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The Synapse

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					        Neuroanatomy and
            Function
   Gross anatomy
       Lobes of the brain
       Most important structures on
        cortical surface
       Coordinates and Maps of brain
       Units of information at much
        smaller levels
   Functions associated with
    lobes
   How lobes work jointly to
    process information
                     Neuroanatomy
"Indeed, perhaps the most important general observation
that can be made about the brain is that its anatomy is
the most important thing about it."
--Gerald M. Edelman (Building a Picture of the Brain,

The Brain, G. M. Edelman and J.-P. Changeux, editors, Transaction Publishers, 2001)



     Lobes, major structures
        Neuroanatomy
   Lobes, major
    structures
        Neuroanatomy
   Lobes, major
    structures
              Neuroanatomy
   Sulci and gyri, revisited, lateral
    surface




1. Superior frontal gyrus 2. Superior frontal sulcus 3. Central sulcus 4.
Precentral gyrus 5. Postcentral gyrus 6. Supramarginal gyrus 7.
Angular gyrus 8. Postcentral sulcus 9. Parieto-occipital sulcus 10.
Superior parietal lobule 11. Intraparietal sulcus 12. Precentral sulcus
13. Middle frontal gyrus 14. Inferior frontal sulcus 15. Inferior frontal
gyrus 16. Anterior ascending ramus of lateral sulcus 17. Transverse
temporal gyrus 18. Anterior horizontal ramus of lateral sulcus 19.
Superior temporal gyrus 20. Superior temporal sulcus 21. Middle
temporal gyrus 22. Stem of lateral sulcus 23. Inferior temporal sulcus
24. Inferior temporal gyrus 25. Preoccipital notch 26. Posterior branch
of lateral sulcus 27. Triangular part of inferior frontal gyrus 28.
Opercular part of inferior frontal gyrus
             Medial Surface




1. Medial frontal gyrus 2. Cingulate sulcus 3. Cingulate gyrus 4.
Central sulcus 5. Paracentral lobule 6. Callosal sulcus 7. Isthmus of
cingulate gyrus 8. Subparietal sulcus 9. Precuneus 10. Parieto-
occipital sulcus 11. Cuneus 12. Calcarine sulcus or fissure 13.
Rostrum of corpus callosum 14. Genu of corpus callosum 15. Trunk of
corpus callos 16. Splenium of corpus callosum 17. Choroid plexus in
interventricular foramen 18. Interthalamic adhesion 19. Habenular
trigone 20. Hypothalamic sulcus 21. Pineal body 22. Anterior (rostral)
commissure 23. Tectum of midbrain 24. Mamillary body 25. Medial
longitudinal fasciculus 26. Choroid plexus of 4th ventricle
              Medial Surface




1. Medial frontal gyrus 2. Cingulate gyrus 3. Central sulcus 4.
Paracentral lobule 5. Cingulate sulcus 6. Callosal sulcus 7. Subparietal
sulcus 8. Precuneus 9. Parieto-occipital sulcus 10. Cuneus 11.
Isthmus of cingulate gyrus 12. Lingual gyrus 13. Calcarine sulcus or
fissure 14. Medial occipitotemporal gyrus 15. Collateral sulcus 16.
Parahippocampal gyrus 17. Uncus of parahippocampal gyrus 18.
Rhinal sulcus 19. Subcallosal area 20. Paraterminal gyrus 21.
Indusium griseum 22. Rostrum of corpus callosum 23. Genu of
corpus callosum 24. Trunk of corpus callosum 25. Splenium of corpus
callosum 26. Fimbria of hippocampus 27. Cut surface of thalamus 28.
Anterior (rostral) commissure 29. Interthalamic adhesion 30. Column
of fornix 31. Septum pellucidum
         Inferior Surface




1. Frontal pole of left cerebral hemisphere 2. Olfactory bulb 3.
Olfactory tract 4. Orbital gyri and sulci 5. Straight gyrus 6. Temporal
pole of left cerebral hemisphere 7. Olfactory trigone 8. Optic nerve 9.
Optic chiasma 10. Anterior (rostral) perforated substance 11. Optic
tract 12. Tuber cinereum with infundibulum 13. Oculomotor nerve 14.
Mamillary body 15. Uncus of parahippocampal gyrus 16. Basis
pedunculi 17. Basilar sulcus of pons 18. Trigeminal nerve 19.
Abducens nerve 20. Pyramid of medulla oblongata 21. Facial nerve 22.
Vestibulocochlear nerve 23. Glossopharyngeal nerve 24. Vagus nerve
25. Cranial roots of accessory nerve 26. Spinal roots of accessory
nerve 27. Rootlets of hypoglossal nerve 28. Flocculus 29. Ventral
rootlets of 1st cervical spinal nerve 30. Pyramidal decussation
          Inferior Surface




1. Olfactory bulb 2. Orbital sulci and gyri 3. Olfactory tract 4. Gyrus
rectus 5. Olfactory trigone 6. Optic chiasma 7. Tuber cinereum with
infundibulum 8. Mamillary body 9. Posterior (interpeduncular)
perforated substance 10. Basis pedunculi 11. Substantia nigra 12.
Superior cerebellar peduncle 13. Mesencephalic (cerebral) aqueduct
14. Pineal body 15. Splenium of corpus callosum 16. Rhinal sulcus
17. Parahippocampal gyrus 18. Medial occipitotemporal gyrus 19.
Lateral occipitotemporal gyrus 20. Collateral sulcus 21.
Occipitotemporal sulcus 22. Lingual gyrus
             Axial Aspect




1. Genu of corpus callosum 2. Head of caudate
nucleus 3. Frontal horn of lateral ventricle 4. Septum
pellucidum 5. Thalamostriate vein 6. Internal capsule
7. Thalamus 8. Choroid plexus of lateral ventricle 9.
Right crus of fornix 10. Tail of caudate nucleus 11.
Stria terminalis 12. Occipital horn of lateral ventricle
13. Splenium of corpus callosum
         What’s up?




Anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate

            AC-DC Line

         Talairach Space
Tailairach Space
Tailairach Space
Brodmann’s Map
          Nothing New




Woodcut from the Fabrica (1555) by Vesalius
Unit of Information?
Cortical Layers
Cortical Layers
Cytoarchetectic Structure
                  Cytoarchetectic Structure




Inputs:
NS = non-specific, such as are provided by monoamine neurotransmitter (e.g. dopamine, norepinephrine,
and serotonin) neurons. Note that these non-specific inputs synapse on neurons in all 6 cell layers of cortex.
These non-specific inputs provide a general modulatory influence over the activity of a cortical column.
S = specific. This refers to specific sensory information, such as visual, auditory or somatosensory
information. Remember that this input is "relayed" through subdivisions of the thalamus. Note these sensory
afferents synapse primarily on stellate neurons in layer IV.

Outputs:
C-C = cortical to cortical. These "association" connections between 2 regions of cortex within the same
hemisphere are primarily made by pyramidal cells whose cell bodies are located in layer 2.
C-C,Ca = cortical to cortical by way of the corpus callosum. These "callosal" connections between 2 regions
of cortex in opposite hemispheres are primarily made by pyramidal cells whose cell bodies are located in
layer 3.
C-S = cortical to spinal cord. These pyramidal cells have their cell bodies in layer 5. These primary motor
cortex neurons are responsible for controlling the contraction of skeletal muscles throughout the body.
C-T = cortical to thalamus. These pyramidal cells have their cell bodies in layer 6. Why do you think it may be
important for the cortex to give output to the thalamus?
          Unit of Information?
                  Cortical Column




(Left) Organization of a columnar array of apical dendrites of
layers II/II and V pyramidal cells in the primary visual cortex of
macaque monkeys. Numbers to right represent layers of cortex.
(Right) Typical layer III pyramidal cell and three named types of
inhibitory interneuron, each with its specific type of axonal
arborization terminating on different parts of the pyramidal cell.
Primate cerebral cortex.
             Neuroanatomy
   Frontal lobes (prefrontal cortex + motor
    + premotor)

   Prefrontal, Lateral:
       Working memory
            delayed response

            Match-to-sample



       Frontal eye fields



       Broca’s area (language)



       Consciousness



       Attention
           Neuroanatomy
   Frontal lobes (prefrontal cortex +
    motor + premotor)

   Prefrontal, Lateral (cont.):
       Executive control (processing?)



       Context



       Integration



       Binding
             Neuroanatomy

   Frontal lobes (prefrontal cortex +
    motor + premotor)

   Medial:
       Cingulate
            Anterior: error detection, response
             conflict



            Rostral: emotion, subgenual
           Neuroanatomy
   Frontal lobes (prefrontal cortex +
    motor + premotor)

   Inferior (orbital)
       Inhibition (Wisconsin Card Sort Task)
          Neuroanatomy

   Ventro Medial
       Phineas Gage
           Neuroanatomy

   Ventro Medial
       Emotion, reward, fear association
           Neuroanatomy

   Temporal lobes

       Auditory area

       Wernicke’s area (P-T junction)

       Semantics – declarative memory

       Episodic memory

       Hippocampus

       Amygdala
           Neuroanatomy

   Parietal lobes
       Representation of self in the world
           Neuroanatomy

   Parietal lobes
       Spatial
        information
          Neuroanatomy

   Parietal lobes
       Hemineglect
          Neuroanatomy

   Parietal lobes
       Hemineglect
           Neuroanatomy

   Parietal lobes
       Mathematical representations?



       Saccades




       Spatial
         Neuroanatomy

   Occipital lobes – vision
           Neuroanatomy

   Occipital lobes – vision



   Back to frontal lobes
       Book : no multimodal association
        areas

       Tuning



       Binding
Tuning
Tuning
    Tuning




?
Tuning
               Binding

   Occipital lobes – vision
               Binding

   Occipital lobes – vision
               Binding

   Occipital lobes – vision
               Binding

   Occipital lobes – vision
Binding – How???
       Neuroanatomy
   Frontal lobes – memory for
    vision
       Neuroanatomy

   Multi-modal representation
Inferior Surface
       Major Parts of the
        Nervous System
   Cortex and Thalamus interaction
       Major Parts of the
        Nervous System
   Cortex and Thalamus interaction
         Major Parts of the
          Nervous System
   Basal Ganglia
       Initiation of movement (and ?)
       Several loops from basal ganglia to
        other brain regions (motor, frontal
        cortex, etc.)
       Major Parts of the
        Nervous System
   Cortex and Thalamus interaction
         Major Parts of the
          Nervous System
   Midbrain
       Tectum, tegmentum, superior &
        inferior colliculi, substantia nigra
        (dopamine)
Major Parts of the
 Nervous System
       Major Parts of the
        Nervous System
   Cortex and Thalamus interaction

				
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