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					               N ed to be o
          ig




                               c
     es




                                cu
Not d




                                   pied
    How to work safely
    in a permit-required
       confined space
                 oregon osHA
contents

 Introduction ................................................................................... 1

 What is a permit space? ................................................................ 3
      Examples of confined spaces that could become permit spaces

 What is 1910.146 and why is it important? ................................. 5
      Where to get a copy of 1910.146

 What do I need to do to work safely in a permit space? .......... 7
      Identify the permit spaces at your workplace
      Identify the hazards in the spaces
      Decide if employees will enter a permit space
      Eliminate or control the hazards in the space
      Establish entry procedures
      Train employees for entry operations
      Make sure employees know their duties and responsibilities
      Plan for emergencies

 A diagram of the entry process from start to finish .............. 30

 Preparing your permit-space program .................................... 31

 Guide to Oregon OSHA services .............................................. 33

 Oregon OSHA phone numbers, addresses....Inside back cover
About this document

Not Designed to be Occupied is a publication of the Oregon OSHA
Standards and Technical Resources Section.

Thanks to Peggy Munsell, Dave McLaughlin, and Chris Ottoson for
technical assistance and advice, and to Communications for editing,
design, layout, and form development.

If you have questions or comments about this publication, please contact:

•   Dave McLaughlin, 503-947-7457, mclaugdj@state.or.us

•   Ellis Brasch, 503-947-7399, ellis.k.brasch@state.or.us.
introduction
If you store grain, process raw materials, or work in a large
manufacturing plant, you’re probably familiar with the term
confined space. Many Oregon workplaces have confined
spaces — enclosed spaces that are difficult to enter and exit,
large enough to work in, but not designed to be occupied.
Nevertheless, workers need to enter them from time to time.
For example, they may need to inspect equipment, fix leaks, do
construction work, or rescue someone. Inside, a confined space
may be relatively safe or contain life-threatening hazards such
as equipment that starts without warning, toxic gases, corrosive
chemicals, or flammable solvents.
This guide focuses on confined spaces that may contain life-
threatening hazards — permit-required confined spaces, or permit
spaces — and answers the following questions:
• What is a permit space and how can I identify one?
• What is 1910.146, the permit-required confined-space
  standard for general industry, and why is it important?
• What do I need to know to work safely in a permit space?
• What is a permit-space program, and do I need one for my
  workplace?
You’ll find a generic permit-space program that you can use as
a model for your own program, along with other information
about permit spaces, on the enclosed CD.




                                                                   1
What is a permit space?
A permit space is a confined space that may contain life-
threatening hazards. A confined space has all of the following
characteristics:
• It has a restricted opening that makes entry and exit difficult
• It’s large enough for one to enter completely
• It’s not designed to be occupied
A permit space has all of the characteristics of a confined space
and one or more of the following characteristics:
• It has — or could have — an atmospheric hazard
• It contains material that could trap or bury an entrant
• It’s shaped so that an entrant could become trapped or
  asphyxiated
• It has other safety or health hazards that could harm an
  entrant
No one can enter a permit space without first completing a
written entry permit that verifies that the hazards in the space
have been eliminated or controlled and that the space is safe to
enter.




  An atmospheric hazard affects the air in a confined space. An
  entrant — technically, authorized entrant — is the person who enters
  a permit space. An authorized entrant is authorized by the employer
  to enter a permit space. • You’ll find an example of an entry permit
  on Page 22.

                                                                         3
    An entry supervisor must sign the permit and post it on the
    space so that employees can see it and cancel it when work in
    the space is finished.
    Examples of confined spaces that could become
    permit spaces
    Most confined spaces are designed to hold substances such as
    liquids, gases, and loose materials, or to house equipment. They
    come in many sizes and shapes, though most can be classified
    in one of two ways: those with depth and open tops and those
    with narrow openings. These are examples of each:

           Open-topped                            Spaces with
          and deep spaces                       narrow openings
                  Pits                         Ship compartments
                Wells                                  Silos
                 Vats                                  Pipes
               Hoppers                               Tunnels
                 Bins                                 Tanks
             Degreasers                              Casings
                Kettles                               Sewers




      The entry supervisor is responsible for determining acceptable entry
      conditions in a permit space, for authorizing entry and overseeing
      entry operations, and for terminating the entry permit.

4
What is 1910.146 and why is it important?
1910.146 (Subdivision 2/J of the Oregon Occupational Safety and
Health Standards) protects general industry employees who
enter permit spaces and requires employers to do the following:
• Survey their workplace to identify permit spaces
• Inform employees about the location of each permit space
  and its hazards
• Keep unauthorized employees out of permit spaces
• Develop a written program that ensures the safety of any
  employee who must enter a permit space
Permit spaces may contain many different hazards. Workers can
die in permit spaces because they don’t know about the hazards
or because they use the wrong procedures to control hazards. In
fact, many of those who have died in permit spaces were trying
to rescue their co-workers.
You wouldn’t board a commercial aircraft — even for a short
flight — if you knew that the pilot and the maintenance crew
ignored take-off procedures. Nor would you enter a permit
space if you knew that your co-workers had ignored procedures
to test the space for hazards and control them.




                                                                  5
    1910.146 is important because it requires employers and
    employees to follow critical safe-work practices. By following
    those practices, employees will know when permit-space
    hazards exist and they’ll use the right methods to eliminate or
    control the hazards.
    Where to get a copy of 1910.146
    This guide will help you understand what you need to do to
    work safely in a permit space, but it doesn’t take the place of
    1910.146. You’ll find a copy of 1910.146 on the enclosed CD. You
    can also request a copy from the Oregon OSHA Resource
    Center or download a copy from the website, www.orosha.org.




6
What do i need to do to work safely
in a permit space?
This section describes eight critical activities that are part of the
entry process. They’re critical because they ensure that those
who need to enter a permit space can enter and exit safely —
and they’re the foundation of an effective permit-space program.
• Identify the permit spaces at your workplace
• Identify the hazards in the spaces
• Decide if employees will enter a permit space
• Eliminate or control the hazards in the space
• Establish entry procedures
• Train employees for entry operations
• Make sure employees know their duties and responsibilities
• Plan for emergencies




  A permit-space program describes, in writing, how an employer will
  protect workers during the entry process. See Page 31, Preparing
  your permit-space program, for more information.

                                                                        7
    identify the permit spaces at your workplace
    Identify all enclosures at your workplace that have the
    characteristics of a confined space. (A confined space is difficult
    to enter and exit and large enough for one person to enter
    completely — but not designed to be occupied.)
    Evaluate each confined space to determine if it is a permit
    space. Keep in mind that a permit space has one or more of the
    following characteristics:
    • Contains — or could contain — an atmospheric hazard
    • Contains material that could trap or bury an entrant
    • Is shaped such that an entrant could become trapped or
      asphyxiated
    • Contains any other safety or health hazard that could harm
      an entrant
    Inform employees about permit
    spaces. If your workplace has a
    permit space, employees must
    know where it’s located, that it’s
                                             DANGER
    hazardous, and that it’s a permit       permit-required
    space. You can post a sign like         coNfiNed spAce
    this one to inform them.
                                            AutHorized
                                             eNtrANts
                                               oNly


8
identify the hazards in the spaces
You must identify all existing or potential hazards in each
permit space at your workplace. Those who enter permit spaces
face two kinds of hazards: atmospheric and non-atmospheric.
Atmospheric hazards affect the air in the space and can be
flammable, toxic, corrosive, or asphyxiating. Be especially
careful when evaluating a space that could contain an
atmospheric hazard! The only way to identify an atmospheric
hazard is to test for it from outside the space.
Always test for atmospheric hazards in the following order:
   1. oxygen deficiencies or displacement
   2. flammable atmospheres
   3. toxic atmospheres
   4. corrosive atmospheres
Never assume a confined space is hazard-free. If you’re not sure
how to test for a hazardous atmosphere, contact the Oregon
OSHA office nearest you. (Oregon OSHA offices are listed on
the inside back cover.)
Non-atmospheric hazards include conditions such as
mechanized equipment, loose materials, excessive noise,
extreme temperatures, low light, and difficult access.




                                                                   9
     Keep in mind: Most permit-space accidents happen for the fol-
     lowing reasons:
     • Workers haven’t been properly trained to recognize permit-
       space hazards
     • Hazards aren’t eliminated or controlled before workers
       enter the space
     • Rescuers are inexperienced or improperly trained
     How to get help: If you need help identifying permit-space
     hazards, talk to your workers’ compensation insurer or contact
     the Oregon OSHA office nearest you.




10
                   Common atmospheric hazards
Hazard          How it occurs              Why you should be concerned
Oxygen          Chemical or biological     Oxygen-deficient atmospheres
deficiency      reactions consume          affect heart rate, muscle
(less than      oxygen.                    coordination, and breathing.
19.5 percent                               • Unprotected, you can’t
oxygen)                                    survive in an oxygen-deficient
                                           atmosphere.
Oxygen          Results from welding       Oxygen-enriched
enrichment      tasks and from the         atmospheres increase the risk
(greater than   improper use of oxygen     of fire or explosions.
23.5 percent)   for breathing air.
Flammable       Fuel, oxygen, and a        Flammable gases such as
atmospheres     source of ignition cause   acetylene, butane, propane,
                fire and explosions.       hydrogen, and methane are
                                           common in permit spaces.
                                           • Grain, nitrated fertilizers,
                                           and ground chemicals can
                                           produce combustible dusts.
Toxic           Accumulates through        Many manufacturing
atmospheres     some manufacturing,        processes, stored materials,
                biological, or chemical    and work tasks release toxic
                reactions. • Released      gases, vapors, or dusts.
                during tasks such as
                welding and cleaning.
Corrosive       Accumulates from           Corrosive substances destroy
atmospheres     some manufacturing         living tissue. • Some cause
                processes, and bio-        immediate damage to skin
                logical or chemical        and eyes; some have no
                reactions.                 immediate effect, but cause
                                           cancer with prolonged
                                           exposure.
                                                    Continued on next page




                                                                             11
                     Common non-atmospheric hazards
     Hazard          How it occurs            Why you should be concerned
     Access          Confined spaces are      In an emergency, entrants may
     problems        difficult to enter and   not be able to exit quickly.
                     exit.
     Corrosive       Corrosive chemicals      Corrosive chemicals can cause
     chemicals       are stored in the        severe eye or skin damage
                     space or entrants use    if exposed workers are not
                     them for work.           wearing protective clothing.
     Engulfment      Loose materials          Liquid or loose materials
                     drawn from the           can trap or bury a worker in
                     bottoms of storage       seconds.
                     bins can suffocate
                     or bury an entrant.
                     (Liquids or materials
                     are suddenly released
                     into the space.)
     Extreme         The permit-space         Hot environments put
     temperatures    location or the          workers at risk for heat stress,
                     equipment it contains    especially if they’re doing
                     makes it very hot or     strenuous work or wearing
                     cold.                    protective clothing. Cold
                                              environments make tasks more
                                              difficult to accomplish.
     Illumination    Most permit spaces       Poor lighting makes it difficult
     problems        are dark.                for workers to enter, work in,
                                              and exit a permit space.
     Mechanical      Mechanical and           Entrants servicing mechanical
     and hydraulic   hydraulic equipment      and hydraulic equipment can
     energy          starts or moves          be seriously injured or killed
                     unexpectedly.            if the energy isn’t properly
                                              controlled.
                                                         Continued on next page




12
            Common non-atmospheric hazards, continued
Hazard            How it occurs           Why you should be concerned
Noise             Permit spaces amplify   Noise interferes with essential
                  sounds produced by      communication between
                  tools and equipment.    entrants and attendants. High
                                          noise levels can impair hearing
                                          and cause hearing loss.
Slippery          Leaks, spills, and      Wet surfaces are usually
surfaces          condensation make       slippery; they increase the risk
                  walking surfaces        of falls.
                  slippery.
Falling objects   Objects fall into the   You don’t want to be struck by
                  space because           a heavy object, even if you’re
                  topside openings        wearing a hard hat.
                  are unguarded or
                  improperly guarded.




                                                                             13
     decide if employees will enter a permit space
     If you have a permit space at your workplace, will workers —
     contract workers or your employees — enter it? Even if workers
     don’t enter a permit space, you must make sure that they’re
     aware of the space and know about
     its hazards. You can do that by
     placing a danger sign like this one
     on the space, or by permanently
                                           DANGER
     securing the opening — welding        permit-required
     it shut, for example.                 coNfiNed      spAce
     The table on the next page shows
     what to do before workers enter     AutHorized
     a permit space.                      eNtrANts
                                            oNly




14
          What to do before workers enter a permit space
If                      Then
Only contract workers   You must tell the contractor about the hazards
enter                   in the space, ensure that the contractor has a
                        written permit-space program that meets
                        1910.146 requirements, and inform the contractor
                        about any special precautions necessary to
                        protect those working in or near the space.
Contract workers and    You must have a written permit-space program
your employees enter    that describes how you will eliminate or control
                        the permit-space hazards and ensure the safety of
                        those who enter the space. • You must coordinate
                        entry operations with the contractor so that the
                        contract workers and your employees work safely
                        together.
Only your employees     You must have a written permit-space program
enter                   that describes how you will eliminate or control
                        the permit-space hazards and ensure the safety of
                        those who enter the space.




                                                                            15
     eliminate or control the hazards in the space
     Before allowing employees to enter a permit space, you must
     either eliminate all hazards in the space or control the hazards
     so that the employees can accomplish their tasks and exit the
     space safely. The table summarizes options for eliminating and
     controlling hazards and gives an example of each.
     Options for eliminating and controlling hazards in permit spaces
     If                        Then                       Example
     The space has no          You can reclassify the     You need to enter a
     actual or potential       space as a non-permit      mixing tank that has no
     atmospheric hazards       space. • You must          atmospheric hazards
     and you can eliminate     eliminate all hazards      but does have mixing
     all other hazards.        in the space before        paddles that could
                               workers enter and for      start automatically. •
                               the entire time they are   You must lock out/tag
                               in the space. • You must   out the mixing-paddle
                               document how you           hazard before you
                               eliminated the hazards     enter.
                               and certify the space
                               hazard-free.
                                                            Continued on next page




          Non-permit space means the space is safe to enter and employees
          can work in it without a permit as long as it is free of hazards.

16
Options for eliminating and controlling hazards in permit spaces, continued
If                         Then                        Example
The space has only         Workers can enter the       You need to enter an
an actual or potential     space under alternate       abandoned chemical-
atmospheric hazard         procedures. • You must      storage tank. •
and you can control        keep the space hazard-      You’ve monitored
it with forced-air         free with continuous        the space for oxygen
ventilation.               forced-air ventilation      displacement and
                           before workers enter        enrichment, flammable
                           and for the entire time     atmospheres, and
                           workers are in the          toxic atmospheres. •
                           space. • You must have      You’ve determined an
                           test and inspection data    atmospheric hazard
                           that show forced-air        exists — for example,
                           ventilation will keep the   oxygen deficiency.
                           space hazard free.          • Your test and
                                                       inspection data show
                                                       that continuous
                                                       forced-air ventilation
                                                       will increase oxygen
                                                       content to 19.5 percent.
                                                       • You periodically
                                                       monitor the atmosphere
                                                       in the space to ensure
                                                       forced-air ventilation
                                                       maintains safe entry
                                                       conditions.
                                                         Continued on next page




     Alternate procedures are specific procedures that allow workers to
     enter and work in a permit space without a permit if continuous forced-
     air ventilation controls the atmospheric hazard and no other hazards
     exist.

                                                                                  17
     Options for eliminating and controlling hazards in permit spaces, continued
     If                        Then                        Example
     The space has             You must follow your        You need to enter a
     atmospheric and non-      written permit-space        sewer system that has
     atmospheric hazards       program (see Page 31        deep standing water
     and you can’t eliminate   for more information).      and contains pockets of
     the hazards.              • The program must          methane and hydrogen
                               include the method for      sulfide, but you can’t
                               controlling the hazards,    eliminate these hazards.
                               procedures for entry        Ventilation won’t
                               operations, and an entry    eliminate the water
                               permit verifying that the   problem.
                               space is safe to enter.




18
establish entry procedures
Before employees enter a permit space, you must have safe-work
procedures covering all phases of the entry process, summarized
in the following tables. You must also complete an entry permit
(there’s an example on Page 22) that verifies the permit space is
safe for employees to enter. “Entry” occurs when any part of a
worker’s body moves through the opening of the space.
            Before employees enter: pre-entry operations
Guard the space         Place warning signs or barriers to keep out
                        unauthorized people and to protect entrants from
                        falling objects.
Isolate the space       Disconnect, lock out, or tag out hazardous
                        equipment in the space.
Eliminate or control    Eliminate or control the hazards in the space;
atmospheric hazards     document the method and the steps necessary to
                        eliminate or control the hazards.
Test the space for      Test for atmospheric hazards in the following
atmospheric hazards     order: oxygen, flammable gases, toxic and
                        corrosive gases. Employees must have the
                        opportunity to observe the test.
Identify necessary      Ensure that entrants have the equipment
equipment               they need to do their tasks (including rescue
                        equipment) and they know how to use the
                        equipment.
Plan for emergencies    Attendants must know how to respond to
                        emergencies, including whom to contact and how
                        to remove entrants.
Complete and post the The entry supervisor must certify that the space is
entry permit          safe to enter, sign the entry permit, and post it on
                      the space so that authorized entrants can see it.




                                                                             19
                 Before employees enter: pre-entry operations
     Maintain                  Attendants and entrants must keep in contact
     communications            with each other. They must know what
                               communications equipment to use and how to
                               use it effectively.
     Keep out unauthorized     The entry supervisor and authorized attendants
     people                    must keep unauthorized people away from the
                               space.
     Monitor activity inside   Authorized attendants must continuously monitor
     and outside the space     the permit space for hazards while employees are
                               inside.



        After employees leave the space: completing entry operations
     Cancel the entry          The entry supervisor cancels the permit when
     permit                    entrants finish entry operations or when a
                               condition arises that isn’t identified on the permit.
     Return the space to       Employees return the space to service after
     service                   entrants exit.
     File the permit           All problems encountered by entrants are
                               recorded and the permit is kept on file for at least
                               one year.




20
the entry permit: The entry permit documents acceptable
entry conditions and verifies that the space is safe for employees
to enter. Required permit information:
• Location of the permit space
• Purpose of entry
• Entry date and the time employees will enter
• Authorized entrants’ names
• Authorized attendants’ names
• Entry supervisor’s name and signature
• Hazards in the space
• How hazards will be controlled so that the space is safe
  to enter
• Acceptable entry conditions
• Testing data and testers’ initials that certify the space is safe
  to enter
• Names of emergency responders and instructions for
  contacting them
• Communication procedures used by entrants and attendants
• A list of all equipment necessary to ensure entrants’ safety
• A description of any other permits that entrants need to
  work in the space




                                                                      21
     A sample entry permit




22
23
     train employees for entry operations
     Training employees who will do permit-space work is the most
     effective way to ensure that they understand entry procedures,
     know how to control permit-space hazards, and know what to
     do in an emergency.
     When employees must be trained:
     • Before their permit-space duties are assigned or changed
     • When there is a change in permit-space operations that
       presents a hazard for which they haven’t been trained
     • When they don’t follow entry-permit procedures
     training must be certified. If you authorize employees to enter a
     permit space, you must certify that they have been trained. The
     certification must contain each employee’s name, the trainer’s
     signature, and the training dates. It must be available for
     employees or authorized representatives to review.
     Trainers should understand all parts of 1910.146 and have
     experience with the types of permit spaces employees
     will enter.




24
make sure employees know their duties and responsibilities
Working in permit spaces is a team effort involving authorized
entrants, attendants, and supervisors.
Authorized entrants are the employees that an employer allows
to enter a permit space and are responsible for the following:
• Knowing the permit-space hazards, including the symptoms
  and consequences of exposure
• Using equipment properly
• Communicating regularly with the attendant
• Notifying the attendant immediately of hazardous
  conditions
• Leaving the space immediately during a hazardous
  condition or when the attendant orders an evacuation
Authorized attendants monitor the entrants’ activities from
outside the space and are responsible for the following:
• Knowing the permit-space hazards, including the symptoms
  and consequences of exposure
• Knowing how many entrants are in the permit space
• Staying out of the space during entry operations
• Keeping in contact with entrants
• Ordering an evacuation for a hazardous condition
• Keeping unauthorized people away from the space
• Starting rescue procedures




                                                                 25
     the entry supervisor ensures that attendants and entrants
     follow entry-permit procedures and is responsible for the
     following:
     • Knowing the permit-space hazards, including the symptoms
       and consequences of exposure
     • Verifying that the entry permit is accurate and current
     • Stopping entry operations and canceling the entry permit
       when permit-space work is done or during a hazardous
       condition
     • Ensuring that responders will be available in an emergency
     • Removing any unauthorized person who enters the space
     • Ensuring that entry operations are consistent if another
       authorized employee must replace an attendant or an
       entrant




26
plan for emergencies
Before you authorize employees to enter a permit space,
you must be sure that experienced emergency responders
will be available if an entrant needs help. Responders must
be able to reach the site promptly and know how to deal with
the emergency.
Those who don’t understand permit-space hazards or who
respond inappropriately during emergencies cause most permit-
space accidents. Keep in mind that many fire departments are
not equipped to respond to permit-space emergencies.
Firefighters that respond to emergency (911) calls for rescue
from confined spaces must comply with Division 2, Subdivision
L, 437-002-0182 (36) Confined Space Rescue.
employer’s responsibilities. Tell emergency responders
about any permit-space hazards they may encounter during
an emergency, ensure that responders can reach the space
promptly, and allow responders to practice rescues at all on-site
permit spaces.
responders’ responsibilities. Have the equipment necessary
to perform rescues and know how to use it, and be trained as
rescuers. As authorized entrants, practice simulated rescues at
least once a year at each on-site permit space, and keep first-aid
and CPR training up to date.




                                                                     27
     on-site or off-site responders? You can choose either an
     on-site or off-site responder. It’s important only that the
     responder meet your needs in an emergency. Use the table on
     this and the following page to help you decide.
                       Choosing an emergency responder
     Steps to take           What to consider
     Identify your needs     Do you anticipate emergencies requiring
                             immediate action (if ventilation fails, for example)
                             or less-than-immediate action (if the most serious
                             accident would cause a fracture or abrasion)?
     Interview the           Meet with the responders to find out if they can
     responder               provide the emergency service you need. Posting
                             an emergency response number, 911 for example,
                             isn’t enough.
     How quickly can the     The response time must be appropriate for the
     responder reach the     nature of the injury; responders must be standing
     site?                   by when entrants are working under potential
                             IDLH (immediately dangerous to life and health)
                             conditions.
     Will the responder be   The responders must be available any time
     available?              employees need to enter a permit space.
     How will you contact    Do you have a way for an authorized attendant
     the responder?          or an entry supervisor to reach responders
                             immediately?

                                                           Continued on next page




28
                Choosing an emergency responder, continued
Steps to take             What to consider
Can the responder do      Does the responder have the technical knowledge
technical rescues?        and equipment to perform rope work or elevated-
                          rescue work?
Can the responder do      Does the responder have the skills and equipment
medical evacuations?      for medical evacuations?
Is the responder          Can the responder recognize the signs,
trained to enter a        symptoms, and consequences of exposure to a
permit space?             hazardous atmosphere in a permit space at your
                          workplace?
Does the responder     For example, does the responder know how to
know how to test the   determine whether the atmosphere is IDLH?
atmosphere in a permit
space?
Will the responder        For example, will responders understand the
understand the            ventilation and atmospheric testing data on the
information on your       entry permit?
entry permit?




                                                                             29
     A diagram of the entry process from start to finish

     Does the workplace No                                                                                                 Consult other
     contain confined                                                                                                      applicable
     spaces as defined by                           Does the workplace contain permit-required No                          Oregon OSHA
                          Yes
     §1910.146(b)?                                  spaces as defined by §1910.146(b)?                                     standards.
                                                                                                                                        STOP
                                                                          Yes


                                                                                                                         Prevent employee
                                                    Inform employee as required by §1910.146(b).
                                                                                                                         entry as required
                                                                                                                         by §1910.146(c)
     Will contractors enter?                                                                                             (3). Do task from
                                                      Yes Will permit space be entered?       No
         No            Yes                                                                                               outside of space.


                                                                                       Task will be completed by contractor’s employees.
     Will host                                                                         Inform contractor as required by §1910.146 (c)(8)(i),
     employees                                                                         (ii) and (iii). Contractor obtains information required
     enter to                                                                          by §1910.146(c)(9)(i), (ii), and (ii) from host.
               No                           Prevent unauthorized entry.
     perform                                                              STOP
     entry
     tasks?              Does space No                                                                             Not a permit-required
        Yes
                         have known                                                                                space. §1910.146 does
                         or potential               Can the hazards                Employer may choose             not apply. Consult other
                         hazards?     Yes
                                                    be eliminated? Yes             to reclassify space to          OSHA standards.
                                                                                   non-permit-required
                                                           No
                                                                                   confined space using
                                                                                   §1910.16(c)(7).
                                                                                                       STOP               Space may be
     Can the space be maintained in a condition safe                                                                      entered under
                                                         Yes
     to enter by continuous forced-air ventilation only?                                                                  §1910.146(c)(5).
                             No                                                                                                          STOP

                                                    Verify acceptable entry conditions (test results
                    Prepare for entry via           recorded, space isolated if needed, rescuers/means                       Permit not valid
                    permit procedures.              to summon available, entrants properly equipped.)? No                    until conditions
                                                                                       Yes                                   reflect permit
                                                                                                                             specifications.


     Permit issued by authorizing signature.
     Acceptable entry conditions maintained                                                                 Emergency exists (prohibited
     throughout entry?                       No                                                             condition). Entrants evacuated;
                          Yes                                                                               entry aborts. (Call rescuers if
                                                                                                            needed.) Permit is voided.
                                                                Audit program                               Re-evaluate program to correct/
          Entry tasks completed. Permit                         and permit based                            prevent prohibited condition.
          returned and canceled.                                on evaluation of                            (Occurrence of emergency
                                                                entry by entrants,                          usually is proof of deficient
                                                                attendants, testers,                        program.) No re-entry until
                                                                and preparers.                              program and permit emended.
                                                                                  STOP                      May require new program.




30
preparing your permit-space program
The eight critical activities described in the previous section lay
the foundation for an effective permit-space program. If your
employees need to enter a permit space at your workplace, you
must have a written permit-space program that meets the
requirements of 1910.146 and covers all aspects of working in
or near the space.
In preparing your written program, think about the
characteristics of the permit spaces at your workplace, the tasks
that employees need to accomplish in and around the spaces,
and the employees’ work experience in permit spaces.
The enclosed CD includes a generic written program. You can
use the generic program to develop the written program
for your workplace. Remember, the written program is not
complete until all the activities and procedures that make it
specific to your workplace are included. The following are the
parts of the generic program:
• Company policies and responsibilities
• Confined space and permit-space identification
• Procedures for entering a permit space
• Alternate procedure for entering a permit space
• Reclassifying a permit space as a non-permit space
• Completing the entry permit




                                                                      31
     • Duties of authorized entrants, attendants, and entry
       supervisors
     • Training affected employees
     • Employee training records
     • Rescue and emergency services
     • Annual program review




32
guide to oregon osHA services
Oregon OSHA offers a wide variety of safety and health services to
employers and employees:
consultative services
• Offers no-cost, on-site safety and health assistance to help Oregon
  employers recognize and correct workplace safety and health
  problems.
• Provides consultations in the areas of safety, industrial hygiene,
  ergonomics, occupational safety and health programs, new-
  business assistance, the Safety and Health Achievement
  Recognition Program (SHARP), and the Voluntary Protection
  Program (VPP).
enforcement
• Offers pre-job conferences for mobile employers in industries
  such as logging and construction.
• Provides abatement assistance to employers who have received
  citations and provides compliance and technical assistance by
  phone.
• Inspects places of employment for occupational safety and health
  hazards and investigates workplace complaints and accidents.
Appeals, informal conferences
• Provides the opportunity for employers to hold informal meetings
  with Oregon OSHA on concerns about workplace safety and
  health.
• Discusses Oregon OSHA’s requirements and clarifies workplace
  safety or health violations.
• Discusses abatement dates and negotiates settlement agreements
  to resolve disputed citations.



                                                                        33
     standards and technical resources
     • Develops, interprets, and provides technical advice on safety and
       health standards.
     • Provides copies of all Oregon OSHA occupational safety and
       health standards.
     • Publishes booklets, pamphlets, and other materials to assist in
       the implementation of safety and health standards and programs.
     • Operates a Resource Center containing books, topical files,
       technical periodicals, a video and film lending library, and more
       than 200 databases.
     public education and conferences
     • Conducts conferences, seminars, workshops, and rule forums.
     • Coordinates and provides technical training on topics like
       confined space, ergonomics, lockout/tagout, and excavations.
     • Provides workshops covering management of basic safety and
       health programs, safety committees, accident investigation, and
       job-safety analysis.
     • Manages the Safety and Health Education and Training Grant
       Program, which awards grants to industrial and labor groups to
       develop training materials in occupational safety and health for
       Oregon workers.




34
for more information, call the oregon osHA office nearest you.


oregon osHA central office

  Phone: 503-378-3272                  Labor & Industries Building
  Toll-free: 800-922-2689              350 Winter St. NE, Room 430
  Fax: 503-947-7461                    Salem, Oregon
  en Español: 800-843-8086             Mailing address:
  Web site: www.orosha.org             P.O. Box 14480
                                       Salem, OR 97309-0405

oregon osHA statewide offices

  bend                                 pendleton
  Red Oaks Square                      200 SE Hailey Ave.
  1230 N.E. Third St., Suite A-115     Pendleton, OR 97801-3056
  Bend, OR 97701-4374                  541-276-9175
  541-388-6066                         Consultation: 541-276-2353
  Consultation: 541-388-6068
                                       portland
  eugene                               Fremont Place, Building 1
  1140 Willagillespie Road, Suite 42   1750 NW Naito Parkway, Suite 112
  Eugene, OR 97401-2101                Portland, OR 97209-2533
  541-686-7562                         503-229-5910
  Consultation: 541-686-7913           Consultation: 503-229-6193
  medford                              salem
  1840 Barnett Road, Suite D           1340 Tandem Ave. NE, Suite 160
  Medford, OR 97504-8250               Salem, OR 97303
  Consultation: 541-776-6016           503-378-3274
                                       Consultation: 503-373-7819
440-2864 (10/10/com)

				
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