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Biology Warm-ups

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					         Biology Warm-ups
          Monday October 5, 2009
1. How do organic and inorganic compounds
  differ?
 Please define the following vocab:
   Carbohydrate
   Monosaccharide
   Disaccharide
   Polysaccharide
              Warm-up
1. How do organic and inorganic compounds
  differ?
 Organic compounds contain carbon
  covalently bonded to itself and other
  atoms, inorganic do not contain carbon.
                      Vocab
   Carbohydrate: any organic compound that contain
    carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen and that provides
    nutrients to the cells of living things.
   Monosaccharide: a simple sugar that is the basic
    subunit, or monomer of a carbohydrate.
   Disaccharide: a sugar formed from two or more
    monosaccharide.
   Polysaccharide: one of the carbohydrates made up of
    long chains of simple sugars, polysaccharides include
    starch, cellulose, and glycogen
          Biology Warm-up
 Wed October 7and Thur. October 8, 2009
2. Name and draw the four types of
  functional groups.
 Please define the following vocab:
   Macromolecule
   Condensation reaction
   Hydrolysis
   Adenosine triphosphate (ATP)
               Warm-up
2. Name and draw
  the four types of
  functional groups.
                         Vocab
   Macromolecule: a very large organic molecule, usually
    composed of hundreds of thousands of atoms.

   Condensation reaction: a chemical reaction in which two or more
    molecules combine to produce water or another simple molecule

   Hydrolysis: a chemical reaction between water and another
    substances to form two or more new substances; a reaction
    between water and a salt to create an acid or a base.

   Adenosine triphosphate (ATP): an organic molecule that acts as
    the main energy for cell processes; composed of a nitrogenous
    base, a sugar and three phosphate groups
            Biology Warm-up
 Friday, Oct 9th
 3) How are proteins constructed from
  amino acids?
 Today’s Vocabulary
     Protein
     Amino Acid
     Peptide Bond
     Polypeptide
 3) How are proteins constructed from
  amino acids?
 Answer- Amino acids are joined together
  by peptide bonds during a condensation
  reaction.
                Vocab
 Protein: an organic compound that is made of
  one or more chains of amino acids
 Amino Acid: an organic molecule that
  contains a carboxyl and an amino group that
  makes up proteins; a protein monomer
 Peptide Bond: the chemical bond that forms
  between the carboxyl group of one amino acid
  and the amino group of another amino acid
 Polypeptide: a long chain of several amino
  acids
             Biology Warm-up
 Monday October 12, 2009
 4. How do amino acids differ from one
  another?
 Please define today’s vocab:
     Enzyme
     Substrate
     Active site
     Lipid
                  Warm up
   4. How do amino acids differ from one
    another?

   Answer: Amino acids differ in their R
    groups.
                       Vocab
   Enzyme- a type of protein or RNA molecule that
    speeds up metabolic reactions in plants and
    animals without being changed or destroyed
   Substrate- a part, substrate, or element that lies
    beneath and supports another part, substance,
    or element; the reactant in reactions catalyzed
    by enzymes
   Active Site- the site on a enzyme that attaches
    to a substrate.
   Lipid- a large, non-polar organic molecule,
    including fats and steroids; lipids store energy
    and make up cells membranes
            Biology Warm-ups
             Tuesday October 13, 2009
                       and
            Thursday October 15, 2009
5. Why do phospholipids orient in a bilayer when in
   a watery environment, such as a cell?
Please define today’s vocab:
     Fatty acid
     Triglyceride
     Phospholipid
                   Warm-up
5. Why do phospholipids orient in a bilayer when in
   a watery environment, such as a cell?

   Phospholipids have a hydrophilic part and a
    hydrophobic, they cannot dissolve completely in
    water. Therefore, when exposed in water (or a
    watery environment like a cell) the hydrophilic
    parts face the water and the hydrophobic parts
    face away from the water to create a bilayer
    membrane.
                 Vocab
 Fatty acid: an organic acid that is contained
  in lipids, such as fats or oils.
 Triglyceride: a lipid made of 3 fatty acid
  molecules and one glycerol molecule
 Phospholipid: a lipid that contains phosphorus
  and that is a structural component in cell
  membranes
                     Biology
                     Warm-up
            Friday October 16, 2009
              HAPPY FRIDAY!!!!!!!!
 6. Describe how the three major types of
  lipids differ in structure from one another?

   Please define the following vocab:
     Wax
     Steroid
     Nucleic Acid
                    Warm-up
   6. Describe how the three major types of
    lipids differ in structure from one another?

   Answer:
     triglycerides: three fatty acids, one glycerol
     Phospholipids: two fatty acids, one glycerol,
      and a phosphate
     Waxes: fatty acid chain, alcohol chain,
                     Vocab
   Wax: a type of structural lipid consisting of a
    long fatty-acid chain that is joined by a long
    alcohol chain.
   Steroid: a type of lipid that consists of four
    carbon rings that are attached and that usually
    has a physiological action.
   Nucleic Acid: an organic compound, either DNA
    or RNA, whose molecules are made up of one or
    two chains of nucleotides and carry out genetic
    information.
          Biology Warm-ups
         Monday October, 19, 2009
             GO CHARGERS!!!
7. What are the functions of the two types
   of nucleic acids?
Please define the following vocab:
     Deoxyribonucleic acid
     Ribonucleic acid
     Nucleotide
               Warm-up
7. What are the functions of the two types
   of nucleic acids?
Answer: DNA has genetic information, and
   RNA stores and transfers information
   and can act as an enzyme
                  Vocab
 Deoxyribonucleic acid: the material that
  contains the information that determines
  inherited characteristics.
 Ribonucleic acid: a natural polymer that is
  present in all living cells and that plays a
  role in protein synthesis.
 Nucleotide: in a nucleic acid chain, a
  subunit that consists of a sugar
  phosphate, and a nitrogen base.

				
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