loop speed
                                         (PLL mode)

                                  → ∆I = 1A, 0.25 Hz



                                  → “ fast” mode: 20 Hz



                                  → “normal” mode: 12 Hz


         CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)        Beam Diagnostics
                      β Measurement using k-Modulation in LEP
                                                                                 Comparison between static ∆k ,
          0.014                  ∆ Q vs ∆ k (static)                              1000 turns and k-modulation
          0.012                  simulations:<β>th = 181.5 m
                                                                                 LEP: 85GeV, 800mA, 4 bunches
                                                               β = 170 m
           0.01
Delta Q




          0.008
                                                         β measured
                                                                                • 1000 turns:
                                                           = 165 m
          0.006                                                                   → βmiddle QUAD = 175.4 m
          0.004                                                                   → β-beating: -9.2%
          0.002
                                                                                  → <β> =164.8 m
             0

                  0    0.0001   0.0002      0.0003      0.0004
                                                       Delta k (m-2)
                                                                       0.0005
                                                                                • k-modulation:
                                                                                  → 1A (5×10-4), 0.25 Hz
                                                                                  → <β> = 162.9 m

                                            CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)                     Beam Diagnostics
          Comparison between static ∆k and
       k-modulation with colliding beams in LEP
                   [103.3 GeV, 1860 µA on 1860 µA ]

• Static ∆k:
  → I0 + 0.5 A : <β> = 383.9 m
  → I0
  → I0 - 0.5 A : <β> = 392.8 m



                                                • k-modulation:
                                                  → I0 + ∆I
                                                  → ∆I = 1A, 0.25 Hz
                                                  → <β> = 389.4 m

                 CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)           Beam Diagnostics
                    Chromaticity (Q’ or ξ)
                                                     ∆p  1      ∆f
Spread in the Machine Tune                  ∆Q = Q '   =  2 −α  Q '
                                                         γ     
due to Particle Energy Spread                         p             f
Controlled by Sextupole magnets                                 Q'
                                                             ξ=
                                                                Q
Optics Analogy:
        Achromatic incident light
       [Spread in particle energy]




                                                                  Focal length is
                                                                 energy dependent
                                        Lens
                                     [Quadrupole]
                         CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)               Beam Diagnostics
          Chromaticity – Its Importance for the LHC?

• Change in b3 during snap-back
   → Change in Q’ of ~150 units
• Nominal operation requires
  ∆Q’ < 3
• Correction by:
   → Feed-forward tables from
     magnet/chromaticity
     measurements
   → On-line feedback from b3
     measurements on reference
     magnets
   → Possible on-line feedback directly
     from chromaticity measurements


                         CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
       Chromaticity - What observable to choose?
Tune Difference for different
beam momenta
                                      ⇔        used at HERA, LEP, RHIC in
                                               combination with PLL tune tracking


                                      ⇔
Width of tune peak or                          model dependent, non-linear effects,
damping time                                   Used extensively at DESY
                                               Difficult of exploit in hadron
                                      ⇔
Amplitude ratio of synchrotron
                                               machines with low synchrotron tune,
sidebands
                                               influence of lattice resonances?

                                      ⇔
Excitation of energy oscillations
                                                First promising steps in the SPS
and PLL tune tracking


                                      ⇔
Bunch spectrum variations
                                               difficult to measure
during betatron oscillations
Head-tail phase advance
                                      ⇔
                                               very good results but requires kick
(same as above, but in time
                                               stimulus ⇒ emittance growth!
domain)
                        CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)               Beam Diagnostics
       Q’ Measurement via RF-frequency
      modulation (momentum modulation)



                                                         ∆ Qh




                                                         ∆ Qv
Applied Frequency Shift             Amplitude & sign of chromaticity
       ∆ F (RF)                    calculated from continuous tune plot
                 CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)          Beam Diagnostics
Measurement Example during LEP β-squeeze


       qh




      qv




            CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
Chromaticity & Head-Tail Motion
 Positive Chromaticity (Above Transition)
                               ∆p/p
                                                    Q > Q0
                   -ωsτ


          Head               τ
                             ˆ                           Tail
                                                            τ



                Q < Q0

                   Longitudinal Phase-Space
            CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)               Beam Diagnostics
Chromaticity & Head-Tail Motion
 Negative Chromaticity (Above Transition)
                               ∆p/p
                                                    Q < Q0
                    -ωsτ


          Head                                           Tail
                                                            τ



                Q > Q0

                    Longitudinal Phase-Space
            CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)               Beam Diagnostics
Simulated Response




 CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
The Head-Tail Measurement Principle




        CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
            Head-Tail System Set-up (SPS)
             SPS Tunnel                         Fast (2GS/s per channel)
                                                  Digital Oscilloscope
                                         Sum
Straight                    Hybrid
Stripline
Coupler
                                         Difference


                                                    Bunch Synchronous
 Beam        Beam Pipe                                   Trigger

                                                         VME
                                                      Acquisition
                    UNIX
                                                       via GPIB GPIB link
                 User Interface
                    CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)               Beam Diagnostics
Measuring Q’ (Example 1: low Qs)




                                              Qs-1 = 310 turns




      CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)                 Beam Diagnostics
Measuring Q’ (Example 2: high Qs)




                Qs-1 = 97 turns



      CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
      Measuring Q’’ and Q’’’
          Radial Position versus Chromaticity (115GeV)
                           0.16




                       Chromaticity (ξ)
                                          0.14

                                          0.12

                                           0.1

                                          0.08

                                          0.06

                                          0.04

                                                         Radial Steering
                                          0.02
                                                         Scaled Head-Tail
                                            0
-6   -4         -2                               0   2        4              6
                      Radial Position (mm)

            CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)                   Beam Diagnostics
     Online measurement and feedback of Q & Q’
• The aim for the LHC:
   → Permanent Q & Q’ measurements with hard constraints on:
       • emittance preservation
       • insensitivity to machine-parameter changes
         (orbit, coupling…)
   → Online feedback to power supplies of quadrupole and
     sextupole magnets (bandwidth < 10 Hz)


• What has been done so far:
   → Early example from LEP → next slide
   → Present situation at DESY → following movie


                 CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
Early example from LEP




  CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
                    HERA-p solution:
• “chirp” tune
  measurements


• Online display




                                                                  Time
• Operator “joystick”
  feedback to
  quadrupole and
  sextupole power-
  supplies
                                                      Tune
                    CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)    Beam Diagnostics
 Online Q-display at HERA-p with
“BLL” as control (brain locked loop)




        CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
               Outline for Today
• Optimisation of Machine Performance
         (“the good days”)
   → Orbit measurement & correction
   → Luminosity: basics, profile and β - measurements
• Diagnostics of transverse beam motion
   → Tune & chromaticity measurements
   → Dynamic effects: tune and chromaticity control
   → On-line β measurements

• Trying to make the machine work
           (“the bad days”)
   → The beam does not circulate!
   → The beam gets lost, when changing the beta*
                 CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
LEP – No Circulating Beam




   Positrons
                                            QL10.L1

    CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)      Beam Diagnostics
    Zoom on QL1


                         beer bottle




CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
        10 metres to the right


                        beer bottle




Unsociable sabotage: both bottles were empty!!
            CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
    LEP Beams Lost During Beta Squeeze
  From
  LEP
logbook




            CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
…and the corresponding diagnostics




        CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics
In these two lectures we have seen how to
   build and use beam instrumentation to
       run and optimise accelerators

 Hopefully it has given you an insight into
  the field of accelerator instrumentation
        and the diverse nature of the
 measurements and technologies involved

    http://sl-div.web.cern.ch/sl-div-bi/CAS%20/lecture/

            CAS 2003 Rhodri Jones (CERN - AB/BDI)   Beam Diagnostics

				
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