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Course of Action Development - Offense

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					Course of Action
 Development




                   1
Course of Action development is
important for commanders. As
Intelligence NCOs your expertise
becomes vital in the six-step COA
Development process. Although this
step of the MDMP is primarily the
responsibility of the S3, the S2 can use
this same process to develop Threat
COAs (Step #4 of IPB). Include all
available BOS when developing ECOAs.
                                     2
          Objectives
ACTION: Describe the six-step process
 and five criteria for step three of
 MDMP, COA Development

CONDITIONS: Given OPLAN, FM 101-5,
 FM 34-130, FM 34-8-2

STANDARD: Demonstrate applied
 knowledge of intelligence products
                                  3
 IAW FM 101-5, FM 34-130, FM 34-8-2
Safety Reqs: None

Risk: IV, E, Low

Environmental
Considerations: None

Classifications: Unclass   4
      COA DEVELOPMENT
• A course of action is a plan that would
  accomplish the unit’s restated mission
• It must meet five criteria for further
  development:
  –   Suitability
  –   Feasibility
  –   Acceptability
  –   Distinguishability
  –   Completeness                          5
         COA Development
           Prerequisites
•   The effects of terrain
•   Enemy situation
•   Friendly situation
•   Commanders guidance
•   Combat power (two level down)
•   Time available

                                    6
             SUITABILITY
• “Will the plan...”
  –   Accomplish the mission?
  –   Focus on correct objectives?
  –   Focus on the restated mission?
  –   Comply with higher cdr's intent?
  –   Follow the cdr's guidance?
• Suitability analysis correlates to the “art”
  of war and depends on the cdr's or staff
  officer’s knowledge                         7
               FEASIBILITY
• “Does the unit...”
  – Have required resources? Such as:
     •   Personnel
     •   Transportation
     •   Resupply
     •   Equipment
  – Have time to get sufficient resources, if not
   on hand?

                                                8
            FEASIBILITY
• If conditions change significantly, will
  the unit’s future capability be negated?
• Feasibility analysis is a measurement
  of a concept. It correlates to the
  “science” of war




                                             9
             ACCEPTABILITY
• “Is COA worth the cost in...”
       •   Personnel
       •   Time
       •   Materiel
       •   Position
•     Acceptability analysis is largely an
    intuitive process based on experience,
    expertise, and a firm understanding of
    the current situation
                                             10
     DISTINGUISHABILITY
• “Is the COA...”
  – Significantly different from other COAs?
     •
     •   Use of reserves
     •   Task organization
     •   Scheme of maneuver
     •   Day vs. night operations
  – Largely subjective

                                               11
        COMPLETENESS
• “Does each COA answer...”
  – What, when, where, why and how?
• There are no limits on clearly explaining
  how units are to execute the COA
• Note that COAs do not answer “who”
  specifically but only by type of unit.
  Who is decided by the commander!!!

                                          12
        COMPLETENESS
1. What: Type of offensive, defensive or
  retrograde action - Includes mission
  essential tasks for unit
2. When: Time action will begin or must
  be completed
3. Where: Assigned AO, sectors or
  zones
4. Why: Purpose of the operation
                                           13
        COMPLETENESS
5. How: Method of conducting the
  operation using major assets available
  – Only major significant items of the battle
    operating systems (BOS) should be
    addressed
  – Task and purpose of main and supporting
    efforts included


                                                 14
            COA PLANNER
•   Planner develops 2 - 3 COAs minimum
    – more if time and resources permit
• Goal: Develop several COAs for every
  enemy COA developed by the S2!
• If time is limited, the commander or the
  S3 must decide on the number of COAs
  the planners will develop and which
  enemy COAs they will address
                                          15
Questions???




               16
     COA DEVELOPMENT
          STEPS
• Step 1: Analyze relative combat power
• Step 2: Generate options
• Step 3: Array initial forces
• Step 4: Develop the scheme of maneuver
• Step 5: Assign headquarters
• Step 6: Prepare COA statements and
  sketches
• Note: Steps 2 & 3 are done concurrently
                                            17
 STEP 1: ANALYZE RELATIVE
         CBT POWER
• Numeric relationship of combat power
  –    (firepower, protection, maneuver, & leadership)
  –   Analysis of relative force ratios of direct
  –    & indirect fire assets
  –   Normally analyzed two levels down
  –   Not an absolute mathematical answer
  –   Planner determines
      •   Friendly capabilities
      •   Possible operation types
      •   Enemy vulnerability
      •   Resources needed                           18
                BRAG

        MID: 3 X 152 MM
             1 X MRL BN
MIC     MIBR: 1 X 122 MM
        CAR 3/7 AT BTRY
        MIBN: 1 X BMP 1 BN
              1 X T-72 CO
              1 X AT PLT
 MIC
          CAR

                         DAG
MIC




       ENEMY MOST LIKELY
       COURSE OF ACTION
                               17
   Relative Combat Power
• OVERALL relationship of the combat
  power of friendly vs. enemy forces




                                       20
             Force Ratios
• By comparing
  forces, you can
  learn:
• friendly capabilities
• possible operation
  types
• how and where the
  enemy is vulnerable

                            21
              Force Ratios
• Use the values in
  App. A of MDMP 1
  NTG
• Follow key rules:
  – US forces on the left
  – Divide the ratio by
    the smaller number
  – One side must equal
    1

                             22
Demonstration

  Force Ratios




                 23
   PLANING RATIOS FOR
     FRIENDLY UNITS
Friendly        Friendly:
Mission         Enemy       Notes
Delay           1: 6

Defend          1: 3        Prepared or
                            Fortified

Defend          1: 2.5      Hasty

Attack          3: 1        Prepared or
                            Fortified

Attack          2.5: 1      Hasty position

Counterattack   1: 1        Flank            24
       US vs THREAT UNIT COMPARISON VALUES
                   (for Small Units)

U.S. Forces                         Opposing Forces

M113 MECH CO           1.5          BTR CO                 1.0
M2 MECH CO             2.0          BMP-1 CO               1.5
LIGHT INF CO           0.7          BMP-2                  1.6

Ml TNK CO              3.0          T-55                   1.1
MlAl TNK CO            3.2          T-62                   1.4
M6OA3 TNK CO           2.3          T-64                   2.3
                                    T-72                   2.0
                                    T-80                   2.6



                                    AT BTRY (AT-5)         1.5
                                    AT BTRY (T-12/SPG-9)   0.5


ACR TROOP (Ml/M3)      2.8          RECON CO (TNK.BMP)      1.2
DIV CAV TROOP (M3)     2.5          RECON CO (BRDM)         0.2


ATK HELI CO(AH-64)     4.0          ATK HELI CO (MI-24)     2.0
ATTACK HELI CO(AH-1)   3.0          ATK HELI CO (MI-28)     3.0
AIR CAV TROOP          3.0


                              FIELD ARTILLERY

FA BN                   2.0         FA BN                   2.0
MLRS BTRY               2.0         MRL BTRY                1.0




                                                                  25
            QUESTION 1!!!!
• A Balanced US task force of M1A1s and M2s
  is defending against 3 BNs of BMP2 and 1
  BNs of T80U.
  –   M1A1 CO = 3.2 x 2= 6.4
  –   M2 CO =2.0 x 2= 4.0
  –   BMP2 CO=1.6 x 9= 14.4
  –   T80 CO = 2.6 x3= 7.8
• What is the RELATIVE FORCE RATIO?
  – US FORCES 10.4
  – THREAT 22.2
• 1 : 2.13461                             26
        RELATIVE FORCE RATIOS

• Applies to the force as a whole!

• Roll up all combat forces in TASK ORG for both threat
  and Friendly.



       COMMITED FORCE RATIOS
• Applies to forces in contact!

• Don’t forget those forces supporting those in contact.

                                                    27
COMMITED FORCE RATIOS



   2/63AR
            9 TB
                        115 MIB
             x            x
   1/6IN    112 MIB     113 MIB




              112 MIB   113 MIB
                   x     x        28
COMMITED FORCE RATIOS
 2-63AR 3X3.2 = 9.6          12xT80CO 12X2.6 = 31.2
 1-6 IN 3x2.0 = 6            9xBMP2 CO 9x1.6 =14.4
 US FORCES = 15.6            2xAT 5BTRY 2x1.5 = 3.0
                             2xFA BN 2x 2.0 = 4
                             THREAT FORCES = 52.6




                      15.6 : 52.6


         1 : 3.371
  WE HAVE A WAR STOPPER
                                                      29
           Force Ratios
• Ratio is worst acceptable case
• At 1:3 we can defend in prepared
  positions
• Enemy doctrine 1:6 to succeed
• Ratios indicate main/supporting attack



                                           30
      STEP 2. GENERATE
          OPTIONS
• Based on CDR’s guidance and the
  results of Step 1, the staff generates
  options
• Friendly COAs must be capable of
  defeating all enemy COAs
• Must consider doctrinal requirements for
  each type of operation

                                         31
      STEP 2. GENERATE
       OPTIONS (CONT)
• Staff determines:
  – Decisive point if not done by Cdr already
  – The Main Effort
  – Purpose of main effort (must be same as
    purpose of higher HQs)
  – Supporting efforts including task and
    purpose (should be directly related to main
    effort’s purpose or to another supporting
    effort)
  – Essential tasks for main and supporting
    efforts                                    32
        DECISIVE POINT
• Where the unit will mass the effects of
  overwhelming combat power to achieve
  a result with respect to terrain, enemy,
  and time that will accomplish that unit’s
  purpose.

• FM 101-5 [p. 5-12]

                                          33
   BDE RESTATED MISSION:
                                 Task

1st Bde attacks 121400AUG97 to seize Obj

Automobile in order to protect the northern flank

of 2nd Brigade.             Purpose



                                              34
     CDR’S GUIDANCE TO
           STAFF
• The decisive point is the destruction of
  the center mechanized infantry
  company (MIC).
• The purpose of the operation is to
  protect the northern flank of 2nd Bde.
• The end state is two Bn task forces on
  the objective with enemy destroyed.
  Maintain a minimum of a Co/Tm in
  reserve.                                   35
                        BRAG



MIC




 MIC
       DECISIVE
       POINT
                  CAR

                               DAG
MIC




                                 34
   STEP 3: ARRAY INITIAL
         FORCES
• To determine the forces necessary to
  accomplish the mission & to provide a
  basis for the scheme of maneuver,
  planners must consider:
  – The unit’s restated mission and higher
    commander’s intent and guidance
  – The air and ground avenues of approach
  – As many possible enemy COAs as time
    permits, starting with the most likely and
                                                 37
    including the worst case
   STEP 3: ARRAY INITIAL
         FORCES
• Determine the forces necessary to
  accomplish the task (force ratios)
• Must consider the entire battlefield
  framework (deep, close, rear, reserve,
  security, and reconnaissance)
• Array forces two levels down
• Generic forces are used at this point
• Do not assign missions to arrayed
  forces
                                           38
                          BRAG



MIC



       DECISIVE
 MIC
       POINT
                    CAR

                                 DAG
MIC




                  ARRAY GENERIC
                     FORCES
                                   37
    STEP 4: DEVELOP
  SCHEME OF MANEUVER
• Describes how arrayed forces will
  accomplish the CDR’s intent
• Staff develops a scheme of
  maneuver by:
    • Refining arrayed forces
    • Applying graphic control measures
    • Converting generic forces to specific
     type units
                                              40
    STEP 4: DEVELOP
  SCHEME OF MANEUVER
• Considers how obstacles and fire
  support can support the maneuver
  forces
• Any forces remaining from the initial
  array should be used to provide depth
  to the battle, additional reconnaissance
  or security, or act as a reserve

                                         41
    STEP 4: DEVELOP
  SCHEME OF MANEUVER
• The scheme of maneuver must include:
  – The purpose of the operation
  – A statement of where the cdr will accept
   tactical risk
  – ID of critical friendly events / phases
  – Designation of the main effort (task &
   purpose)
  – Designation of the supporting effort (task
   & purpose)
  – Designation of reserve (task & purpose)      42
    STEP 4: DEVELOP
  SCHEME OF MANEUVER
• The scheme of maneuver must include:
  – Deep / close / rear operations
  – Recon and security operations
  – An outline of the movements of the force
  – The location of engagement areas /
    objectives
  – Concept of fires


                                               43
      STEP 4: DEVELOP
    SCHEME OF MANEUVER
• Command and control attack priorities
• Prescribed formations
• Priorities for each CS / CSS element
• Integration of obstacle effects with
  maneuver fires
• Considerations on the effects of enemy
  weapons of mass destruction on the
  force
                                           44
      CONTROL MEASURES
•   Boundaries          • Avenues of
•   Axis of advance       approach (AAs)
•   Zones/sectors       • Objectives
•   Phase lines         • Main effort
•   LD/LC Obstacles       (offense)
•   Engagement Areas    • Battle Positions
    (EAs)                 (BPs)/Strongpoints


      Never split AAs OR key terrain       45
                        BRAG



MIC
       PROTECT N. FLANK
       OF 2ND BDE
 MIC
       DECISIVE
                  CAR
       POINT
                               DAG
MIC




         DETERMINE PURPOSE
         OF THE MAIN EFFORT
                                     44
TO PREVENT DIRECT FIRES                     BRAG
ON THE SUPPORTING ATTACK

                    MIC
                           PROTECT N. FLANK
                           OF 2ND BDE
                    MIC
                           DECISIVE
                           POINT      CAR

                                                   DAG

  CREATE MANEUVER SPACE
   FOR THE MAIN EFFORT

                                 DETERMINE PURPOSE
                                 OF THE SUPPORTING
                                 EFFORTS
                                                         45
                                            BRAG
TO PREVENT DIRECT FIRES
ON THE SUPPORTING ATTACK

                   MIC
 PROTECT THE               PROTECT N. FLANK
 MAIN EFFORT’S             OF 2ND BDE
 EAST FLANK         MIC
                           DECISIVE
                                      CAR
                           POINT
                                                   DAG


  CREATE MANEUVER SPACE
   FOR THE MAIN EFFORT

                                 DETERMINE PURPOSE
                                 OF THE SUPPORTING
                                 EFFORTS
                                                         46
TO PREVENT DIRECT FIRES                        BRAG
ON THE SUPPORTING ATTACK

                    MIC       T: SEIZE OBJ CHEVY
                  OBJ CHEVY   P: PROTECT N. FLANK
 PROTECT THE
                                 OF 2ND BDE
 MAIN EFFORT’S
 EAST FLANK          MIC
                              DECISIVE
                              POINT      CAR

                                                      DAG


 CREATE MANEUVER SPACE
  FOR THE MAIN EFFORT


                                         ASSIGN TASK TO
                                         ACHIEVE PURPOSE
                                                            47
T: SUPPRESS N. MIC
                                                   RAG
P: TO PREVENT FIRES ON THE
   SUPPORTING ATTACK


                        MIC      T: SEIZE OBJ CHEVY
                     OBJ CHEVY   P: PROTECT N. FLANK
 PROTECT THE
                                    OF 2ND BDE
 MAIN EFFORT’S
 EAST FLANK              MIC
                                 DECISIVE
                                             CAR
                                 POINT
                                                         DAG
                     OBJ FORD


T: SEIZE OBJ FORD
P: CREATE MANEUVER SPACE
   FOR THE MAIN EFFORT
                                            ASSIGN TASK TO
                                            ACHIEVE PURPOSE
                                                               48
T: SUPPRESS N. MIC
                                                   RAG
P: TO PREVENT FIRES ON THE
   SUPPORTING ATTACK


                        MIC       T: SEIZE OBJ CHEVY
                     OBJ CHEVY    P: PROTECT N. FLANK
                                     OF 2ND BDE

                         MIC    DECISIVE
                                POINT        CAR

                                                         DAG
                     OBJ FORD          T: B/P BLOCK CAR
                                       P: PROTECT THE MAIN
T: SEIZE OBJ FORD                         EFFORT’S E. FLANK
P: CREATE MANEUVER SPACE
   FOR THE MAIN EFFORT
                                           ASSIGN TASK TO
                                           ACHIEVE PURPOSE
                                                               49
          STEP 5: ASSIGN
          HEADQUARTERS
• Assign headquarters to each arrayed
  group of forces
• Should consider the types of units to be
  assigned to a headquarters
•    Normal span of control is 2-5
    subordinate maneuver units

                                         52
                                     2
                                     X
                                     1
T: SUPPRESS N. MIC                               RAG
P: TO PREVENT FIRES ON THE
   SUPPORTING ATTACK
                        MIC
                                    T: SEIZE OBJ CHEVY
                      OBJ CHEVY
                                    P: PROTECT N. FLANK
                                       OF 2ND BDE

                         MIC

                                           CAR

                                                          DAG
                     OBJ FORD
                       MIC
                                     T: B/P BLOCK CAR
                                     P: PROTECT THE MAIN
T: SEIZE OBJ FORD                       EFFORT’S E. FLANK
P: CREATE MANEUVER SPACE
                                  1
   FOR THE MAIN EFFORT            X
                                  133 KY
                                    ASSIGN HEADQUARTERS
                                                                51
 STEP 6: PREPARE COA
STATEMENTS & SKETCHES
• Statement provides the “how” in words.
  Sketch provides the picture of the statement.
• Together they address:
  – What   - When       - Where       - How - Why
• The statement is organized by the battlefield
  framework
  – Deep, close (reconnaissance, security, main
    attack/MBA, reserve), rear


                                                    54
               COA SKETCH
• Sketch must include:
  –   Unit boundaries that define the AO
  –   Unit movement formations
  –   FEBA / LD/LC / phase lines
  –   R&S graphics
  –   Ground & air axes of advance
  –   AA / BPs / strongpoints / EAs / Objective
  –   Obstacles / fire support graphics
  –   Designation of main & spt effort
  –   Location of CPs
  –   Enemy known / templated locations
                                                  55
CLOSE
:          A TANK HEAVY TF 1
                                             2
SUPPRESSES THE NORTHERN
MRC TO PREVENT DIRECT
                                             X
FIRES ON THE SUPPORTING                      1
ATTACK TF 2. DS ARTY FIRES                          RAG
AB 1003 TO DESTROY SOUTHERN
MRP OF MRC 3 TO ALLOW TF 2
TO CONDUCT FIRE AND                 MIC
MANEUVER AND GAIN A STRONG
HOLD ON OBJ FORD. A TANK          OBJ CHEVY
HEAVY TF 2 SEIZES OBJ FORD             AB1004
TO CREATE MANEUVER SPACE
FOR THE MAIN EFFORT.                MIC            AB1005
SIM, DS ARTY FIRES AB1004 TO
                                                  CAR
SUPPRESS ENEMY TO
DEGRADE HIS DIRECT FIRES ON            AB 1003   EA FIRE    DAG
ME. SEQ, A BALANCED TASK FORCE,   OBJ FORD
                                   MIC
TF3 SEIZES OBJ CHEVY
TO PROTECT THE NORTHERN
FLANK OF 2ND BDE.
                                           1
                                           XX
RESERVE
:             A TANK CO/TM                 24 ID
B/P TO BLOCK THE REGIMENTAL                     STATEMENT
COMBINED ARMS RESERVE TO
PROTECT THE MAIN EFFORT’S                           &
EASTERN FLANK.                             54     SKETCH
DEEP: R ARTY FIRES AB1005                             2
TO NEUTRALIZE CAR TO                                  X
DEGRADE C2 AND FIRES.                                 1
IEW COLLECTS REG C2 TO                                       RAG
PROVIDE EARLY WARNING OF
CAR ATTACK. R ARTY FIRES
SEAD TO SUPPRESS ENEMY ADA                MIC
TO PREVENT DIRECT FIRES ON
CAS. CAS DESTROYS 3 T-72’S IN           OBJ CHEVY
EA FIRE TO PREVENT THEIR                     AB1004
MANEUVER ON THE BCT.
                                          MIC               AB1005
REAR:     FLE JUMPS TO CP4 TO                              CAR

PROVIDE PRI OF SUPPORT TO                    AB 1003      EA FIRE    DAG
TF 3 ME. AXP MOVE TO AXP        AXP#2   OBJ FORD
                                         MIC
#2 PRI OF SUPPORT TO TF 3.
MP’s SECURE BSA TO ALLOW
LOGICAL FLOW FORWARD          4                      1 ID
AGAINST ENEMY ATTACK.                                XX
                          FLE                        24 ID
SECURITY TF1 NORTHEAST                                    STATEMENT
TF2 SOUTHEAST, TF3 EAST,                                      &&
RESERVE WEST                                    55          SKETCH
   COA Briefing (Optional)
• Updated IPB
• Possible ECOAs and event templates
• The restated mission, the commander and
  higher commander’s intent (two echelons
  above)
• COA sketches and statements
• Considerations that may affect ECOA
• Deductions resulting from relative combat
  power
• Updated facts and assumptions
                                              58
•Commander’s process; staff executes

•Develop COAs that meet the selection criteria

•Planners develop them in a brainstorming session

•Each COA includes a sketch and statement that provide
the basis for a concept of operations and an operations
overlay

•Statement addresses each element of the battlefield
framework--deep, close, rear, reserve, security

•Staff recommends those COAs that have greatest
potential for further analysis

•Staff uses the process to update staff estimates   59
Questions???


    uhh…...
    huh, huh!




                60

				
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