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					  Language and culture
   Cognitive categories / Classifiers /
   Social categories / Address terms /
     Gender / Gender interaction /
    Gendered speech / Gender words



94AG022 林孟澤 94AG033 賴欣懿
Cognitive categories
A way of analyzing people ’s language
 structure.
We can get lots of information from
 observing such as culture of language , way
 of how people think, .
Social categories
1. distinguish the relationship among one
 another.
2.how we connected or related to other.
3 use it to our close friend
Ex .role Play
Address terms
Gender differences in communication

Gender words
Women’s language
Social genders
Report talk& rapport talk
Gender words

Some words for men are “normal” and the word
 for woman are “special additions.”
 actor => actress
In Franch
 the masculine gender & the feminine gender


                PS: Masculine,男子氣的,陽性
                   Feminine,女孩子氣的,陰性
Women’s language
Higher Pitch
Tag questions “isn’t it?”
Hedges “kind of” & Overuse qualifiers ”I think”
modal constructions “can, would, should”
Indirection “Could I see the photo?
             “Give me that photo.”
Back-channels “Yeah / really? / Umm etc”
Women’s language
Speak in italics (emphasis) “so, very, quite.”
Use “wh-” imperatives.
Use empty adjectives: divine, lovely, adorable,
 and so on
Use hypercorrect grammar and pronunciation:
 English prestige grammar and clear
 enunciation.

                  PS: hypercorrect 過於講究的
Social genders
women - talk more than men, are more polite,
 are indecisive/hesitant, complain and nag, ask
 more questions, support each other, are more
 co-operative.
men - swear more, don't talk about emotions,
 talk about sport more, talk about women and
 machines in the same way, insult each other
 frequently, are competitive in conversation,
 dominate conversation, speak with more
 authority, give more commands, interrupt
 more.
Deborah Tannen's—
     report talk& rapport talk
Women                   Men
 Talk much              Get more air time
 Speak in private       Speak in public
  contexts               Negotiate status /
 Build relations         avoid failure
 Overlap                Speak one at a time
 Speak symmetrically    Speak asymmetrically
                  PS:Negotiate,談判協商
                  Symmetrically,相稱性地;對稱地
                  Rapport,交往,密切關係,和諧一致
Source
http://tw.youtube.com/watch?v=8CWMCt35o
 FY
http://www.universalteacher.org.uk/lang/gend
 er.htm#intro

				
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