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					                                      CHAPTER II

                       REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

               Nowadays, factors affecting out environment are widespread. Pollution

describes any change in the environment that affects human lives. Air pollution, a type of

pollution, is considered to be the most dangerous. It can drastically affect health and

cause respiratory disease that commonly come from automobile exhausts. (Marshall

Cavendish Encyclopedia, 1995).

               Auto exhaust, is a major source of air pollution as more people around the

world use cars and other automobiles as a means of transportation. The harmful

emissions that automobiles produce include nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, sulfur

dioxide hydrocarbons and particular matter. Nitrogen and sulfur oxides combine with

water vapor in air to from small particles that are inhaled by the lungs that can damage

lungs and cause harmful effects and worsen diseases such as reduction of lung capacity,

chronic bronchitis, asthma, emphysema and heart disease to name a few. (Hahn, Payne,

& Mauer, 2005).

               Carbon monoxide, a gas which is odorless and colorless in nature is

harmful in that it impairs respiration and causes irritation. It is also dangerous even in

small amounts as it has the ability to combine with hemoglobin and can thus replace

oxygen in the blood. Particulate matter is a complex mixture of airborne particles in

either liquid or solid form. The extent of damage caused by particulate matter depend on

the size which include different cardiac and respiratory disease like asthma, bronchitis
and emphysema

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