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					Social Partners in the EU
                       Subjects

 Social partnership in different socio-economic models
 Social partnership: areas of influence
 Collective bargaining
 Social partners in the EU: who?
 Social partnership in the EU: what?
 EU Social Partnership: how?
 EU Social Partnership: results
 EU Social Partnership and links to social security




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                Negotiation strategies
Positional negotiation        Integrative negotiation
 Position dominates           Interest dominates
 Own interest position        Assessing all interests
 Mistrust                     Mutual trust
 Looking for weak spot        Strengthening each other
 Win-lose                     Win-win
 Adversarial                  Compromise
 Hard – cold – no relation    Soft on the relation – hard
 Opponents                      on the content
 Emotion allowed              Partners
                               Emotion excluded

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Nordic model                                      Rhineland model
  Government: mostly coalitions of diverse         Government: mostly coalitions, though with
   political direction (3 parties or more)           less variety (2 parties)
  Role of government: seeking balance in           Role of government: leading in the different
   interest positions                                interest positions
  Role of employers organisations:                 Role of employers organisations:
   “enlightened employers”; using society            comparable to Nordic, slightly more
   developments for own interests, “corporate        focussed on own interest position
   social responsibility”                           Role of trade unions: focus is more on
  Role of trade unions: open to development         protection and defense of current rights
   / innovation – status quo not “sacred”;          Social partnership basis: integrative
   economic realism                                  negotiation with some positional elements
  Social partnership basis: integrative
   negotiation

Anglo-Saxon model                                 Mediterranean model
 Government: mostly 1 party governments          •  Government: mostly coalitions, dominated
   with strong ideological differences               by one party
  Role of government: enforcing own              •  Role of government: non-governmental
   programme                                         coalitions, depending on subjects
  Role of employers organisations: more          •  Role of employers organisations: focussed
   classical capitalistic orientation, focussed      on own interest positions
   on own economic interest position              •  Role of trade unions: focussed on defense
  Role of trade unions: focussed on defense         of established rights and increasing wages
   of rights and high wages for members, own      •  Social partnership: positional orientation,
   interest position rules                           incidental coalitions, high conflict sensitivity
  Social partnership basis: positional
   negotiation – conflict sensitive                                                               4
         Social Partnership: operational levels

Company          (sub-) Sector     Central           National          EU
                 (regional)
Shop             Framework         Central           Socio-            Tomorrow…
stewards         Agreement         agreement         economic
                                   (pensions,        policies
                                   wage
                                   increments)
Works council    Collective                          Advice
                 bargaining                          procedures
                                                     legislation
Collective       (Pension)
bargaining       funds



                                                 Bipartite; Coordination level (central)
    Tripartite level: Government, Employers
                                                 Employers organisations & trade unions
    Organisations & Trade Unions
                                                                                       5
            Collective Bargaining Agreement
   Written, legally enforceable contract for a specified
    period (usually one year),
   Between Employers (organisations) and Trade
    Union(s)
   About conditions of employment
     Wages   (including job descriptions and classification)
     Working hours and conditions
     Overtime payments, holidays, vacations, benefits
     Additional social security
     Procedures for dispute resolution.




                                                                6
                Collective bargaining, how


   Framework for wage costs development (TU):
    Productivity + inflation = basis for negotiations (tax
    and premium developments are excluded)
   Tailored to company or sector circumstances
   Trade unions unify their different proposals
   Proposals of employers and trade unions
   Start of the negotiations….
   “Fireworks” (wage increment) mostly at the end of
    the process

                                                             7
                       Works council
   Advisory body, consisting of (elected) employee
    representatives
   Deliberating with – and advising the employer on
    matters related to the development of a company:
     Organisational  development / change
     Work- holiday schedules
     Health & safety issues
     Important investments
     (strategic) cooperation

   Often in bigger companies you can see works
    councils on plant-level, a central works council and
    even a European works council
                                                           8
    National Tripartite level: Socio-economic Council
   Deliberation between central level Employers
    Organisations, Trade Unions & Government
   Subjects are related to broad overall socio-economic
    policies, for instance:
      Social security
      Education
      Healthcare
      Employment policies
      Health & safety
      Environment
      Urban planning
      Taxation
      Doing business
                                                           9
               Social Partnership: why?


   Helps understanding and respecting different
    interest positions
   Broad commitment
   Industrial stability
   Improves economic development




                                                   10
                 The Social Partners in the EU
   Employers Organisations on European level:
       Cross-sectoral
       Sectoral
   Trade Unions on European level:
       Cross-sectoral
       Sectoral
   Chambers of Commerce and Industry on European level:
    Eurochambres

   All organise Member State organisations that organise
    members
   Some are federations of federations of organisations
   Influence of actual members is not “very direct”….

                                                            11
                     Social Partners in the EU
   The Commission publishes a list of European social partner
    organisations.
   At present, the list includes 75 organisations and is divided
    into five groups:
       General cross-industry organisations (CEEP, ETUC,
        BusinessEurope)
       Cross-industry organisations representing certain categories of
        workers or undertakings (Eurocadres, UEAPME, CEC)
       Specific organisations (Eurochambres)
       Sectoral organisations with no cross-industry affiliation (53
        organisations)
       European trade union organisations (15 organisations).




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               Form of EU Social Partnership
   Promotion of a European Social Dialogue
    organised in:
     Social Dialogue Committee (SDC) (cross-industry)
        SDC working groups and seminars

        Negotiations towards bi- or tri-partite agreements

        Social dialogue summits

     Sectoral social dialogue committees
        Related to specific sectors or categories on European
         level
        Consist of organisations who are integral and
         recognised part of MS social partner structures
        Have the capacity to negotiate agreements

     Both bipartite and tripartite activities

                                                             13
                                          Results
   Agreements implemented by Council Directive
      Revised framework agreement on parental leave (2008)
      Framework agreement on fixed-term contracts (1999)
      Framework agreement on part-time work (1997)
      Framework agreement on parental leave (1996)

   Autonomous agreements implemented by Social partners
      Framework     agreement on inclusive labour markets (2010)
      Framework     agreement on harassment and violence at work (2007)
      Framework     agreement on work-related stress (2004)
      Framework     agreement on telework (2002)
   Consultations on any new social European initiative
        Renewed Social Agenda
        Employment
        Rights at work
        Social Protection and social inclusion
        Gender equality
        EU social security coordination
        At least ….. In theory….

                                                                           14
    EU social partnership and links to social security


   Inclusion
   Parental leave
   Transferability of supplementary pensions
   Flexibility of working time and security
   Health and safety issues
   Disability strategy
   Promoting solidarity between generations
   Coordination of social security benefits >>




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           Coordination of social security benefits
   “Movers” are covered by the legislation of one country (pay
    contributions once)
   Same rights and obligations as the nationals
   Previous periods of insurance, work or residence in other
    countries are taken into account if necessary.
   Cash benefits are – generally – “exportable”
   Social security institutions will coordinate
   Applies to:
       sickness, maternity and equivalent paternity benefits
       old-age pensions, pre-retirement and invalidity benefits
       survivors’ benefits and death grants
       unemployment benefits
       family benefits
       benefits in respect of accidents at work and occupational diseases

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