Biology Warm-ups Monday October 5, 2009 1. How do organic and inorganic compounds differ? Please define the following vocab: Carbohydrate Monosaccharide Disaccharide Polysaccharide Warm-up 1. How do organic and inorganic compounds differ? Organic compounds contain carbon covalently bonded to itself and other atoms, inorganic do not contain carbon. Vocab Carbohydrate: any organic compound that contain carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and that provides nutrients to the cells of living things. Monosaccharide: a simple sugar that is the basic subunit, or monomer of a carbohydrate. Disaccharide: a sugar formed from two or more monosaccharide. Polysaccharide: one of the carbohydrates made up of long chains of simple sugars, polysaccharides include starch, cellulose, and glycogen Biology Warm-up Wed October 7and Thur. October 8, 2009 2. Name and draw the four types of functional groups. Please define the following vocab: Macromolecule Condensation reaction Hydrolysis Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) Warm-up 2. Name and draw the four types of functional groups. Vocab Macromolecule: a very large organic molecule, usually composed of hundreds of thousands of atoms. Condensation reaction: a chemical reaction in which two or more molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule Hydrolysis: a chemical reaction between water and another substances to form two or more new substances; a reaction between water and a salt to create an acid or a base. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP): an organic molecule that acts as the main energy for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous base, a sugar and three phosphate groups Biology Warm-up Friday, Oct 9th 3) How are proteins constructed from amino acids? Today’s Vocabulary Protein Amino Acid Peptide Bond Polypeptide 3) How are proteins constructed from amino acids? Answer- Amino acids are joined together by peptide bonds during a condensation reaction. Vocab Protein: an organic compound that is made of one or more chains of amino acids Amino Acid: an organic molecule that contains a carboxyl and an amino group that makes up proteins; a protein monomer Peptide Bond: the chemical bond that forms between the carboxyl group of one amino acid and the amino group of another amino acid Polypeptide: a long chain of several amino acids Biology Warm-up Monday October 12, 2009 4. How do amino acids differ from one another? Please define today’s vocab: Enzyme Substrate Active site Lipid Warm up 4. How do amino acids differ from one another? Answer: Amino acids differ in their R groups. Vocab Enzyme- a type of protein or RNA molecule that speeds up metabolic reactions in plants and animals without being changed or destroyed Substrate- a part, substrate, or element that lies beneath and supports another part, substance, or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed by enzymes Active Site- the site on a enzyme that attaches to a substrate. Lipid- a large, non-polar organic molecule, including fats and steroids; lipids store energy and make up cells membranes Biology Warm-ups Tuesday October 13, 2009 and Thursday October 15, 2009 5. Why do phospholipids orient in a bilayer when in a watery environment, such as a cell? Please define today’s vocab: Fatty acid Triglyceride Phospholipid Warm-up 5. Why do phospholipids orient in a bilayer when in a watery environment, such as a cell? Phospholipids have a hydrophilic part and a hydrophobic, they cannot dissolve completely in water. Therefore, when exposed in water (or a watery environment like a cell) the hydrophilic parts face the water and the hydrophobic parts face away from the water to create a bilayer membrane. Vocab Fatty acid: an organic acid that is contained in lipids, such as fats or oils. Triglyceride: a lipid made of 3 fatty acid molecules and one glycerol molecule Phospholipid: a lipid that contains phosphorus and that is a structural component in cell membranes Biology Warm-up Friday October 16, 2009 HAPPY FRIDAY!!!!!!!! 6. Describe how the three major types of lipids differ in structure from one another? Please define the following vocab: Wax Steroid Nucleic Acid Warm-up 6. Describe how the three major types of lipids differ in structure from one another? Answer: triglycerides: three fatty acids, one glycerol Phospholipids: two fatty acids, one glycerol, and a phosphate Waxes: fatty acid chain, alcohol chain, Vocab Wax: a type of structural lipid consisting of a long fatty-acid chain that is joined by a long alcohol chain. Steroid: a type of lipid that consists of four carbon rings that are attached and that usually has a physiological action. Nucleic Acid: an organic compound, either DNA or RNA, whose molecules are made up of one or two chains of nucleotides and carry out genetic information. Biology Warm-ups Monday October, 19, 2009 GO CHARGERS!!! 7. What are the functions of the two types of nucleic acids? Please define the following vocab: Deoxyribonucleic acid Ribonucleic acid Nucleotide Warm-up 7. What are the functions of the two types of nucleic acids? Answer: DNA has genetic information, and RNA stores and transfers information and can act as an enzyme Vocab Deoxyribonucleic acid: the material that contains the information that determines inherited characteristics. Ribonucleic acid: a natural polymer that is present in all living cells and that plays a role in protein synthesis. Nucleotide: in a nucleic acid chain, a subunit that consists of a sugar phosphate, and a nitrogen base.
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