Effective and Professional Oral Presentations by DatingGuru

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									                   Organize                                   Identify
                     the                                        your
                  conclusion                                  purpose

                                  Getting Ready
   Organize
                                   for an Oral                     Understand
                                   Presentation
      the                                                             your
     body                                                           audience
                                        Organize
                                           the
                                      introduction
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e              Chapter 12, Slide 1
             Identify Your Purpose

  What do you want
   your audience to
   believe, remember,
   or do when you
   finish?
  Aim all parts of your
   talk toward your
   purpose.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 2
    Understand Your Audience

       Friendly, neutral, uninterested,
        hostile?
       How to gain credibility?
       How to relate this information to
        their needs?
       How to make them remember
        your main points?

Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 3
                  Succeeding With
                Four Audience Types

                                                                 Friendly
                                                                 Neutral
                                                                 Uninterested
                                                                 Hostile


                   Click icon for more details.


Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e              Chapter 12, Slide 4
       Organize the Introduction

         Capture listeners’ attention and
          get them involved.




Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 5
       Ten Techniques for Getting
       Your Audience’s Attention
                                                A Promise
                                                     “By the end of my talk,
                                                     you will . . . .”
                                                Drama—tell a moving
                                                   story; describe a problem.
                                                Eye contact—command
                                                   attention by making eye
                                                   contact with as many
                                                   people as possible.

Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e            Chapter 12, Slide 6
   Movement—leave the lectern area. Move
    toward the audience.
   Questions—ask for a show of hands. Use
    a rhetorical question.
   Demonstrations—include a member of
    the audience.
   Samples, gimmicks—award prizes to
    volunteer participants; pass out samples.

Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 7
 Visuals—use graphics
   and other visual aids.
 Dress —professional
   dress helps you look
   more competent and
   qualified
 Appeal to the
  audience’s self-
  interest —audience
   members want to know,
   “What's in it for me?”
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 8
  Organize the Introduction

           Capture listeners’ attention and
            get them involved.
           Identify yourself and establish
            your credibility.
           Preview your main points.




Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 9
                  Organize the Body

  Develop two to four main points.
  Streamline your topic and summarize its
   principal parts.
  Arrange the points logically by a specific
   pattern.




Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 10
        Patterns for Organizing the
         Body of Your Presentation
   Pattern              Example
Chronology      Describe the history of a problem,
                organized from the first sign of trouble to
                the present.
Geography/      Arrange a discussion of the changing
space           demographics of the workforce by
                regions, such as East Coast, West
                Coast, and so forth.
Topic/function/ Organize a report discussing mishandled
conventional    airline baggage by the names of airlines.
grouping
       Pattern                                                Example
Comparison/                       Compare organic farming methods with
contrast                          those of modern industrial farming.
(pro/con)
Journalism                        Explain how identity thieves ruin your
pattern                           good name by discussing who, what,
                                  when, where, why, and how.
Value/size                        Arrange a report describing fluctuations
                                  in housing costs by house value groups
                                  (houses that cost $100,000, $200,000,
                                  and so forth).
Importance                        Organize from most important to least
                                  important the reasons a company should
                                  move its headquarters to a specific city.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e             Chapter 12, Slide 12
     Pattern                                   Example
Problem/                           Discuss a problem followed by
solution                           possible solutions.
Simple/                            Organize a report explaining genetic
complex                            modification of plants by discussing
                                   simple seed production progressing
                                   to complex gene introduction.
Best case/                         Analyze whether two companies
worst case                         should merge by presenting the best
                                   case result (improved market share,
                                   profitability, employee morale)
                                   opposed to the worse case result
                                   (devalued stock, lost market share,
                                   employee malaise).
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e      Chapter 12, Slide 13
               Organize the Body
  Develop two to four main points.
   Streamline your topic and summarize its
   principal parts.
  Arrange the points logically by a specific
   pattern.
  Prepare transitions to guide the audience.




Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 14
                                 Up to this point, I've concentrated
                                  on . . .; now let's look at another
 Switching                        significant factor . . .
 Directions
                                 I've just discussed three reasons
                                  for X. Now I want to move on to Y.
                                 As you can see, we have two
                                  primary reasons explaining . . .
Summarizing
                                 Let me review the two major
                                  factors I've just covered. . .
                                 Now let's look at three reasons
 Previewing                       for . . .
                                 My next major point focuses on . . .

    Using Verbal Signposts to Transition
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 15
               Organize the Body
  Develop two to four main points.
   Streamline your topic and summarize its
   principal parts.
  Arrange the points logically by a specific
   pattern.
  Prepare transitions to guide the audience.
  Have extra material ready. Be prepared
   with more information and visuals if
   needed.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 16
            Supporting Your Main Points*
    Type                Use                         Comments
Example            Illustrate   Usually best in groups of
                   Clarify      two or three.
                   Add interest Consider preceding or
                                following with relevant story.
Story              Prove point Adapt to audience.
                   Illustrate   Must support thesis.
                                Control length.


*Supplementary lecture. Not included in textbook.
        Type                         Use                      Comments
 Quotation                  Cite source.
                            Prove point
                            May paraphrase or read
                            Add credibility
                            verbatim.
                            Add interest
                            Follow up with restatement
                            or explanation.
 Comparison Improve         Link familiar with unfamiliar.
            understanding Be sure comparison or
            Add figurative analogy is valid.
            interest
 Statistics Prove point     Link to audience needs.
            Add credibility Use sparingly; round off.
                            Support with visuals,
                            handouts.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e        Chapter 12, Slide 18
        Organize the Conclusion

 Summarize the main themes of the
  presentation.
 Provide a final action-oriented focus.
  Explain how listeners can use this
  information or what you want them to
  do.
 Include a final statement that leaves a
  lasting impression.

Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 19
            Putting It All Together



                      Click icon at
                     right to view a
                  presentation outline.




Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 20
                                             Analogies

          Worst- and
          best-case                                           Metaphors
          scenarios
                                      Building Audience
                                        Rapport with
                                      Effective Imagery
         Personalized
                                                               Similes
          statistics

                                              Personal
                                             anecdotes


Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e        Chapter 12, Slide 21
        Analogy
        a comparison of something familiar with
        something unfamiliar


                To understand how the heart is divided,
               imagine a house with two rooms upstairs
                         and two downstairs.



Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 22
        Metaphor
        an implied, nonliteral comparison
                         The old office building became
                                  a money pit.


        Simile
        a comparison that includes the words
        like or as
                        His mind works like a computer.

Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 23
        Personal anecdote
        Reveal your own experiences related
        to a topic in your presentation.


                            When my son and I were
                          waiting to board our plane last
                                     week, . . .




Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 24
        Personalized statistics
        Help audience members remember
        statistics by relating them to their world.

        Worst- and best-case scenarios
        You can drive home your points by
        describing scenarios at each extreme
        related to your topic.


Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 25
                  Sending Positive
                 Nonverbal Messages
 Look professional.
 Animate your body.
 Punctuate your words.
 Use appropriate eye
  contact.
 Get out from behind
  the podium.
 Vary your facial
  expression.

Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 26
                                            Multimedia
                                              slides
         Objects
           for                                                Transparencies
      demonstration                     Enhancing Your
                                         Presentation
                                          With Visual
                                             Aids
               Video                                            Handouts

                                            Flipcharts
                                                or
                                           whiteboards


Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e           Chapter 12, Slide 27
              Pros                           Medium                 Cons

 Professional                                                 Requires costly
  effect                                                        equipment and
                                            Multimedia
 Graphic options                                               practice to use
                                              slides
 Easy to make and                                             Equipment may
  update                                                        fail

 Easy to prepare,                                             May seem out-
  update, and use                                               dated
                                        Transparencies
 Readily available                                            Holds speaker
  equipment                                                     close to projector
                                                               Poor photo repro-
                                                                duction

Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e             Chapter 12, Slide 28
              Pros                           Medium                 Cons

 Encourages                                                   Risks unauthorized
  audience                                                      duplication and
  participation                              Handouts           loss of audience
 Enhances recall                                               control



 Inexpensive                                                  Requires talent
                                            Flipcharts
 Easy to create,                                              Difficult to see
                                                or
  modify, or
                                           whiteboards         Cumbersome to
  customize on the                                              transport
  spot


Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e             Chapter 12, Slide 29
              Pros                           Medium                 Cons

 Accurate portrayal                                           Expensive to
  of content                                                    create and update
 Suggests serious                               Video         Incompatibility
  preparation                                                   issues


 Realistic effects                                            Extra work and
                                            Objects
 Increases audience                          for
                                                                expensive to trans-
  participation                                                 port and replace
                                         demonstration
                                                               Limited use with
                                                                large audience


Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e             Chapter 12, Slide 30
           Designing an Impressive
           Multimedia Presentation

                Add
                                                               Create an
             multimedia
                                                              appropriate
             and other
                                                               template
              effects


                                             Build
                                             bullet
                                             points
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e           Chapter 12, Slide 31
 Create an Appropriate Template

 Combine harmonious colors, borders,
  bullet styles, and fonts.
 Avoid visual clichés.
 Use light text on dark background for
  darkened rooms.
 Use dark text on light background for
  lighted rooms
 Alter layouts by repositioning, resizing, or
  changing fonts in placeholder slides.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 32
            Selecting a Slide Template
                                                          You may choose from
                                                          a variety of predesigned
                                                          templates or design
                                                          your own.



   Lighter backgrounds are
    better in darkened rooms.
   Darker backgrounds are
    better in lighted rooms.

Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e               Chapter 12, Slide 33
                Selecting a Slide Layout




Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 34
              Build Bullet Points

       Focus on major concepts only.
       Use concise phrases balanced
        grammatically.
       Add graphics to illustrate and add
        interest.
       Avoid using too many transition
        effects.

Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 35
              Revising Slide to Improve Bullet
                Points and Add Illustration




             Does not use                                     Improves wording and
            parallel wording.                                 includes an illustration
                                                                 for added punch.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e                   Chapter 12, Slide 36
 Add Multimedia and Other Effects

           Consider adding sound, animation,
            and video.
           Include hyperlinks ("hot spots" on
            the screen) to jump to sources
            outside your presentation.
           Avoid too many "bells and
            whistles."


Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 37
            Converting a Bulleted List to an
                 Animated Diagram




Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 38
Using a Bar Chart to Illustrate a Concept




Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 39
               Avoid Being Upstaged
                  by Your Slides
 Perfect your handling of the visual aids
  and the operation of any equipment or
  remote controls you may be using.
 Use your slides only to summarize
  important points.
 Look at the audience, not the screen.
 Do not read from a slide. Paraphrase.

Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 40
  Leave the lights as bright as possible.
  Use a radio remote control to advance
   slides.
  Use a laser pointer to highlight slide items.
  Don't rely totally on your slides to deliver a
   presentation. Remember that the audience
   came to see and hear you.
  In case of equipment failure, bring backups
   of your presentation.

Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 41
                Delivering Your
            Presentation Effectively
       Speak from (a) note cards, (b) an
        outline containing key sentences
        and major ideas, or (c) printed
        speaker's notes.
       Practice using your notes while
        using a remote control to advance
        your slides.

Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 42
 Memorize
  significant parts
  such as the
  introduction,
  conclusion, or
  a meaningful
  quotation.
 Talk to the
  audience
  conversationally.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 43
Reacting to Stage Fright Symptoms

  Stomach
   butterflies
  Pounding heart
  Shortage of
                                                                 Dry throat
   breath
                                                                 Unsteady voice
  Sweaty
                                                                 Trembling hands
   palms
                                                                 Tied tongue
                                                                 Wobbly knees
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e              Chapter 12, Slide 44
      Overcoming Stage Fright
 Just before you begin to talk, take some
  deep breaths.
 Convert your fear into anticipation and
  enthusiasm.
 Select a familiar, relevant topic.
 Prepare 150 percent.
 Use positive self-talk.

Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 45
       Shift the focus from yourself to your
        visual aids.
       Ignore stumbles; keep going. Don't
        apologize.
       Don't admit you're nervous.
       Feel proud when you finish.
       Reward yourself.


Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 46
              Eight Serious
          Presentation Blunders*
 Being dull. Relying on only one or two
  illustrations to make your points.
 Not repeating your main point often
  enough.
 Not answering the audience's most
  pressing question: “What's in it for me?”
 Failing to use signal phrases to focus on
  main points.
  *Supplementary lecture. Not included in textbook.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 47
    Neglecting to practice and time your
     presentation out loud.
    Forgetting to check your visual aids for
     readability.
    Answering hypothetical questions after
     your presentation.
    Getting distracted just before you speak.


Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e   Chapter 12, Slide 48
               Putting It All Together


           Before                            During        After
            your                              your         your
          presentation                    presentation presentation




Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e    Chapter 12, Slide 49
                        Before                  During        After


                Prepare thoroughly.
                Rehearse repeatedly.
                Time yourself.
                Request a lectern.
                Check the room.
                Greet members of the audience.
                Practice stress reduction.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e           Chapter 12, Slide 50
                        Before                  During        After


         Dress professionally.
         Begin with a pause.
         Present your first sentence from memory.
         Maintain eye contact.
         Control your voice and vocabulary.
         Show enthusiasm.
         Put the brakes on.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e           Chapter 12, Slide 51
                                                               Move naturally.
                                                               Use visual aids
                                                                effectively.
                                                               Avoid
                                                                digressions.
                                                               Summarize your
                                                                main points.



Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e             Chapter 12, Slide 52
                        Before                  During        After


              Distribute handouts.
              Encourage questions.
              Repeat questions.
              Reinforce your main points.
              Keep control.
              Avoid Yes, but answers.
              End with a summary and appreciation.
Mary Ellen Guffey, Essentials of Business Communication, 7e           Chapter 12, Slide 53

								
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