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Elements of the Short Story Elements of the Short Story The Short Story • Short

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Elements of the Short Story Elements of the Short Story The Short Story • Short Powered By Docstoc
					Elements of the
    Short Story
The Short Story
• Short stories have been with us since the
  beginning of history: we have short stories
  in the Old Testament of the Bible; mythology
  (Ancient Greek and Roman); parables; epic
  and fable (from the Middle Ages)
• Not one person created the short story, nor
  did one nation develop the short story. A
  group of 19th century writers in America
  developed it as a literary form. Edgar Allan
  Poe and Nathaniel Hawthorne. After this
  the short story developed and became
  popular in America.
SHORT STORY
• A literary form which narrates a series of
  events or a single incident involving
  individuals in mental or physical activity.

• The short story is different from the novel; it
  focuses on a single aspect of many
  elements of the novel. A short story may
  range from 500 to 20,000 words in length.
ELEMENTS OF A SHORT
STORY
• Setting: The time, place, and
  background of the action (background
  refers to the cultural, religious, and
  moral attitudes of the time and place).
• Mood: The emotional atmosphere
  which hangs over the story – when the
  mood is able to penetrate the reader,
  he is better able to enjoy the story.
• Characterization: The way an author
  reveals his characters – there are three
  methods of characterization:
• 1. what the author tells us
• 2. What the character himself tells us
  through his own actions
• 3. What other characters tell us about a
  character.

• NOTE THESE TWO TYPES OF
  CHARACTERS: Protagonist and
  Antagonist.
• Protagonist: the central character
  with whom we are supposed to
  sympathize.
• Antagonist: a person or force that
  opposes the protagonist.

• Plot: a series of events which
  introduce, develop, and finally resolve
  problem(s) and which convey a
  message.
• Two techniques sometimes used in
  developing plot are flashback and
  foreshadowing.

• A flashback is a scene that interrupts
  the present action (chronological
  order) of a story to tell something that
  happened in the past.
• Foreshadowing is the use of clues
  that hint at coming plot developments.
Conflict
• Problems in a story. Conflict provides the
  interest and suspense in a story.
• Four main kinds of Conflict
• 1. Man against Nature
• 2. Man against Man
• 3. Man against Society
• 4. Man against Himself

• The plot is made up of a series of conflicts
  seldom do we find a single conflict in a plot.
  Often we find two or even all of the kinds of
  conflict in a single story.
EXPOSITION
• The part of a play that provides the
  background information needed to
  understand the characters and the
  action.
RISING ACTION

The sections in narrations during which
 the tension between opposing
 characters or forces builds toward a
 climax
Climax
• The technical climax is the decisive
  point in a series of happenings; the
  point of most intense excitement in a
  narrative; specifically, when the
  hero’s/heroine’s fate is in the balance.
Falling Action
• The action in a narrative which
  represents the working out of the
  decisive action of the climax.
DENOUEMENT

   – The final resolution or clarification of
     a dramatic or narrative plot.
   – The events following the climax of a
     drama or novel in which such a
     resolution or clarification takes
     place.
• The outcome of a sequence of events;
  the end result.
THEME
• The central idea of a story – it is the
  message behind the story
DIAGRAM OF A SHORT
STORY
  Diagram of a Short Story
                CLIMAX




RISING ACTION              FALLING ACTION




EXPOSITION               RESOLUTION,
                         DENOUMENT
Point of View
• The perspective or view from which
  the author presents the story – it is the
  author’s identity to the story. If the
  author, or narrator, is an onlooker who
  refers to all the characters as he, she,
  or it (third person), the point of view is
  omniscient. The author and the
  reader are both observers of the
  action.
First Person
• If the author, or narrator, is a character
  within the story or another character
  telling the story, the point of view is the
  first-person narrator. The author is
  giving the reader a look from inside of
  the action.
Advantages and Disadvantages
of Point of View
 • There are advantages and
   disadvantages to both views. The
   first-person narrator has the obvious
   advantage of intimacy. By
   experiencing the story through the
   eyes of a character, we can see not
   only the actions but also his/her
   thoughts..
• However, if we can only see the action of
  the story through the eyes of one
  character, we will probably miss parts of
  the total story. Using the third-person, the
  omniscient point of view, permits us to
  observe the whole story – places where
  the character-narrator can’t see.
  Sometimes to tell the story the author
  needs the all-knowing, all-seeing eye of
  the omniscient point of view. Other times
  being able to see from within a character
  better suits the author’s purpose.
Tone
• The attitude an author takes toward his
  subject or reader – in some cases, the
  tone is straightforward and serious
  while other times it may be humorous
  or satirical. It is important to recognize
  the tone because a misunderstanding
  of tone can distort the entire meaning
  of a work.
  IRONY
• A difference, or discrepancy, between
  what appears to be and what really is –
  between appearance and reality.

• One kind of irony is verbal irony, in which
  a writer or speaker says one thing but
  means something entirely different.
  Verbal irony is common in everyday
  conversation. When someone describes a
  ten-course meal as a “light snack”, he is
  being ironic.
Dramatic Irony
• A second kind of irony is dramatic
  irony, in which the discrepancy is
  between what a character says, or
  thinks, and what the reader knows is
  true. In dramatic irony a character is
  not aware of something the reader is
  aware of.
  Irony of Situation
• A third kind of irony is Irony of Situation in
  which a situation turns out to be different
  from what we had expected.
• Irony is an important element because it
  shows us that life itself is unpredictable.
  Our words and our actions don’t always
  have the meanings or results we expect
  them to have.
NARRATOR
• THE TELLER OF THE STORY;
  USUALLY EITHER A CHARACTER
  OR AN ANONYMOUS VOICE USED
  BY THE AUTHOR.
    ACTION
    THE INTERPLAY
BETWEEN OPPOSING
           FORCES
SCENE
• The setting for a given event in a
  narrative or the shortest major division
  in a play.

• DIALOGUE
• The direct presentation of conversation
  between two or more characters
CHARACTER
 A fictional personality created by
  the author.
 SIMILE
 A figure of speech involving
  comparisons made explicit by
  the use of the words like or
  as.
UNITY
• The quality achieved by an artistic
  work when all its elements are so
  interrelated as to form a complete
  whole.
MOTIF
A character or incident, or idea that recurs
  frequently in variouds eorks in variouds
  parts of the same work.
Characteristics of the Short
Story
• Although the short story is a very old
  form, some true ones being found in
  the Bible, it was not really
  distinguished as a special literary type
  until Edgar Allan Poe laid down the
  principles for it. Since then writers of
  short stories have deliberately worked
  along the lines pointed out by Poe, and
  all work is judged now by these
  standards.
 A True example of the short
 story shows the following
 characteristics:
• There is no character introduced that is not
  absolutely necessary for the most artistic
  results.
• The action is given in the shortest possible
  time without sacrificing the highest effect.
• There is little or no change of scenery.
• There is but one impression , or strong
  emotion, produced in the course of the story.
• Dialogue: the direct presentation of
  conversation between two or more
  characters.
• Metaphor: a figure of speech involving an
  implied comparison.
• Unity: the quality achieved by an artistic
  work when all its elements are so
  interrelated as to form a complete whole.
• Motif: a character, incident, or idea that
  recurs frequently in various parts of the
  same work.
• Simile: a figure of speech involving a
  comparison made explicit by the use of
  the work like or as.
• Symbol: A symbol is something that
  has its own meaning while, at the
  same time, also stands for something
  else. Symbols have double meanings
•   Denoument        Conflict
•   Climax           Action
•   Antagonist
•   Foreshadowing
•   Falling Action
•   Narrator
•   Protagonist
•   Theme
•   Symbol
•   Scene

				
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posted:2/14/2012
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