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1 Introduction to CD Nursing

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					           Trinity University of Asia
         St. Luke’s College of Nursing

       Communicable Disease in Nursing

Infection - invasion of the body by germs that reproduce
          and multiply, causing disease by 1) local cell
          injury, 2) release of poisons or 3) germ-
          antibody reaction in the cells

Communicable Disease - transmitted from one person
      or animal to another by direct (i.e. discharges)
      or indirect contact (i.e. toys, water, drinking
      glass)
   - may be used interchangeably with contagious

Sporadic - cases occurring occasionally and irregularly
with no specific pattern

Epidemic - a greater-than-expected number of cases of
a given disease arises suddenly over a specific period

Endemic - cases present in a population or a community
at all times

HOW IS INFECTION STUDIED?
Three Major disciplines
  1. Microbiology - stuffy of infectious microbes and
     their effects on the body
  2. Epidemiology - investigates the factors that
     influence the frequency and distribution of diseases
     to prevent and control disease
  3. Immunology - study the body’s response to
     antigenic challenges


        THE FRAGILE CHAIN OF INFECTION

                           Causative
                             agent
                                          Reservoir
             Susceptible
                host



                                             Portal of
              Portal of                      exit from
              entry into                     reservoir
                 host
                             Mode of
                           transmission




    1. CAUSATIVE AGENT - any microbe capable of
       producing disease

MICROBIOLOGY
      Bacteria - bacilli, cocci,
      Virus
      Rickettsiae
      Lower form of animal life
          i. Protozoa
         ii. Helmiths
      Lower form of plant life
          i. Fungi
NORMAL FLORA
Endogenous - found in skin and
    body substances such as saliva
Exogenous - sources outside the body

Site                              Common or medically
                                  important microorganisms
Blood, internal organs            None, generally sterile
Cutaneous surfaces incl           Staph epidermidis
urethra and outer ear
Nose                              Staph aureus
Oropharynx                        Viridans strep
Gingival crevices                 Anaerobes
Stomach                           none
Colon                             Babies (breast-fed) -
                                  Bifobacterium
                                  Adult - bacteroides
Vagina                            Lactobacillus

Pathogenicity- the microbe’s ability to cause pathogenic
changes or disease

FACTORS

       1. Antigenicity - degree to which a microbe can
          induce a specific immune response
       2. Dose - a microbe must be present in a sufficient
          dose to cause human disease
       3. Invasiveness - (infectivity) refers to the ability of a
          microbe to invade tissues
       4. Mode of action - means by which the microbe
          produces disease
       5. Specificity - refers to the attraction of a microbe
          to a specific host or range of hosts
    6. Toxigenicity - related to virulence, refers to a
       microbe’s potential to damage host tissues
    7. Viability - refers to the ability of a microbe to
       survive outside the body/host
    8. Virulence - degree of microbes pathogenicity


    2. RESERVOIR - environment in which the microbe
       can survive
    3. PORTAL OF EXIT - path by which the infectious
       agent leaves its reservoir
    4. MODE OF TRANSMISSION - path by which the
       infectious agent passes from the portal of exit in
       the reservoir of the susceptible host
       a. Contact - direct (kissing), indirect
          (contaminated objects) or droplet spread
          (sneezing)
       b. Airborne - microbes remain suspended in the
          air for a prolonged period
       c. Vehicle - sustains life of the microbe until
          ingested or inoculated
       d. Vector-borne transmission
    5. PORTAL OF ENTRY - path by which an
       infectious agent invades the susceptible host (i.e
       URT, GIT, GUT, skin and mucous membrane)
    6. SUSCEPTIBLE HOST

Nursing Process Overview

Assessment

History
     History of travel?
     Any contact with animal or animal products?
     Any animal or insect scratch or bite? Exposure to
birds?
     Any illness that compromise the body defense?
     What medications have been taken?
     Vaccination history?


Clinical Manifestations
  1. Assess for manifestation of infection
  2. Obtain specimen
  3. Secure and assist in obtaining specimens
  4. Assist with aspiration of specimens
  5. Carry out appropriate skin tests


Patient Problems/Nursing Diagnosis
  1. Fluid and electrolyte imbalance related to fever,
     nausea, vomiting, and excessive sweating.
  2. Fever related to body’s defense reaction to
     invading organism.
  3. Potential for spread of infection.
  4. Alteration in comfort related to effects of infection.
  5. Potential respiratory insufficiency.
  6. Alteration in elimination.
  7. Potential for serious systemic complications.
  8. Ineffective coping and social isolation due to
     required isolation techniques
  9. Knowledge deficit regarding causes of infection,
     treatment, and preventive measures.

				
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posted:2/14/2012
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