Streaming Video on Portable Wireless Devices

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               Streaming Video on Portable Wireless Devices

                              A Brief Internet Survey

Table of Contents



Introduction
The search for innovative new technology applications often begins with the
recombination of existing technologies that are maturing. This paper presents a
brief Internet survey of four technologies that are converging: wireless networks,
streaming video, portable device hardware, and portable device operating
systems. Note that there is no guarantee as to the accuracy or authenticity of the
information sources cited.

Wireless Networks

Introduction
To link devices like computers and printers, traditional computer networks require
cables. Cables physically connect devices to hubs, switches or each other to
create the network. Cabling can be expensive to install, particularly when they
are deployed in walls, ceilings or floors to link multiple office spaces. They can
add to the clutter of an office environment. Cables are a sunk cost, one that
cannot be recouped when you move. In fact, in some office spaces, running and
installing cabling is just not an option. The solution… A wireless network. Wireless
networks connect devices without the cables. They rely on radio frequencies to
transmit data between devices. For users, wireless networks work the same way
as wired systems. Users can share files and applications, exchange e-mail, access
printers, share access to the Internet and perform any other task just as if they
were cabled to the network. Wireless networks have ranges of hundreds of feet,
enabling users to link to the network anywhere within most facilities and even
from outside on the grounds. Wireless solutions also can link to existing cabled
networks, enabling you to expand your present system by adding a wireless
segment. Wireless networks are easy to install and operate. Today's advanced
solutions require no technical expertise to deploy. Wireless networks also are
affordable, eliminating the costs of cabling. For many deployments, wireless
solutions provide significant cost-savings over conventional networking strategies.

How do they work?
All wireless technologies use standard technology saddled over a wireless medium
- airwaves. The major advantage of this type of technology is that there is no
cable between network access points. Wireless networks require: a wireless
access point, a wireless PC card, a wireless PC adaptor and a network connection
for the access point. The important factor is that only the one access point needs
a network connection, rather than each computer. If the wireless connection is
over a WAN then the additional hardware would include antennas to boost the
signal. The limiting factor of wireless networking is the distance versus bandwidth
issue, because the further the computer is from the access point the slower the
speed of data rate transfer (megabits per second). Although wireless connection
has the possibility of 11Mbps, this can be as low as 1Mbps as the distance
increases. However, although 1 Mbps would be very slow for an Ethernet network


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connection, it is still almost 30 times faster than a 56k modem.

How fast are wireless networks?
In wireless networks, bandwidth plays important role in functionality of
transferring data. The most common type of wireless networking used for transfer
data would be 802.11. It refers to a family of specifications developed by the
IEEE for wireless LAN technology. 802.11 specifies an over-the-air interface
between a wireless client and a base station or between two wireless clients.
There are several specifications in the 802.11 family:
802.11 -- applies to wireless LANs and provides 1 or 2 Mbps transmission in the
2.4 GHz band using either frequency hopping spread spectrum (FHSS) or direct
sequence spread spectrum (DSSS).
802.11a -- an extension to 802.11 that applies to wireless LANs and provides up
to 54 Mbps in the 5GHz band. 802.11a uses an orthogonal frequency division
multiplexing encoding scheme rather than FHSS or DSSS.
802.11b (also referred to as 802.11 High Rate or Wi-Fi) -- an extension to
802.11 that applies to wireless LANS and provides 11 Mbps transmission (with a
fallback to 5.5, 2 and 1 Mbps) in the 2.4 GHz band. 802.11b uses only DSSS.
802.11b was a 1999 ratification to the original 802.11 standard, allowing wireless
functionality comparable to Ethernet.
802.11g -- applies to wireless LANs and provides 20+ Mbps in the 2.4 GHz band.

Wireless Local Area Network (LAN)

Introduction
A wireless local area network (LAN) is a flexible data communications system
implemented as an extension to, or as an alternative for, a wired LAN. Using
radio frequency (RF) technology, wireless LANs transmit and receive data over
the air, minimizing the need for wired connections. Thus, wireless LANs combine
data connectivity with user mobility.
Wireless LANs have gained strong popularity in a number of vertical markets,
including the health-care, retail, manufacturing, warehousing, and academia.
These industries have profited from the productivity gains of using hand-held
terminals and notebook computers to transmit real-time information to
centralized hosts for processing. Today wireless LANs are becoming more widely
recognized as a general-purpose connectivity alternative for a broad range of
business customers. Business Research Group, a market research firm, predicts a
sixfold expansion of the worldwide wireless LAN market by the year 2000,
reaching more than $2 billion in revenues.

Why Wireless LAN?
The widespread reliance on networking in business and the meteoric growth of
the Internet and online services are strong testimonies to the benefits of shared
data and shared resources. With wireless LANs, users can access shared
information without looking for a place to plug in, and network managers can set
up or augment networks without installing or moving wires. Wireless LANs offer
the following productivity, convenience, and cost advantages over traditional
wired networks:
Mobility: Wireless LAN systems can provide LAN users with access to real-time

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information anywhere in their organization. This mobility supports productivity
and service opportunities not possible with wired networks.
Installation Speed and Simplicity: Installing a wireless LAN system can be fast
and easy and can eliminate the need to pull cable through walls and ceilings.
Installation Flexibility: Wireless technology allows the network to go where
wire cannot go.
Reduced Cost-of-Ownership: While the initial investment required for wireless
LAN hardware can be higher than the cost of wired LAN hardware, overall
installation expenses and life-cycle costs can be significantly lower. Long-term
cost benefits are greatest in dynamic environments requiring frequent moves and
changes.
Scalability: Wireless LAN systems can be configured in a variety of topologies to
meet the needs of specific applications and installations. Configurations are easily
changed and range from peer-to-peer networks suitable for a small number of
users to full infrastructure networks of thousands of users that enable roaming
over a broad area.

How Wireless LANs Are Used in the Real World
Wireless LANs frequently augment rather than replace wired LAN networks—often
providing the final few meters of connectivity between a wired network and the
mobile user. The following list describes some of the many applications made
possible through the power and flexibility of wireless LANs:
* Doctors and nurses in hospitals are more productive because hand-held or
notebook computers with wireless LAN capability deliver patient information
instantly.
* Consulting or accounting audit teams or small workgroups increase productivity
with quick network setup.
* Students holding class on a campus greensward access the Internet to consult
the catalog of the Library of Congress.
* Network managers in dynamic environments minimize the overhead caused by
moves, extensions to networks, and other changes with wireless LANs.
* Training sites at corporations and students at universities use wireless
connectivity to ease access to information, information exchanges, and learning.
* Network managers installing networked computers in older buildings find that
wireless LANs are a cost-effective network infrastructure solution.
* Trade show and branch office workers minimize setup requirements by
installing pre-configured wireless LANs needing no local MIS support.
* Warehouse workers use wireless LANs to exchange information with central
databases, thereby increasing productivity.
* Network managers implement wireless LANs to provide backup for mission-
critical applications running on wired networks.
* Senior executives in meetings make quicker decisions because they have real-
time information at their fingertips.

Wireless LAN Technology
Manufacturers of wireless LANs have a range of technologies to choose from

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when designing a wireless LAN solution. Each technology comes with its own set
of advantages and limitations.

Narrowband Technology
A narrowband radio system transmits and receives user information on a specific
radio frequency. Narrowband radio keeps the radio signal frequency as narrow as
possible just to pass the information. Undesirable crosstalk between
communications channels is avoided by carefully coordinating different users on
different channel frequencies.
A private telephone line is much like a radio frequency. When each home in a
neighborhood has its own private telephone line, people in one home cannot
listen to calls made to other homes. In a radio system, privacy and
noninterference are accomplished by the use of separate radio frequencies. The
radio receiver filters out all radio signals except the ones on its designated
frequency.
From a customer standpoint, one drawback of narrowband technology is that the
end-user must obtain an FCC license for each site where it is employed.

Spread Spectrum Technology
Most wireless LAN systems use spread-spectrum technology, a wideband radio
frequency technique developed by the military for use in reliable, secure, mission-
critical communications systems. Spread-spectrum is designed to trade off
bandwidth efficiency for reliability, integrity, and security. In other words, more
bandwidth is consumed than in the case of narrowband transmission, but the
tradeoff produces a signal that is, in effect, louder and thus easier to detect,
provided that the receiver knows the parameters of the spread-spectrum signal
being broadcast. If a receiver is not tuned to the right frequency, a spread-
spectrum signal looks like background noise. There are two types of spread
spectrum radio: frequency hopping and direct sequence.

Frequency-Hopping Spread Spectrum Technology
Frequency-hopping spread-spectrum (FHSS) uses a narrowband carrier that
changes frequency in a pattern known to both transmitter and receiver. Properly
synchronized, the net effect is to maintain a single logical channel. To an
unintended receiver, FHSS appears to be short-duration impulse noise.

Direct-Sequence Spread Spectrum Technology
Direct-sequence spread-spectrum (DSSS) generates a redundant bit pattern for
each bit to be transmitted. This bit pattern is called a chip (or chipping code). The
longer the chip, the greater the probability that the original data can be recovered
(and, of course, the more bandwidth required). Even if one or more bits in the
chip are damaged during transmission, statistical techniques embedded in the
radio can recover the original data without the need for retransmission. To an
unintended receiver, DSSS appears as low-power wideband noise and is rejected
(ignored) by most narrowband receivers.

Infrared Technology
A third technology, little used in commercial wireless LANs, is infrared. Infrared
(IR) systems use very high frequencies, just below visible light in the
electromagnetic spectrum, to carry data. Like light, IR cannot penetrate opaque


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objects; it is either directed (line-of-sight) or diffuse technology. Inexpensive
directed systems provide very limited range (3 ft) and typically are used for
personal area networks but occasionally are used in specific wireless LAN
applications. High performance directed IR is impractical for mobile users and is
therefore used only to implement fixed sub-networks. Diffuse (or reflective) IR
wireless LAN systems do not require line-of-sight, but cells are limited to
individual rooms.

How Wireless LANs Work
Wireless LANs use electromagnetic airwaves (radio or infrared) to communicate
information from one point to another without relying on any physical connection.
Radio waves are often referred to as radio carriers because they simply perform
the function of delivering energy to a remote receiver. The data being transmitted
is superimposed on the radio carrier so that it can be accurately extracted at the
receiving end. This is generally referred to as modulation of the carrier by the
information being transmitted. Once data is superimposed (modulated) onto the
radio carrier, the radio signal occupies more than a single frequency, since the
frequency or bit rate of the modulating information adds to the carrier.
Multiple radio carriers can exist in the same space at the same time without
interfering with each other if the radio waves are transmitted on different radio
frequencies. To extract data, a radio receiver tunes in one radio frequency while
rejecting all other frequencies.
In a typical wireless LAN configuration, a transmitter/receiver (transceiver)
device, called an access point, connects to the wired network from a fixed
location using standard cabling. At a minimum, the access point receives, buffers,
and transmits data between the wireless LAN and the wired network
infrastructure. A single access point can support a small group of users and can
function within a range of less than one hundred to several hundred feet. The
access point (or the antenna attached to the access point) is usually mounted
high but may be mounted essentially anywhere that is practical as long as the
desired radio coverage is obtained.
End users access the wireless LAN through wireless-LAN adapters, which are
implemented as PC cards in notebook or palmtop computers, as cards in desktop
computers, or integrated within hand-held computers. wireless LAN adapters
provide an interface between the client network operating system (NOS) and the
airwaves via an antenna. The nature of the wireless connection is transparent to
the NOS.

Customer Considerations
While wireless LANs provide installation and configuration flexibility and the
freedom inherent in network mobility, customers should be aware of the following
factors when considering wireless LAN systems.

Range and coverage
The distance over which RF and IR waves can communicate is a function of
product design (including transmitted power and receiver design) and the
propagation path, especially in indoor environments. Interactions with typical
building objects, including walls, metal, and even people, can affect how energy
propagates, and thus what range and coverage a particular system achieves.
Solid objects block infrared signals, which imposes additional limitations. Most
wireless LAN systems use RF because radio waves can penetrate most indoor

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walls and obstacles. The range (or radius of coverage) for typical wireless LAN
systems varies from under 100 feet to more than 300 feet. Coverage can be
extended, and true freedom of mobility via roaming, provided through microcells.

Throughput
As with wired LAN systems, actual throughput in wireless LANs is product- and
set-up-dependent. Factors that affect throughput include the number of users,
propagation factors such as range and multipath, the type of wireless LAN system
used, as well as the latency and bottlenecks on the wired portions of the LAN.
Data rates for the most widespread commercial wireless LANs are in the 1.6 Mbps
range. Users of traditional Ethernet or Token Ring LANs generally experience little
difference in performance when using a wireless LAN. Wireless LANs provide
throughput sufficient for the most common LAN-based office applications,
including electronic mail exchange, access to shared peripherals, Internet access,
and access to multi-user databases and applications.
As a point of comparison, it is worth noting that state-of-the-art V.90 modems
transmit and receive at optimal data rates of 56.6 Kbps. In terms of throughput,
a wireless LAN operating at 1.6 Mbps is almost thirty times faster.

Integrity and Reliability
Wireless data technologies have been proven through more than fifty years of
wireless application in both commercial and military systems. While radio
interference can cause degradation in throughput, such interference is rare in the
workplace. Robust designs of proven wireless LAN technology and the limited
distance over which signals travel result in connections that are far more robust
than cellular phone connections and provide data integrity performance equal to
or better than wired networking.

Compatibility with the Existing Network
Most wireless LANs provide for industry-standard interconnection with wired
networks such as Ethernet or Token Ring. Wireless LAN nodes are supported by
network operating systems in the same fashion as any other LAN node: thought
the use of the appropriate drivers. Once installed, the network treats wireless
nodes like any other network component.

Interoperability of Wireless Devices
Customers should be aware that wireless LAN systems from different vendors
might not be interoperable. For three reasons. First, different technologies will
not interoperate. A system based on spread spectrum frequency hopping (FHSS)
technology will not communicate with another based on spread spectrum direct
sequence (DSSS) technology. Second, systems using different frequency bands
will not interoperate even if they both employ the same technology. Third,
systems from different vendors may not interoperate even if they both employ
the same technology and the same frequency band, due to differences in
implementation by each vendor.

Interference and Coexistence
The unlicensed nature of radio-based wireless LANs means that other products
that transmit energy in the same frequency spectrum can potentially provide
some measure of interference to a wireless LAN system. Microwave ovens are a
potential concern, but most wireless LAN manufacturers design their products to

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account for microwave interference. Another concern is the co-location of multiple
wireless LANs. While wireless LANs from some manufacturers interfere with
wireless LANs, others coexist without interference. This issue is best addressed
directly with the appropriate vendors.

Licensing Issues
In the United States, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) governs
radio transmissions, including those employed in wireless LANs. Other nations
have corresponding regulatory agencies. Wireless LANs are typically designed to
operate in portions of the radio spectrum where the FCC does not require the
end-user to purchase license to use the airwaves. In the U.S. most wireless LANs
broadcast over one of the ISM (Instrumentation, Scientific, and Medical) bands.
These include 902-928 MHz, 2.4-2.483 GHz, 5.15-5.35 GHz, and 5.725-5.875
GHz. For wireless LANs to be sold in a particular country, the manufacturer of the
wireless LAN must ensure its certification by the appropriate agency in that
country.

Simplicity/Ease of Use
Users need very little new information to take advantage of wireless LANs.
Because the wireless nature of a wireless LAN is transparent to a user's NOS,
applications work the same as they do on wired LANs. Wireless LAN products
incorporate a variety of diagnostic tools to address issues associated with the
wireless elements of the system; however, products are designed so that most
users rarely need these tools.
Wireless LANs simplify many of the installation and configuration issues that
plague network managers. Since only the access points of wireless LANs require
cabling, network managers are freed from pulling cables for wireless LAN end
users. Lack of cabling also makes moves, adds, and changes trivial operations on
wireless LANs. Finally, the portable nature of wireless LANs lets network
managers preconfigure and troubleshoot entire networks before installing them at
remote locations. Once configured, wireless LANs can be moved from place to
place with little or no modification.

Security
Because wireless technology has roots in military applications, security has long
been a design criterion for wireless devices. Security provisions are typically built
into wireless LANs, making them more secure than most wired LANs. It is
extremely difficult for unintended receivers (eavesdroppers) to listen in on
wireless LAN traffic. Complex encryption techniques make it impossible for all but
the most sophisticated to gain unauthorized access to network traffic. In general,
individual nodes must be security-enabled before they are allowed to participate
in network traffic.

Cost
A wireless LAN implementation includes both infrastructure costs, for the wireless
access points, and user costs, for the wireless LAN adapters. Infrastructure costs
depend primarily on the number of access points deployed; access points range in
price from $1,000 to $2000. The number of access points typically depends on
the required coverage region and/or the number and type of users to be serviced.
The coverage area is proportional to the square of the product range. Wireless
LAN adapters are required for standard computer platforms, and range in price


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from $300 to $1,000.
The cost of installing and maintaining a wireless LAN generally is lower than the
cost of installing and maintaining a traditional wired LAN, for two reasons. First, a
wireless LAN eliminates the direct costs of cabling and the labor associated with
installing and repairing it. Second, because wireless LANs simplify moves, adds,
and changes, they reduce the indirect costs of user downtime and administrative
overhead.

Scalability
Wireless networks can be designed to be extremely simple or quite complex.
Wireless networks can support large numbers of nodes and/or large physical
areas by adding access points to boost or extend coverage.

Battery Life for Mobile Platforms
End-user wireless products are designed to run off the AC or battery power from
their host notebook or hand-held computer, since they have no direct wire
connectivity of their own. wireless LAN vendors typically employ special design
techniques to maximize the host computer's energy usage and battery life.

A short history
The growth trajectory of wireless communications is a big reason it has become
such an important research topic. By the start of the millennium, more than 500
million people worldwide will subscribe to cellular and personal communications
system (PCS) services. And by 2010, there will be more than 1.45 billion
subscribers. The number of wireless subscribers will outnumber wireline
counterparts by about a half a billion.
As the technology advances from analog to second-generation digital systems,
service providers are paying great attention to voice quality, system capacity,
ease of network planning, and the introduction of data services. The research and
standards communities are already focusing on third-generation systems under
the umbrella of IMT-2000 (International Mobile Telecommunications).
These systems, which will likely evolve from a circuit/voice environment to one
that also includes packet/data networking, are designed to provide users with a
wide range of mobile services with rates up to 2 Mb/s. The new systems are
targeted at supporting multi-rate services (voice, data, and video) while
maintaining a high quality of service, operation in multi-cell environments
(macro, micro, and pico), and operation in a multi-operator environment (public
and private networks).
Implicit in these goals is the efficient use of spectrum. More specific goals are the
integration of residential, office, and cellular/PCS services into a single, seamless
service with possibly a common user terminal, speech quality comparable to that
of wired networks, multimedia capability, ease of service provisioning, and
seamless global coverage that can serve over 50% of the world's population--all
delivered via cost-conscious terminals and affordable services.
To serve more with less, the wireless lab is working on a specifically designed
"steerable" antenna that allows you to direct radio beams where they are needed.
The first use will be for fixed wireless loop to provide advanced telephony services
in developing countries, as part of a long-term research effort to replace copper
wire with radio frequencies.


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More and more, wireless issues are becoming focused on Internet and alternate
access. Today's interfaces--code division multiple access, time division multiple
access and global system for mobile communications--will likely evolve into future
standards that support reliable transmission of packet voice and data. The goal is
to enable seamless communications from indoors to outdoors, with multimedia
applications at your fingertips. Overall, the biggest theme in wireless research is
being transparent to where you are, having access to people and sharing
resources with them.
Wireless access brings our vision of personal communications closer to reality.
With speech recognition capabilities, getting on the network will be easier than
ever, while an integrated infrastructure will give users seamless access to voice,
data, and video networks.
A variety of voice, image, text, and video services -- such as videophones and
personal communicators -- will bring people and information together as never
before. Users will interact across geographic boundaries with a freedom beyond
what is currently available.
Self-configuration and operation of networks will allow service providers to rapidly
deploy new features while simplifying network administration. Users will
command the network through their portable communications devices simply and
easily, enabling them to tailor wireless services to meet their individual needs.
This ability to personalize the network, combined with the ubiquity of access that
wireless offers, will be the start of a new generation of information networks and
services.

Mobile technology in wireless networks
Mobile phones can give users access to other types of network because of their
wide area coverage - a wireless LAN used in an office could be accessed from a
train via a mobile phone, for example. There are several different forms of mobile
phone technology:

WAP
Wireless Application Protocol is a set of standards for providing interactive
Internet services to wireless communication devices. A WAP enabled mobile
phone will allow you to view Web pages written in WML (Wireless Mark-up
Language)

GPRS
General Packet Radio Services is ideal for Internet access and connection can
take place through a laptop with a data card or mobile phone attached to it. It
has a faster transfer rate than WAP and a higher success rate for connection

UMTS
Universal Mobile Telecommunications is a new rival to GPRS and promises to
deliver faster connections and video images.

PDAs
PDAs are small handheld computers such as Visors, Palms and Pocket PCs. Some
palmtops have built-in mobile phones and unlimited wireless Internet access.
Others come with modems which can be used with a mobile phone. These are


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highly portable devices which are increasingly being used to read e-mail, surf the
Internet and act as electronic filofaxes. They are likely to become ubiquitous and
be the main technology used to connect without the aid of wires to computer
networks.

3G

What is 3G?
A new radio communications technology that will create a "bit pipe" for providing
mobile access to internet-based services. It will enhance and extend mobility in
many areas of our lives. In the near future, mobility won't be an add-on: it will
become a fundamental aspect of many services. We'll expect high-speed access
to the internet, entertainment, information and electronic commerce (e-
commerce) services wherever we are - not just at our desktop computers, home
PCs or television sets. 3G services will add an invaluable mobile dimension to
services that are already becoming an integral part of modern business life:
Internet and Intranet access, video-conferencing, and interactive application
sharing.
3G is based on a different technology platform- Code Division Multiple Access
(CDMA)- that is unlike the Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA) technology that
is widely used in the 2G world. GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications)
was based on TDMA technology
The US, Japanese and European mobile players all have different technology
competences and are now unified in this single standard.
Japanese network operators will be the first to implement 3G networks in the
year 2001, and Japanese terminal manufacturers, who have not had much
market share outside their home market, will be first with 3G terminals. 3G can
be thought of as 2.5G services such as GPRS plus entertainment (games, video,
mobile multimedia) plus new terminals. 3G brings with it significantly more
bandwidth. Whereas GPRS terminals will have the same range of form factors as
today's 2G phones do, many 3G terminals will be video centric. Nonvoice (data)
traffic will also be huge, with new mobile multimedia applications such as mobile
postcards, movies and music driving new applications and services along with
corporate applications. Applications and services available through the Internet,
intranet and extranet will drive the interest in and traffic on 3G networks. 3G
terminals will be very significantly more complex than today’s GSM phones,
because of the need to support video, more storage, multiple modes and new
software and interfaces, better battery life and so on.

3G Today & Tomorrow
When a new service is introduced, there are a number of stages before it
becomes established. 3G service developments will include standardization,
infrastructure development, network trials, contracts placed, network roll out,
availability of terminals, application development, and so on.
Throughout 1999 3G radio interface standardization took place, and initial 3G
live.
Demonstrations of infrastructure and concept terminals shown
2000 Continuing standardization with network architectures, terminal
requirements and detailed standards


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May 2000 The formal approval of the IMT-2000 Recommendations will be made.
at the ITU Radiocommunication Assembly in early May.
2000 3G licenses are awarded by governments around Europe and Asia
2001 3G trials and integration commence
2001 3G launched in Japan by NTT DoCoMo
Summer of 2001 First trial 3G services become available in Europe
Start of 2002 Basic 3G capable terminals begin to be available in commercial
quantities
Throughout 2002 Network operators launch 3G services commercially and roll
out 3G. Vertical market and executive 3G early adopters begin using 3G regularly
for nonvoice mobile communications
2002/3 New 3G specific applications, greater network capacity solutions, more
capable terminals become available, fuelling 3G usage
2004 3G will have arrived commercially and reached critical mass in both
corporate and consumer sectors.

Before 3G

2G
The technology of most current digital mobile phones
Features includes:
•Phone calls

•Voice mail

•Receive simple email messages

Speed: 10kb/sec
Time to download a 3min MP3 song: 31-41 min

2.5G
The best technology now widely available
Features includes:
•Phone calls/fax

•Voice mail

•Send/receive large email messages

•Web browsings

•Navigation/maps

•New updates

Speed: 64-144kb/sec
Time to download a 3min MP3 song:
6-9min




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The 3G

3G System Capabilities
Capability to support circuit and packet data at high bit rates:
- 144 kilobits/second or higher in high mobility (vehicular) traffic
- 384 kilobits/second for pedestrian traffic
–2 Megabits/second or higher for indoor traffic

-Interoperability and roaming
-Common billing/user profiles:
- Sharing of usage/rate information between service providers
- Standardized call detail recording
- Standardized user profiles
Capability to determine geographic position of mobiles and report it to both the
network and the mobile terminal
Support of multimedia services/capabilities
- Fixed and variable rate bit traffic Bandwidth on demand
- Asymmetric data rates in the forward and reverse links
- Multimedia mail store and forward
- Broadband access up to 2 Megabits/second


Key features of 3G systems are a high degree of commonality of design
worldwide, compatibility of services, use of small pocket terminals with worldwide
roaming capability, Internet and other multimedia applications, and a wide range
of services and terminals.

BLUETOOTH

Introduction
Bluetooth is the term used to describe the protocol of a short range (10 meter)
frequency-hopping radio link between devices. These devices are then termed
Bluetooth - enabled. It is envisaged that it will allow for the replacement of the
many propriety cables that connect one device to another with one universal
radio link. Its key features are robustness, low complexity, low power and low
cost. Designed to operate in noisy frequency environments, the Bluetooth radio
uses a fast acknowledgement and frequency hopping scheme to make the link
robust. Bluetooth radio modules operate in the unlicensed ISM band at 2.4GHz,
and avoid interference from other signals by hopping to a new frequency after
transmitting or receiving a packet. Compared with other systems in the same
frequency band, the Bluetooth radio hops faster and uses shorter packets.
Conceived initially by Ericsson, before being adopted by a myriad of other
companies, Bluetooth is a standard for a small , cheap radio chip to be plugged
into computers, printers, mobile phones, etc.A Bluetooth chip is designed to
replace cables by taking the information normally carried by the cable, and
transmitting it at a special frequency to a receiver Bluetooth chip, which will then


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give the information received to the computer, phone whatever.

PRICE
"Industrywide, we accept the average sales price for a Bluetooth silicon solution
to be in the neighborhood of 20 U.S. dollars," Joyce Putscher, director of
consumer and converging markets and technologies for Scottsdale, Arizona-based
market research company Cahners In-Stat Group, said in a recent phone
interview.
CSR, however, claims it will be able to deliver its first product, the single-chip
BlueCore01, for $8.20 for volumes of 1 million units per year. Depending on
users' needs, the price might rise to between $10 and $12, which still remains
below the competition's figures, said Eric Janson, CSR's vice president of
application engineering.
Analysts today peg the price for a Bluetooth chip at between $20 and $25 with
the cost not expected to drop to the $5 range until 2004 or 2005.

BLUETOOTHACHE
When it does get here, Bluetooth will make life easier. But the technology isn't
perfected, and when it is, there's the widely underestimated inertia of consumers
and businesses. Here are the recurring toothaches:
Interference. The competing standards for wireless local area networks (LANs) is
already a bitter battleground between the HomeRF and 802.11b standards.
Supporters of both standards say they'll be compatible with Bluetooth. And
supporters of Bluetooth say the technology can be made to not interfere with
either, even though they all occupy the same piece of the radio spectrum. It may
be possible. But it won't be easy.
One-to-many. Ericsson says it will introduce a Bluetooth headset that will talk
with its cell phones. That's a one-to-one relationship and it's easy. But what if
you want to get the headset to talk with your PC or even your handheld? Then
you need a more complex industry-wide standard, which is still missing.
Momentum. To get two devices to talk to one another via Bluetooth, both must
have a Bluetooth chip, and both chips need to be able to talk to each other. This
not only requires the willingness and cooperation among manufacturers, but the
wallets of consumers to pay extra for a chip that is still too expensive.

Streaming Video

Introduction
Multimedia streaming mean “Sending live or on-demand video or audio broadcast
over the Internet to a general medium.”
Streaming video is video encoded using at a data rate (a stream profile) suitable
for transmission over internet or intranet networks to recipients who have specific
bandwidth capabilities. The stream profile you use should be based on your
target audience's bandwidth or network capabilities. If you want to reach as wide
a target audience as possible, you can encode your video clip using multiple
stream profiles. Then you could let the recipient choose the data rate which is
most suited to his or her network which could vary from a T1 line to a 28.8 kbps
modem.
While Internet hype is available in unlimited supply, however, Internet bandwidth


                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
isn't, making the net quite inhospitable to multimedia data formats.
Well consider that the 150 Kilobytes per second capacity of the now obsolete
single spin CD-ROM drive is roughly 41 times faster than a 28.8 kilobits per
second modem. That even ISDN, the digital network that represents the next
bandwidth increment for most businesses and consumers, is still nine times
slower than a 1X drive.

                            Connection Bandwidths
  Connection                                                           Throughput




                                                                     150 Kilobytes
1X CD-ROM
                                                                     per second




ISDN                                                                 16 Kilobytes
Dual Connection                                                      per second
                                                                     3.6   Kilobytes
28.8 modem
                                                                     per   second
                                                                     1.8   Kilobytes
14.4 modem
                                                                     per   second

Data Delivery Paradigms
(information source Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon
University/)
(information source Pcuser website www.pcuser.com)
We have four methods used to send multimedia data from Internet servers to
clients:

                     Data Transfer Paradigms
             Paradigm                User Experience Technologies
Download and Play                   Delay until file Shockwave
                                    completely       (Director 5.0),
                                    downloaded       VRML


Streaming                                     Continuous play      Streaming audio
                                              after short buffer   and video codecs
                                              period
Progressive Decompression                     Immediate coarse     Still image
                                              appearance,          technologies,
                                              steady               Adobe Amber
                                              improvement
Page at a Time                                Data delivered       Electronic
                                              incrementally upon   documents
                                              user demand


                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute

The mode of data delivery is one of the critical implementation issues affecting
both initial and continued responsiveness. The status quo, tried and true method
of data delivery is called "download and play," where the entire file is downloaded
before playback begins. All multimedia files can be downloaded over the Internet,
stored on the client computer and then played without special programming or
software. The problem with this approach is responsiveness.




Standards and Organizations
(information source Electrical and Computer Engineering, Carnegie Mellon
University/)
Multimedia communication is greatly dependent on good standards. The presence
of standards allows for a larger volume of information exchange, thereby
benefiting the equipment manufacturers and service providers. It also benefits
customers, as now they prerequisite to multimedia communication. Standards for
video coding are also required to be efficient for the compression of video
content. This is because a large number of bits are required for the transmission
of uncompressed video data. Standards define a common language that different
parties can use, so that they can communicate with one another. Standards are
thus, a prerequisite to effective communication. Video coding standards define
the bitstream syntax, the language that the encoder and the decoder use to
communicate. Besides defining the bitstream syntax, video coding standards are
also required to be efficient, in that they should support good compression
algorithms as well as allow the efficient implementation of the encoder and
decoder.




                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
The two major organization involved in the development of standards are the
International Organization for Standardization (ISO) and ITU-T. Both these
organizations have defined different standards for video coding. These different
standards are summarized in the table below. The major differences between
these standards lie in the operating bit-rates and the applications they are
targeted for. Each standard allows for operating at a wide range of bit-rates,
hence each can be used for a range of applications. All the standards follow a
similar framework in terms of the coding algorithms, however there are
differences in the ranges of parameters and some specific coding modes.




For a manufacturer to build a standard compliant codec, it is very important to
look at the bitstream syntax and to understand what each layer corresponds to
and what each bit epresents. This approach is, however, not necessary to
understand the process of video coding. In order to have an overview of the
standard, it suffices to look at the coding algorithms that generate the standard
compliant bitstream. This approach emphasizes an understanding of the various
components of the codec and the functions they perform. Such an approach helps
in understanding the video coding process as a whole. This chapter focuses on
the second approach.


File Formats for Video
There are 4 major and standard file format for video that are widely
used:



                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
Apple QuickTime (*.mov)
      QuickTime is the multi-platform industry-standard multimedia architecture
      used by software tool vendors and content creators to create and deliver
      synchronized graphics, sound, video, text and music. Developed by Apple,
      it has become one of the most widely used formats on the World Wide
      Web. QuickTime movies can be compressed using software packages such
      as Adobe Premiere of Media Cleaner Pro to sizes that are feasible for use
      over the Internet.

Microsoft AVI Video (*.avi)
      AVI is a format for video files that offers minimal compression ability and
      is available on the Windows platform only. It is widely used on the World
      Wide Web.

MPEG Video
     MPEG stands for Moving Picture Experts Group, is the nickname given to a
     family of International Standards used for coding audio-visual information
     in a digital compressed format. The MPEG familly of standards includes
     MPEG-1, MPEG-2 and MPEG-4. MPEG-1 is the format that is widely used
     for video files. It is a compressed file format that allows for the highest
     quality digitized video playback available. Full NTSC (TV) resolution with
     30 frames/second is available on virtually any computer with MPEG video
     format. MPEG offers a high level of compression resulting in small files
     sizes with high quality.

Real Video
      Real Video is a format that is used over the Internet. Real Video uses a
      special player that can be freely downloaded over the Internet. It allows
      for "streaming," meaning that the movie can be played while it is being
      downloaded. The format uses heavy compression, and a special server is
      used to "stream" the files to clients. The end result is a format that can be
      utilized over the Internet by those with low bandwidth (modem)
      connections.




                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                    For internal use only - Do not distribute
Stream Profiles

(information source telecommunication network group http://www-
tkn.ee.tu-berlin.de/)
 MPEG-1 Stream Profiles

    1.5 Mbps Stream Profile - 320x240 video file with near CD quality audio for
        broadband target networks.

    600 kbps Stream Profile - 320x240 video file with high radio quality audio
       for broadband target networks.

    384 kbps Stream Profile - 320x240 video file with radio quality audio for
       broadband and narrowband target networks.

    128 kbps ISDN to 28.8 kbps Modem Stream Profile - 160x120 video file
       with radio quality audio for 128 kbps ISDN down to 28.8 kbps Modem
       target networks.
 RealPlayer Stream Profiles (Real Networks)

    500 kbps Stream Profile - 320x240 video file suitable for broadband target
       networks.

    400 kbps Stream Profile - 320 x 240 video file suitable for broadband
       target networks.

    300 kbps Stream Profile - 320 x240 or 160x120 video file suitable for
       broadband target networks.

    200 kbps Stream Profile - 320x240 or 160x120 video file suitable for
       broadband target networks.

    112 kbps Stream Profile - 160x120 video file suitable for 112 kbps ISDN
       target networks.

    56 kbps Modem Stream Profile - 160x120 video file suitable for 56 kbps
       modem target networks.

    28.8 kbps Modem Stream Profile - 160x120 video file suitable for 28.8 kbps
       modem target networks.
 Advanced Streaming Format (Microsoft)

    500 kbps Stream Profile - 320x240 video file suitable for broadband target
       networks.

    400 kbps Stream Profile - 320 x 240 video file suitable for broadband
       target networks.

    300 kbps Stream Profile - 320 x240 or 160x120 video file suitable for
       broadband target networks.

    200 kbps Stream Profile - 320 x240 or 160x120 video file suitable for
       broadband target networks.


                    For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
     112 kbps Stream Profile - 160x120 video file suitable for 112 kbps ISDN
        target networks.

     56 kbps Modem Stream Profile - 160x120 video file suitable for 56 kbps
        modem target networks.

     28.8 kbps Modem Stream Profile - 160x120 video file suitable for 28.8 kbps
        modem target networks.




"Streaming" Data Formats and Codecs                (information source
                                                   www.evereything2.com)
                                                   (information source Mpeg group
                                                   FAQ)
Codec stands for Coder/Decoder. Basically it is a piece of software or a driver
that adds a support for certain video/audio format for your operating system.
With codec, your system recognizes the format the codec is built for and allows
you to play the audio/video file (=decode).


MPEG1: It is an Audio and video compression format developed by MPEG group
back in 1993. It is able to Code moving pictures and associated audio for digital
storage media at up to about 1,5 Mbit/s. MPEG-1 is the video format that has
had some extremely popular spin-offs and sideproducts, most notably MP3 and
VideoCD.

MPEG2: A video standard developed by MPEG group. MPEG-2 is not a successor
for MPEG-1, but an addition instead -- both of these formats have their own
purposes in life; MPEG-1 is meant for medium-bandwidth usage and MPEG-2 is
meant for high-bandwidth/broadband usage. Most commonly MPEG-2 is used in
digital TVs, DVD-Videos and in SVCDs.
MJPEG: M-JPEG stands for Motion JPEG. M-JPEG is a video format that uses JPEG
picture compression in each frame of the video. Frames of the video don't interact
with each other in any way (like they do in MPEG-1, MPEG-2, etc..) which results
in much bigger filesize, but in other hand, it makes the video editing easier
because each of the frames has all of the information they need stored in them.
DivX ;-) was developed by bunch of hackers, most notably a guy called gej and it
is based on Microsoft's version of MPEG-4 encoding technology, called as
Windows Media Video V3. Basically Microsoft's encoders didn't allow users to
save MPEG-4 streams into AVI structure format, but forced users to use ASF
instead. It also had some other limitations -- and those limitations were overriden
in DivX ;-). It also added a support for other than Windows Media Audio audio
encoding technology, allowing users to have MP3 audio on their movies. In 2001,
original "developers" of this hacked (and therefor illegal) codec released a new
legal version of DivX ;-), called DivX4. DivX4 (without smiley) supports old DivX
;-) movies and also adds new features and eventually better compression quality
than "original" DivX ;-). With DivX ;-), you can store 50-120 minutes of
relatively good quality video to one CD (740MB) (==most of the movies can be
stored in one CD, unlike in VCD or SVCD). Only negative aspect DivX ;-) has
when it's compared to VCD is the fact that VCDs can be played with regular


                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                        For internal use only - Do not distribute
stand-alone DVD players and DivXs can't.
DIVX:
DIVX4: A new legal version of DivX ;-) video encoding technology, released by
DivXNetworks.
3IVX: Video format based on MPEG-4 video standard with certain modifications.
3ivX can be compared pretty easily to DivX ;-) format, but in this comparision
3ivX unfortunately loses in quality (at least currently, 10/2001).

(table from www.encoding.net)



 Video File Comparison

Video:        VCD     SVCD    DVD          X(S)VCD    DivX     ASF      SMR/nAVI RM       DV
   Resolution 352x240 480x480 720x480      720x480    640x480 320x240 320x240 or 320x240 720x480
   PAL/NTSC352x288 480x576 720x576         720x576    or lower or lower lower    or lower 720x576
                                           or lower
        VideoMPEG1      MPEG2    MPEG2     MPEG1 or   MPEG4      MPEG4      MPEG4      RM         DV
 Compression                               MPEG2
        AudioMPEG1      MPEG1    MPEG2,    MPEG1      MP3,       MPEG4      MPEG4      RM         DV
 Compression                     AC3                  WMA
     Size/min10         10 - 20 30 - 70    5 - 20     1 - 10     1-5        1-5        1-5        216
               MB/min   MB/min MB/min      MB/min     MB/min     MB/min     MB/min     MB/min     MB/min
       Min/74 74min     35-60min 15-20min 35-         60-        120-       120-300min 120-       3min
        minCD                              100min     180min     300min                300min
 Hours/DVDR-            -        2-4hrs    -          13-26hrs   13-26hrs   26-40hrs   26-40hrs   20min
   DVD PlayerGreat      Good     Excellent Low        None       None       None       None       None
 Compatibility
    ComputerLow         High     Very High High       Very HighLow          Low        Low        High
          CPU
   Demanding
       QualityGood      Great*   Excellent* Great*    Great*     Decent*    Decent*    Bad*       Great
 * the quality depends on the size/min, more MB/min means higher quality.




History of MPEG and its standards
(information source Mpeg group website)
MPEG (formally ISO/IEC JTC1/SC29/WG11) is a group of experts dedicated to the
development of standards for digital audio and video.
MPEG has developed MPEG-1 targeted to the storage and retrieval of video and
audio on compact disc, i.e. at a bitrate of about 1.5 Mbit/s. The standard,
approved in November 1992 has been a huge success. So far in China alone
more than 70 million Video CD players have been sold. MP3 (MPEG-1 Audio Layer
III) has changed forever the way people experience music. Its place in the future
of digital media will be ensured when the rights of consumers and rightsholders
will find a point of equilibrium


                        For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
In November 1994 MPEG delivered the MPEG-2 standard developed for digital
television. Huge investments in the order of billions US dollars have been driven
by this standard virtually in every part of the world. The creation of an entire new
industry – the digital television industry – has been triggered by this standard.
Today there is a worldwide accumulated number of more than 60 million set top
boxes serving the cable, satellite and terrestrial TV broadcasting bussinesses.
Hardware and software DVD players worldwide number several tens of million
units.
MPEG-4 is the third standard developed by the group. Started in July 1993 MPEG-
4 has benefited from the huge R&D investments made by participating companies
and provides a harmonised range of responses to the diverse needs of the digital
audio-visual industry, including compatibility with other major standards such as
H.263, VRML and SMIL.
Features of the MPEG-4 standard
(information source Mpeg group FAQ)
(information from www.isma.tv)


The title of MPEG-4 is "coding of audio-visual objects". However, when it started
the title was "very low bitrate audio-visual coding".
MPEG-4 Visual provides a natural video coding algorithm that is capable of
operation from 5 kbit/s with a spatial resolution of QCIF (144x176 pixels). It is
ITU-T H.263 compatible in the sense that an H.263 bitstream is correctly decoded
by an MPEG-4 Video decoder.
One important feature of MPEG-4 Visual is the ability to code not just a
rectangular array of pixels, but also objects in a scene. An object can be a
walking person or a running car or the ball on the foot of a soccer player. This
means that in addition to the traditional coding of rectangular arrays of pixels,
MPEG-4 Visual is capable of coding the individual objects in a scene.

Another important asset of MPEG-4 Visual is that, actually, its objects may very
well not be natural, i.e., they can be synthetically generated. Indeed, MPEG-4
Visual currently supports 3D meshes that may model completely generic objects.



Statement of MPEG-4 Assets and Liabilities
           Assets                                    Liabilities
· Simplified distribution to
multiple target user
                             · Sub-optimal video quality translating to additional
groups across a range of
                             bandwidth costs
devices and distribution
mediums
· Greatly enhanced
                             · Potential royalty liabilities
interactivity
· Universal platform         · Requires third party digital rights management
support                      system




                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
Patents
(information source MpegLA website)
Now, though, a precedent has been set that makes the subject a bit less
daunting. MPEG LA, the licensing authority for the Moving Picture Experts Group,
has not merely persuaded eleven companies plus a university to agree to a
patent pool for MPEG intellectual property patents, they've also secured anti-
trust, "pro-competitive" clearance from the U.S. Department of Justice
"MPEG-style" patent-licensing refers to:
           MPEG-2 -- per-unit royalties on decoders, encoders, content, and
              transport streams.
              $4 per decoder,
              $4 per encoder, and
              $0.04 per video event on packaged media
           MP3 (MPEG-1 audio) -- same as MPEG-2 but with exemption for
              free-download decoders, with royalties for OEM, commercial,
              and shareware decoders.
No specific terms have been proposed, but existing MPEG-2 and MP3 licensing
pools provide a reference point.There may be license-free technologies
available for MPEG-4 Audio BIFS. H-anim appears to have no MPEG-4 patent
issues.


       Category         Description                        Terms
                       These products are decoders        $4 per unit
      MPEG-2
                       such as cable television system
      decoding
                       or direct broadcast satellite
      products,
                       settop decoder boxes, DVD
      software and
                       players, computers and
      decoding
                       software that decodes MPEG-2
      software
                       that is sold to the consumer.
                                                          $4 per unit if the software
                                                          is intended for sale to
                       These products are MPEG-2          consumers
                       encoding software, MPEG-2
                       encoders for distribution          Distribution encoding
                       (broadcast) use as well as         products: $4 multiplied by
                       encoders used to produce           the number of program
      MPEG-2           MPEG-2 bitstreams for              streams that can be
      encoding         packaged media such as DVD encoded in parallel
      products,        etc.                               Packaged media encoders
      software and                                        are video editors,
      encoding         As to distribution encoding        teleciners, program
      software         products, this product is a        encoders for production of
                       program encoder sold to            masters for mastering
                       commercial end-users for real copies such as DVDs.
                       time terrestrial, cable, satellite There is no royalty on such
                       etc. broadcast and/or              encoders. As discussed
                       distribution                       later, the packaged media,
                                                          however, is royalty
                                                          bearing.


                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
               For internal use only - Do not distribute
Consumer
                   Consumer products are
products, that
                   products for the consumer that
are products for
                   both encode and decode MPEG-
the consumer
                   2 bitstreams. These are future $6 per unit
that both
                   MPEG-2 camcorders, read/write
encode and
                   DVD players, computers and/or
decode MPEG-2
                   software, etc
bitstreams

                                                     For packaged media sold
                                                     to end users, the royalty is
                                                     four cents per MPEG-2
                                                     video event stored.

                                                     For package media sold for
                                                     commercial purposes such
                                                     as rental to consumers,
                                                     the royalty is forty cents
                                                     per MPEG-2 video event

                                                     "we will not apply the
                                                     second tier of the
                                                     packaged media royalty
                   Packaged media is any storage
                                                     structure ($.40 per MPEG-
                   medium such as pre-recorded
                                                     2 Video Event recorded per
                   DVDs, other disks, tapes, optic
                                                     copy on packaged media
                   based or other forms of media
                                                     sold to commercial end
                   storing MPEG-2 bitstreams.
                                                     users) through the first
                                                     term of the License ending
                   An MPEG-2 video event is
                                                     January 1, 2000. In our
Packaged           defined as a unit of video
                                                     view, the current market is
media              information having a normal
                                                     a sell-thru market and will
                   playing time of at least eight
                                                     continue to be so until
                   minutes. Therefore, for
                                                     DVD players reach a
                   example, a DVD with two
                                                     critical mass. Therefore,
                   movies or one movie and a
                                                     the $.04 royalty per Video
                   game would be a royalty
                                                     Event will apply to all
                   product at eight cents per unit
                                                     packaged media during
                   if sold to consumer end-users
                                                     that period
                                                     "

                                                     "More than one Video
                                                     Event will be counted only
                                                     in clear-cut cases. For
                                                     example, a disk contains
                                                     only one Video Event if it
                                                     contains shorts,
                                                     biographies of the movies
                                                     stars or a pan and scan
                                                     format in addition to the
                                                     movie itself; it is two Video
                                                     Events if it contains two
                                                     movies, two games, or a


               For internal use only - Do not distribute
                       For internal use only - Do not distribute
                                                      movie plus a game. "
                      MPEG-2 transport or program The royalty for such
                     stream products are products products is four dollars
      Transport or
                     such as file servers or          multiplied by the greater
      program stream
                     multiplexers. They are products number of input or output
      products
                     that multiplex or demultiplex    MPEG-2 streams relevant
                     MPEG-2 bitstreams                to a specific device
                     These are MPEG-2 encode,
                     decode and/or transport
                     products that are not             "We intend to collect a
                     integrated devices intend for    royalty on MPEG-2
                     sell to end-users. Rather, these products from
      Intermediate   are products such as ICs,        manufacturers of the
      products       circuit boards, subassemblies integrated devices made
                     and firmware and software that with intermediate
                     are sold for the purpose of      products, not on the
                     further integration into a       intermediate product itself"
                     product intended for end-users.



The future of MPEG-4's
           (information source Mpeg group FAQ)
This is the list of current extension work:
   eXtensible MPEG-4 Textual format (XMT) is a framework for representing
      MPEG-4 scene description using a textual syntax.
   IPMP extension is a specification for interoperable Intellectual Property
      Management and Protection that will allow the same protected content to
      be consumed on different vendors’ terminals.
   Multi-user worlds will provide end users with the ability to navigate multi-
      user worlds from various vendors with the same tools and content creators
      with the ability to create multi-user worlds and applications without being
      dependent on specific, specialized service providers.
   Animation Framework eXtension (AFX). Pronounced ‘effects’, this will provide
      users with enhanced visual experiences in synthetic MPEG-4
      environments.
   Video extensions is the new project in collaboration with the ITU-T Experts
       Group on Video Coding to extend MPEG-4 Video.
   Digital Cinema concerns the development of a standard for the high
      resolution and quality pictures of Digital Cinema.
   Audio extension is the work that will be done to further enhance performance
      around the 24 kbit/s range.



Portable Device Hardware
Introduction

The entire history of computing is a never-ending saga for power and portability.
Companies everywhere are replacing desktop computers with laptops, and now


                       For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
we’re beginning to see laptops replaced by handhelds, such as PalmPilots and
Pocket PCs.
According to a Gartner Group Inc., a variety of handheld devices will continue to
crowd the market over the next several years, with users carrying different
wireless Internet devices for different functions. They project sales of 700 million
cell phones, 30 million PDAs and 10 million pagers per year by 2004, with
individuals commonly carrying three computing and communications devices
beginning as soon as next year.

Most experts agree that desktops will remain widely used, but either as home or
office server machines or as task-specific workstations. Regardless, the age of
portable form factors is here, thanks in large part to easy synchronization and
new wireless networking technologies. So what does it make for a successful
portable form factor, and what are the implications for the future of portable
computing ? Perhaps the best place to start finding an answer is back with one of
the original portables. No, we’re not talking about the original portable. That was
the Osborne 1 that debuted in 1981 with dual 5.25-inch diskette drives and a
monochrome display the size of a slice of bread.

That was as far as the portability of devices was concerned. As regards video
streaming on wireless handhelds, we are today inundated with a complex
labyrinth of technologies in fairly advanced stage as well as ones still in their
nascent stage. Beyond enhancing portability of devices, there are a whole gamut
of wireless and streaming media technologies which need to be dealt with to form
a cohesive platform to make video viewable on handhelds.

History of portable devices
Here is a brief chronological history of the handheld devices from 1981 when
Motorola and American Radio phone started a U.S. cellular radio-phone system
test in the Washington/Baltimore area.

1982
Sharp introduces the Sharp PC-1500 Hand Held Personal Computer. It comes
with 16 KB ROM, and 3.5 KB RAM. Price for computer is US$300.
1984
Seiko Instruments U.S.A. Inc. displays the first wristwatch computer, with a 10-
character, 4-line LCD.
1989
Atari Computer introduces the Portfolio, a 1-pound DOS-based PC. It uses a 4.92
MHz 80C88 processor, 240x64 resolution screen, and runs on three AA batteries.
Price: US$400.
1990
First rechargeable lithium ion battery introduced,
TDMA — time division multiple access — digital cell phone standard established.
1992
Apple Computer chairman John Sculley coins the term Personal Digital Assistant,
referring to handheld computers that typically operate via a stylus on a LCD
display.
Digital cellular phone service is introduced.

1993
Apple Computer shows off test versions of its Newton Personal Digital Assistants
at the Winter Consumer Electronics Show.
Casio introduces the Zoomer personal digital assistant, developed jointly with

                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
Tandy. It features 7.4 MHz 8086-compatible processor, 4 MB ROM, 1 MB RAM,
GeoWorks Geos operating system and PCMCIA flash memory cards. The system
operates for about 100 hours on three AA batteries.

1995
The flash memory technology standard is introduced.
Intel announces the 80486SXSF and GXSF 486 microprocessors, designed for
handheld computer products. The GX has a 16-bit bus, the SX a 32-bit bus. Both
are 33 MHz, operating on 2.0-3.3 volts

1996
Handheld computer formats like Palm Pilot and Windows CE, introduced.
3Com debuts the Palm Pilot.
Microsoft unveils Windows CE operating system for handheld PCs.

1997
-Hewlett-Packard introduces the HP 300LX handheld computer
-Texas Instruments introduces the Avigo handheld personal information manager.
-Smart phones allow access to the World Wide Web and e-mail via a phone with a
screen and keyboard.
-Nokia introduces the Nokia 9000i Communicator, combining hand-held PC,
digital cell phone, and fax
-3Com introduces the 3Com PalmPilot Professional hand-held PC. It features six
buttons and LCD display, stylus, 1-MB RAM, and two AAA batteries giving about
ten weeks use.
-Palm Computing introduces the PalmPilot professional hand-held PC. It features
Palm OS 2.0, 3.25 x 2.5 inch 160x160 pixel monochrome LCD display, 1-MB RAM,
stylus, two AAA batteries.

1998
3Com introduces the Palm III handheld computer. It features Palm OS 3.0, 2 MB
RAM, infrared port, monochrome touch-screen display. Size is 4.7 x 3.2 x 0.7
inches; weight is six ounces; price is US$399

1999
-The first color screen handheld personal computer gets introduced.
-Hewlett-Packard introduces the HP Journada 420 hand-held PC. It features 256-
color 320x240 display, and Windows CE. Price is US$499; weight is 8 ounces.
-Palm Computing introduces the Palm VII Connected Organizer handheld
computer. It features 2 MB RAM, and modem. Price is US$599; size is 5.25 x
3.25 x 0.75 inches; weight is 6.7 ounces. Two AAA batteries power the unit for 2-
3 weeks.
-Psion introduces the Psion Revo personal digital assistant. It features 8 MB RAM,
36 MHz ARM 710T RISC processor, 53-key keyboard, 1.5 x 4.5 inch monochrome
480x160 pixel touchscreen, 8 MB ROM, Symbian EPOC32 v5.0 operating system,
19.2 Kbps modem.
-Compaq Computer introduces the Aero 1500 handheld computer. It features 16
MB RAM, 240x320 resolution 16-grayscale display, Windows CE, Compact Flash
Card slot. Power lasts 12-14 hours on a lithium-ion battery.
-Lithium polymer battery technology is introduced.
2000
-First Bluetooth-enabled products are launched.
-The first cellular phone is integrated with a touchscreen PDA
-Handspring releases the Handspring Visor Prism PDA. It features a Motorola 33-

                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
MHz --DragonBall VZ processor, Palm OS 3.5.2H, 16-bit color 160x160 pixel 3.1-
inch diagonal screen, and rechargeable lithium ion batteries giving about two
weeks use.

2001
Satellite radio broadcasting begins.
Nationwide two-way satellite Internet access becomes available.
The first solar-powered cell phone batteries debut.
………………………………………………………………………………………………


Handhelds – Design advancement contributions
Inspite of all the changes and advancements since the (Osborne 1)in physical
size, form and portability, for video streaming to be a bigger reality, part of the
design challenge is to to look at components that define the form factor, power,
speed and display capabilities of the device. Some of the bigger companies are
already moving closer to setting standards. While companies from one end of the
spectrum like Intel have very specific criteria for design of portable handheld
devices others like Motorola look at the problem from a different angle.


Intel
Intel believes technologies enable new performance and capabilities. They are
implemented by the industry through adoption of specifications and ultimately
show up as platform building blocks in new products like:




Processor
Memory
Bus & Internal I/O
External I/O
Graphics
Video/Display

Audio
Power Management
Networking & Communications
Form Factor & System Design
Software/Firmware
Serial ATA
Universal Serial Bus (USB)

Based on this criteria, Intel has got as far as developing chips based on its Xscale
architecture, the PXA250 and PXA210, which run at 400 MHz and 200 MHz,
respectively designed to maximize speed and minimize battery drain.
The 400-MHz processor is geared toward high-end PDAs that run MPEG videos.
The Xscale architecture would eventually supplant Intel's StrongARM
microprocessors. In addition, Intel plans to integrate communications functions
into chips supporting Global System For Mobile Communication/General Packet
Radio Service and later Wideband-CDMA. Later this year, Intel will introduce


                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
communications processors supporting GSM/GPRS 2.5-generation wireless
technology. For developers, Intel has introduced the PCA Developer Kit for
building cell phones, PDAs, and other mobile Internet devices on the Intel
platform. The kit includes tools for building software for the IBM WebSphere
mobile platform and Microsoft's WindowsCE.Net.


Motorola
Motorola's DragonBall family of microprocessors claims to have demonstrated
leadership in the portable handheld market. The DragonBall MX (Media
Extensions) series provides a leap in performance with an ARM9™ microprocessor
core and highly integrated system functions. DragonBall MX products specifically
address the needs of the personal, portable product market with their intelligent
integrated peripherals, advanced processor core, and power management
capabilities. A summary of the MC9328MX1's benefits includes the following:
- Fifth generation of industry-standard DragonBall family for the personal,
portable product market
- High level of on-chip integration
- Very low-power system design without compromised performance
- ptimized for multimedia applications
- Optimized for Bluetooth™ applications with high-speed interfaces to external
Bluetooth solutions.

Apart from notable contributions in semiconductors, Motorola is also engaged in
a collaborative effort with PacketVideo Corporation to bring full-motion video and
audio content on wireless portable devices which include PDA’s, smart phones,
laptops etc. They plan to develop combined technologies to enable developers to
design streaming media applications, including news clips, sports highlights,
movie trailers and video e-mail for Java-enabled wireless devices. To deliver
these innovative capabilities based on the Java™ 2 Platform, Motorola is coming
up with its multiple communications handset based on Micro Edition (J2ME) for
iDEN® networks.

Nokia
Other encouraging developments in this area include a formation of a consortium
by Nokia, Texas Instruments and 15 other firms solely dedicated to develop
software and design semiconductors for multimedia electronics products making
possible functions such as Internet surfing, mobile communications, mobile
offices and importantly, video processing on a single terminal, such as a PDA or
even an MP3 player.


Sony Ericsson
As regards display capabilities, Sony Ericsson has introduced color screen models
for it’s new handsets which includes the T68 internet phone.

Compact Flash and Memory Cards
Specifically speaking about memory on handhelds, there are a host of companies
that are currently engaged in enhancing and contributing their part of the jigsaw
puzzle.

Next to the PC card interface, CompactFLash is the oldest industry-standard
expansion interface for pocket PCs and palms. It is widely supported and

                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
although the Compact Flash card size is relatively small, it provides enough room
to implement many functions. It is a popular interface for adding memory, in
addition cellular networks, GPS devices are implemented on Compact Flash.

Developed by Sony & Fujitsu, the memory stick media are relatively small and
thus accommodate new functions. Its most common use is as a memory platform
for Palms.

Comparative sizes of Memory cards:




CompactFlash is the most popular removable mass storage device. The
CompactFlash card is about the size of a matchbook and only weighs half an
ounce. The card was designed based on the popular PC Card (PCMCIA) standard
and can easily be slipped into these slots with the use of a low-cost adapter.
CompactFlash technology has resulted in the introduction of a new class of
advanced, small, lightweight, low-power mobile products that significantly
increases the productivity .These products include digital cameras, digital music
players, desktop computers, handheld PCs (HPCs), personal communicators, Palm
PCs, Auto PCs, digital voice recorders and photo printers.




Secure Digital Memory Cards
The SD Card is a highly secure stamp-sized flash memory card. Jointly developed
by Matsushita Electronic (best known for its Panasonic brand name products),
SanDisk and Toshiba, the SD Card weighs approximately two grams. The SD Card


                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
can be used in a variety of digital products, digital music players, cellular phones,
handheld PCs (HPCs), digital cameras, digital video camcorders, smart phones,
car navigation systems and electronic books.


Power



Listed are a few examples of batteries and their life in combination with the kind
of handheld device that uses them.




Lithium Ion (Li-Ion) Battery 1550 mAh
The Li-Ion battery with 1550 mAh offers up to 2 hours talk time*




Nickel-Metal Hydride (NiMH) Battery 550mAh
A spare NiMH Battery 550mAh gives up to 200 hours...




Li-Ion Battery 600mAh
A spare Li-Ion Battery 600mAh gives up to 260 hours...




Li-Ion Battery 650 mAh
from up to 260 hours stand-by* or up to 360 minutes...




                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute




Li-Ion Extended Battery 1000 mAh
The Slim -Extended Battery Li-lon 1000 mAh is 4 mm thicker than the standard -
battery, weighs 25 g,...




Li-Ion Battery 540 mAhA Li-Ion 540 mAh Battery gives up to 200 hours extra
standby* or up to 240 minutes...




Li-Ion Battery 840 mAh
The Li-lon Battery 840 mAh gives up to 220 hours stand-by* or up to 360
minutes talk time*....




Li-Ion Battery 600 mAh
The Li-lon Battery 600 mAh gives up to 220 hours stand-by* or up to 360
minutes talk time*....

Battery technology for the near future

As quoted on ZDNet, Intel plans to integrate flash memory, logic circuits and
analogue processors to speed up mobile phones and extend battery lives

NEC and Sony are developing fuel cells that turn alcohol into electricity,
potentially giving a new breath of life to mobile devices - It uses nanohorns,
fullerene sheets rolled into microscopic cones, incorporating platinum atoms to
catalyse the electrochemical reaction that rips methanol apart. Such cells are
around 20 percent more efficient than existing fuel cells, says NEC, and can have
ten times higher power per weight ratios than lithium-ion at a comparable cost.

With integrated technologies and developments in fuel cells to deliver greater


                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
power in micro sizes, the future of handheld devices certainly look light and slick.



MIL Specs (MILITARY SPECIFICATIONS):


The U.S. Military has certain specifications and standards for mainstream portable
devices. A "Portable" is defined as a unit capable of being operated while a person
is in motion. Mainstream is defined as having reached some fair production level.
Most of the portable communication devices have to follow MIL-STD-810F test
procedures before reaching the market place.


The following is the list of MIL-STD-810F test procedures, performed on the
Panasonic Toughbook 28

The Drop test was performed in accordance with MIL-STD-810F, Method 516.5,
Procedure IV (Transit Drop Test). The Toughbook 28 was sequentially dropped in
non-operating mode, onto each face, edge and corner for a total of 26 drops from
a height of 36 inches.
The Vibration test was performed in accordance with MIL-STD-810F, Method
514.5, Procedure I, Category 24 (Minimum Integrity Test) for the non-operational
condition and Category 4 (Truck Transportation over U.S. Highways) for the
operational condition.

The Water Resistance test was performed in accordance with MIL-STD-810F,
Method 506.4, Procedure III (Drip). The test items were subjected to this test
with the LCD open and the unit operating, but with ports closed. The Toughbooks
were opened following testing to inspect for water intrusion.

The Humidity test was performed in accordance with MIL-STD-810F, Method
507.4 (Aggravated). The test items were tested for operation near the conclusion
of the fifth and tenth cycles. Each cycle was one day (24 hours) and the entire
test was performed over ten days.The temperature was cycled between 86 and
140°F with the relative humidity at 95% constant.

The Dust Resistance test was performed in accordance with
MIL-STD-810F, Method 510.4, Procedure I (Dust). An operating temperature of
140°F was used for this test. The upper non-operating temperature of 140°F was
incorporated into the test as this is the "default" temperature given by the MIL-
STD-810F guidelines.

High Temperature tests were conducted in accordance with MIL-STD-810F,
Method 501.4, Procedures I (Storage) and Procedure II (Operation). Panasonic
set the testing parameters as follows: 140°F Operational, 160°F Non-Operational

The Low Temperature test was performed according to MIL-STD-810F, Method
502.4, Procedures I (Storage) and II (Operation). Panasonic set the low operating
temperature at -20°F and non-operating temperature at -60°F.

The Thermal Shock test was performed in accordance with MIL-STD-810F,
Method 503.4. Panasonic set the high temperature non-operating temperature at
205°F and the low temperature non-operating temperature at -60°F. Three cycles
were performed (high to low = one cycle).

                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                       For internal use only - Do not distribute

The Altitude test was performed in accordance with MIL-STD-810F, Method
500.4, Procedure I (Storage) and II (Operation). The altitude level used for both
procedures was 15,000 feet (highest equivalent altitude given within MIL-STD-
810F for cargo pressures of military aircraft).



Handhelds - the closest contenders on the market
Pocket PCs and 3G mobile phones called ‘Smart Phones’ are the most popular
portable devices on the market currently. Some of the latest examples also hold
some promise of wireless streaming of video somewhere in the near future. Here
is a brief look at the latest handheld devices, their configurations / specifications,
different types of batteries and memory cards.


Pocket PC:

A Pocket PC is a class of device that has a quarter VGA(320x240) screen and
contains a consistent package of integrated applications, wireless and wired
connectivity options, and Win32 APIs for developers.

Here is a short comparison of the latest Pocket PCs, their hardware configuration
and performance.




NEC MobilePro P300
Size: 4.72"L x 3.07"W x 0.73"D / 126L x 78W x 18.5D mm
(190 gram/6.7 oz)
32MB flash ROM
32 MB DRAM, 32 MB SD Card included
MS pocket PC 2002
206 MHz, Intel® StrongARM 32-bit processor
Display Type: Reflective 3.8" QVGA TFT LCD
Number of Colors: 65,536
Resolution: 240 x 320
Built –in-expansion: CF type II,SD,USB (Host, Slave(function))
Synchronization options: USB (Lithium Ion)
U.S. $599*




                       For internal use only - Do not distribute
                     For internal use only - Do not distribute




Compaq iPAQ Pocket PC H3870/H3835
Size: 5.3"L x 3.3"W x .62"D/135L x 84W x 16D mm              6.7 oz./190
ROM 32MB
RAM 64MB
MS pocket PC 2002
206 MHz, Intel StrongARM 32-bit processor
Display Type: Reflective TFT LCD
Number of Colors: 65,536
Resolution: 240 x 320
Input Method: handwriting recognition, soft keyboard, voice recording, inking
Built –in-expansion: Secured Digital card slot for memory expansion, CF slot.

Synchronization options: USB cradle, infrared, wireless phone connector cable,
AC adapter, soft case, stylus (3), CD-ROM, Bluetooth
Battery life: Up to 12 hours (1400mAh Lithium Polymer Rechargable Battery)
U.S. $599*




HP Jornada 560 Series
Size: 5.20"L x 3.01"W x 0.68"D        6.1 oz. / 173 grams
ROM 32MB
RAM 32/64MB
MS pocket PC 2002
206 MHz, Intel StrongARM 32-bit processor
Display Type: Reflective TFT LCD.
Number of Colors: 65,536.
Resolution: 240 x 320
Built-in-expansion: Compact Flash Type 1 extended
Synchronization options: USB cradle, infrared
Battery life: Up to 14 hours (Lithium Polymer Rechargable Battery)
U.S.$599*

Even though the three of the above mentioned latest models stand similar and
are running neck to neck in terms of the criteria listed, Compaq iPAQ Pocket PC
H3870/H3835 & HP Jornada 560 Series are the most robust in terms of the

                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
diversity in features, expansion capabilities (memory) and running life (battery
powers). With this kind of configuration these latest pocket PCs are all set to take
on the streaming video applications.




Handspring Visor Prism
6.9oz
RAM 8MB
33Mhz, Motorola dragon ball VZ processor
Display Type: Reflective TFT LCD.
Colors: 65,536 (16-bit)
Resolution: 320 x 320
Data storage expansion: Memory stick
Synchronization options: Infrared
Battery: Lithium ion Rechargeable (internal), 2 weeks or 6 hours nonstop
U.S.$449*



Smart phones:

A smart phone is, first of all, a wireless phone. It is digital as opposed to analog.
Digital technology offers better sound clarity than its wireless predecessor and
handles eight times the traffic. That means users will have a better chance of
getting their calls through quickly and clearly. Smart phones also support data
transmissions; it's that ability to handle text and Internet access that makes a
smart phone "smart."
A smart phone also has a built-in mini-Web browser and as wireless Internet
connections get faster, smart phones will even be able to handle streaming video.

Following is a short comparison of the latest Smartphones:




                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                     For internal use only - Do not distribute




Kyocera QCP 6035 Smartphone
Size: 5.6 x 2.5 x 0.86 / 7.34oz.
RAM 8MB
Smartphone PDQ 800 MHz
Display Type: Reflective TFT LCD.
Resolution: 160x240
Data storage expansion: Memory stick
Synchronization options: Infrared, USB
Built-in speakerphone, voice-activated dialing and a convenient jog-dial
Battery: Lithium ion Rechargeable (internal), 2 weeks or 6 hours nonstop
U.S.$500*




Samsung SPH-1300 PDA/Phone
256 – color screen
Full wireless palm functionality
Display Type: Reflective TFT LCD.
Built-in speakerphone, extra battery, second LCD on top




Handspring PDA-Cell phone
DRAM 16MB
33Mhz, Motorola dragon ball VZ processor
Display Type: Reflective TFT LCD.

Data storage expansion: Memory stick


                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
Synchronization options: Infrared, USB
Battery: Lithium ion Rechargeable (internal), 2 weeks or 6 hours nonstop




Palm i705
Size: 4.7"L x 3.1"W x 0.6"D        / 5.9oz.
ROM: 4MB
RAM 8MB
33Mhz, Motorola dragon ball VZ processor
Display Type: Reflective TFT LCD.
Monochrome Screen
Resolution: 320 x 320
Data storage expansion: Memory stick
Synchronization options: Infrared
Battery: Lithium - Polymer Rechargeable (internal)
U.S.$449*

Apart from the above, the following examples of handhelds are built conceptually
around radically different usage, service positioning and image. These go beyond
functionality and convenience alone.


Cybiko
http://www.cybiko.com
Essentially a one product company, Cybiko Inc. calls its handheld ‘Your Totally
Wireless Inter-tainment computer’. Targeted at teenagers, in Asia Pacific and the
US it’s spawned an entire cult with websites other than the official company site
been put up by crazed users of the device. The Cybiko is touted as the all in one
portable handheld computer that makes it possible to play games over a wireless
network, works as a PDA and allows internet access for e-mail, chat and works
plays MP3s too. It uses very high RF to communicate with other cybikos within
range and at least one need to be hooked up to a computer for internet
connectivity which then makes it possible for other’s within the range to access
the internet.

The newer version of the Cybiko, called Xtreme Cybiko claims to stream video
using the MXD™Technology Cybiko's MP3 Player features MXD™ Technology. This
MXD™ Technology is revolutionary in the wireless industry, making the Cybiko
Xtreme one of the first to "watch and listen on the go". MXD™ (Music Xchange
Digital) is a still motion video clip and audio clip combined to create exciting
entertainment.




                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
                     For internal use only - Do not distribute




Sony Clie Mylo
MyloSM Wireless Service by Sony delivers Internet access for the CLIÉ™ PEG-
S320 Handheld, for a Notebook PC, or for both. The Mylo package (hardware and
software) is a complete solution for accessing the Internet, Email and Instant
Messaging wirelessly. The following is a FAQ about the service and technical

                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
specifications:

1. What is Mylo?
Mylo is made up of three things:

   -AirCard 300 PCMCIA Modem (and AirPath SC300 adapter in the case of
       CLIE™) which connects the device wirelessly to the Internet, Email and
       Instant Messaging
   -Unlimited monthly nationwide wireless access to the Internet within your
       desinated service area
   -Sony Start page which allows access to:
   -Mylo Web – wireless internet web access organized around an easy to use,
       intuitive interface of 4 pages: "Today, Work, Play, Search"
   -Mylo Mail – receive a mylo.com email address and the ability to wirelessly
       access existing POP3 email accounts such as Yahoo! Mail
   -Mylo Messenger – wireless Instant Messaging with other Mylo users,
       Go.Messenger™ users and Yahoo! Messenger users.

2. What products does this service work with?
Service works with Sony CLIE PEG-S320 Handheld and Windows-based Notebook
Computers that have a standard PCMCIA slot (most computers automatically
come with this slot).

3. What does the Mylo cost?
The AirPath SC300 Adapter and AirCard 300 Modem Card costs $99 after $100
rebate.
   -CLIE™ Handheld service is $39.95/month
   -Notebook Computer service is $59.95/month
   -Combined Handheld and Notebook service is $79.95/month
   -
4. What network does the service run on?
The service currently works on a CDPD network that runs at 19.2Kps. Using a
PCMCIA modem card-based connection allows for easy upgrade as new network
technologies become available.

5. Does the service allow me to access my work email?
If you use an email service that is compatible with standard POP3 protocols then
you would be able to access your email. Most ISP services and many Internet
based email services are compatible with POP3.

Wireless AirCard 300 Technical Specifications

General Info
   -Type II PC Card
   - CDPD Only
   -CDPD Release 1.1
   -Transmit: 824 to 849 Mhz
   -Receive: 869 to 894 Mhz
   -Channel Spacing: 30 kHz
   -Freq. Stability: ± 2.5 ppm
   -Power Output: 600 mW

Power Consumption:
   -5V

                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
   -Sleep Typical:2mA
   -Transmit Typical: 500mA max 650mA
   -Optional rechargeable power pack for CE devices (900mAH Lithium Ion)

Environmental:
   -Operating Temp.: 0¡ to +55¡ C
   -Storage Temp.: -20¡ to + 85¡ C
   -Vibration: 15G peak 10-2000 Hz (not operating)
   -Humidity: 95%, non-condensing


AirPath SC300 Technical Specifications

Dimensions:
   -Length (w/o Antenna):5.71” (145mm)
   -Length (External to Clie bottom):1.26”
   -Width: 2.80” (71 mm)
   -Depth (External to Clie): 0.51” (13mm)
   -Depth (Overall): 1.10” (28mm)
   -Weight (w/o AirCardTM): 4.4oz (125g)

Modem Features:
   -CDPD specification v1.1
   -Transmit Frequency: 824 to 349 MHz
   -Receive Frequency: 869 to 894 MHz
   -Channel Spacing: 30 kHz
   -Frequency Stability: 2.5 ppm
   -RF Power Output: 600mW

Build-in Modem Features:
    -19.2 kbps full duplex data transfer rate
    -Built in TCP/IP, UDP, PPP, SLIP Protocols Software
    -Developer Kit API available

Features:
    -Detachable antenna
3 status LEDs indicating:
    -Network registration status
    -Data Tx/Rx status
    -Battery and charging status


What’s interesting in the case of he Sony Clie Mylo is that it is claims to stream
movie trailers from Sony Pictures – on windows media player using Pocket PC or
Palm using Generic Media's gMovie Player and gMovie Maker for the Palm OS®




                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute




Ericsson T68
The T68 is the latest internet phone from Ericsson and has a color display.

The Ericsson Mobile Organizer (EMO) software gives you access to current e-
mails, up-to-date calendar and to-do list with the latest tasks, exactly as if you
were online.

In addition you can also receive and forward attached files. Documents created in
Microsoft(R)Word or Microsoft(R) PowerPoint are read directly in the mobile
phone's window. All functions correspond exactly to those on the computer
screen.

EMO works independently with any mobile network technology that supports
WAP. The Ericsson Mobile Organizer (EMO) is multilingual and supports the ability
to switch between eleven different languages without having to restart the
application. EMO uses the login security of your existing office network. To obtain
additional security, the EMO software can be easily combined with systems for
encryption and/or OneTime.

The T68 is a triple band mobile phone with a full color screen. It is packed with
groundbreaking features including GPRS, Bluetooth™ and EMS. The T68 has
advanced calendar and contacts and you can synchronize data in your phone with
your PC. In standby mode, you can have a color background picture of your
choice filling the screen. The T68 is available in two tasteful colors.


Features:
Alarm clock with snooze function
Background picture
Bluetooth™ wireless technology support
Bookmarks (URL memory)
Built-in modem

                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                    For internal use only - Do not distribute
Business card exchange
Calendar
Call barring
Call divert
Call hold
Call list
Call transfer
Caller ID at a Glance
Closed User Groups
Code memo
Colour display
Colour Themes
Compose your own ring signal
Connected Line Identity Presentation (COLP)
Contacts
CSD, Circuit Switched Data (a.k.a GSM Data)
Display light
Email address storage
E-mail (POP3)
EMS (for sending and receiving pictures and signals)
Fixed Dialing Numbers
Games
GPRS for fast connections
High Speed Data (HSCSD)
Imaging
Infrared port
Joystick
Keypad lock
Mobile chat
Notes
Predictive text input
Profiles
Ring signal exchange
Screensaver
Shortcuts menu
SMS messaging
Speed Dial
Start-up/Shutdown shows
Stopwatch
Sync ML
Synchronization with PC (min req: Win®98, NT4.0, 2000 or WinME)
Two Line Service
Vibrating Alert
WAP 1.2.1
WTLS class 3
Network features:
Business card exchange
Call barring
Call divert
Call hold
Call transfer
Caller ID at a Glance
Closed User Groups
Code memo

                    For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
CSD, Circuit Switched Data (a.k.a GSM Data)
EMS (for sending and receiving pictures and signals)
Fixed Dialing Numbers
GPRS for fast connections
High Speed Data (HSCSD)
Ring signal exchange
SMS messaging
Two Line Service
WAP 1.2.1
WTLS class 3
Network:
GSM 1900
GSM 900
GSM 1800

Available colors:
Ziroccan Gold
Lunar Grey
Sizes:
100x48x20mms


Nokia 7650
The newest development in mobile messaging according to Nokia is called
Multimedia Messaging Service, or MMS for short. MMS allows mobile phone users
to incorporate audio, images, and other rich content with traditional text
messages, transforming them into personal collages of vision and sound.

   -Availability: Europe, Africa, Asia Pacific in the 2nd quarter of 2002.
   -Weight: 154 g
   -Dimensions: 114 x 56 x 26 mm
   -Talktime: 2 - 4 h
   -Standby time: 90 - 230 h
   -Key features: Integrated digital camera, picture taking and sending, MMS
      (Multimedia Messaging Service), photo album for storing pictures, GPRS,
      an advanced user interface, joystick navigation and a color display
   -Operating frequency: EGSM900/1800 in Europe, Africa, Asia Pacific
   -Imaging resolution: (VGA, 640x480 pixels) Graphical color display
      (176x208 pixels, 35x41mm)


The new Nokia 7650 is not only a phone - it's also an integrated digital imaging
device. Point, use the color display as a viewfinder, snap a picture, and share the
moment.Save the picture in the photo album - there's memory for dozens of
pictures - or send it to a friend.

Motorola A388
Yet to be released the Motorola A388 for use on GSM 900/1800/1900 MHz
networks is the latest from Motorola. The handset combines a phone with a PDA
and boasts advanced features to help keep your busy life under control.

   -Powerful PIM features, including up to 1,000 phonebook entries
   -Integrated voice and messaging functionality
   -Icon-based user interface with full touch screen

                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
   -Large, 4 level gray scale LCD display
   -GPRS for high-speed data support
   -Internet, computer, and digital camera connectivity
   -Downloadable games




………………………………………………………………………………………………


Related Developments
Apart from the cutting edge devices and technologies that are already available
currently or likely to be available in the near future, some parallel advancements
in terms of feasibility of video streaming on handheld devices are on. The
following are relevant excerpts of information available on respective websites
about companies and technologies that are engaged in the field and may become
successful in their endeavor sooner than expected.

gMovie
‘The Generic Media™ Publishing Service is a world-class hosted solution that
drastically reduces the resource expenditures associated with streaming media
content. By automating the process of encoding and delivering digital content in
multiple media formats, the Generic Media Publishing Service enables publishers
to reach the widest possible audience immediately, reliably and economically.
Publish a single digital source file to the Generic Media Publishing Service, and
instantly deliver it in all major media formats, at all connection speeds, to
virtually any device.’




                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                     For internal use only - Do not distribute




Mobile Media Platform


‘The Emblaze mobile media platform is a carrier-class, scalable solution that
facilitates the deployment and implementation of complete commercial mobile
media services. The platform encompasses live and on-demand encoders,
powerful streaming servers, content and asset management, system integration
and billing interfaces.
Providing a wide range of streaming media applications and services, the Emblaze
platform enables carriers to offer visual communication services to subscribers on
existing network infrastructure without requiring hardware replacement or
upgrade. In this way, carriers drive consumer demand and position themselves as
market leaders.


                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
The Emblaze Mobile Media Platform offers a wide range of visual communication
services:

• Multimedia messaging - Video messaging and animated greetings.
• Location-based services- Information delivery based on subscriber location:
maps & guides, travel & outdoor information, online movie ticketing, news,
traffic, weather, and
  sports updates.
• Entertainment - Movie previews, music clips, games and adult content.

Emblaze System Architecture
The Emblaze platform is racked in a network architecture configuration. The video
encoders can be separated from the server and placed in a remote location (e.g.
the content provider's studios). The system is located on the cellular carrier's
network in proximity to other IP-based servicing systems.




‘Founded in 1994, Emblaze Systems pioneered the introduction of instantaneous
video delivery to handheld and mobile devices. The company went public in 1996
and is traded on the London Stock Exchange under the symbol LSE: BLZ.
Networked around the globe, over four hundred employees focus on developing
and supporting practical solutions based on Emblaze wireless technology.

Carriers have demonstrated that mobile technology is more than a dream. It has
become a fact of life for millions of subscribers worldwide. Emblaze offers carriers
proven leading-edge technologies that broaden and strengthen the services
offered to their subscribers.’

The following recent events as quoted on www.informationweek.com highlight


                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
convincingly the feasibility of streaming video applications and technologies soon
to be available.

Emblaze Systems and Tadlys demo the first ever streaming of video over
Bluetooth™ at 3GSM Congress
showcased ‘between-booth’ streaming video applications on a live Bluetooth
network at the 3GSM congress in Cannes, France

a pioneer in mobile media solutions, together with Tadlys demonstrated the first
ever streaming of video content over a Bluetooth network between their two
booths at 3GSM. Tadlys is a developer of Bluetooth local networks that enhance
cellular networks for ‘hotspots’ (areas in cities such as airports, train stations,
conference centers and business districts that allow wireless internet connectivity
via Bluetooth).

This is the first time that Bluetooth has been used for high bandwidth applications
such as streaming video. The companies intend to offer carriers the ability to
implement antennas and switches in, for example, shopping centers. In this case,
the antennas would be connected to the Emblaze server, which in turn would be
connected to a TV station. This would enable carriers to offer their customers the
ability to watch clips using Bluetooth technology. PDA’s can already accept files
up to 1MB and deliver streaming at a rate of 16 frames per-second.


Emblaze and Samsung demonstrate live video streaming over World’s
First GPRS Video

Emblaze Systems Ltd (“BLZ”) and Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd., demonstrated
live streaming of rich media content on the world’s first commercial videophone
for GPRS networks at the 3GSM show and conference in Cannes, France,
February 19-22, 2002.

Thanks to the co-operation with Wind, the Italian mobile and fixed operator, it
has been possible to test this product over a GPRS network. Wind has been a
keen supporter of the Emblaze solution since the beginning, and for this reason
Wind’s customers will be able to have access to a wide range of audio-video
streaming content very soon.

The new Samsung GPRS videophone allows users high-speed, wireless access to
music videos, Internet broadcast, animation and other motion picture in colour.
The demonstration will show what customers could view on their mobile phones
by simply pressing the video function key and browsing through the list of
available content. The eventual deployment of the phone in Italy will also show
the ability of Emblaze to work with carriers as well as handset manufacturers to
bring about a lifestyle changing service to mobile phone users. The videophone,
with Emblaze™ video ASIC chip embedded in it, has an MPEG-4 decoder that
operates from GRPS platform and built-in stereo sound reproduction. A large TFT-
LCD is used to provide clear movie images. Separate memory is available for
storage, so the user can download the video and replay it as many times as
he/she wants. The phone circuits are designed to conserve power and the
software is optimized to extend battery life to accommodate the playback of
motion pictures in color.

The phone enables varied viewing experiences, (video size, speed and image

                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
quality) according to the bandwidth provided by the network. As bandwidth
increases, the user can enjoy larger video size with a smoother image and better
image quality. The phone is currently compatible with existing GPRS systems.

………………………………………………………………………………………………


Conclusion


As handheld mobile devices get smaller and more powerful the prospects of video
on demand and on the go has started looking good. Mobile and wireless
technologies and the IT mainstream are hardly distinguishable anymore. The
challenge is to integrate seamlessly the various technological aspects of
streaming video onto devices that are not just portable but even wearable. Most
key players in the mobile and IT arena are on the verge of making the pieces fit
together but as of now there is no portable device that convincingly demonstrates
the possibility of displaying viewable video on handhelds except maybe with one
exception, the new Samsung GPRS videophone.


………………………………………………………………………………………………

References


Portables
TOP Handhelds (http://computers.cnet.com/hardware/0-2645869-7-
1480990.html)
Latest Prices (http://shopper.cnet.com/shopping/0-11013-301-0-0.html)

History
Chronology of Handheld Computers
(http://www.islandnet.com/~kpolsson/handheld/hand1993.htm)
What was the first personal computer? (http://www.blinkenlights.com/pc.shtml)
Historical timeline palm (http://www.palm.com/about/corporate/timeline.html)

Form
Handheld Computers (http://www.handheldcomputerdepot.com/handhelds.html)
Windows powered mobile devices (http://www.microsoft.com/mobile/default.asp)

Power
Alcohol gives new life to thirsty portables
Toshiba touts slimmer, stronger batteries (http://news.zdnet.co.uk/story/0,,t269-
s2084398,00.html)
http://www.my-siemens.com/MySiemens/CDA/Index/

Mil Specs
Index of DSCC Mil Specs & Drawings
(http://www.dscc.dla.mil/Programs/MilSpec/default.asp?DocTYPE=MIL)
Standards Organizations (http://www.convergedigest.com/StandardsBodies.htm)




                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
Related Developments


www.informationweek.com
www.embalze.com
www.genericmedia.com


Portable Device Operating Systems and Software

Introduction
In order to develop applications for streaming video on portable wireless devices,
it is necessary to construct a robust platform that combines the previously
discussed hardware and software technologies in a flexible manner. It is the role
of the operating system to manage hardware and software resources and to
expose an application programming interface (API) to access those resoruces [].
In this section we survey different operating systems for portable devices.

Brief History
Both industry and academia have contributed heavily to the development of
computer operating systems over the past 30 years. The invention of the UNIX
operating system in the 1970's by Ken Thompson and Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs
spearheaded much of this development. UNIX promoted robust multiple-user,
multiple-task support as well as easier application development using high-level
programming languages. Since UNIX itself was written in a high-level
programming language, it was easy to port, or convert, the operating system to
function on different hardware platforms [].
The introduction of UNIX to the Computer Science Department at the University
of California at Berkeley in 1976-77 would lead to the rapid proliferation of new
versions of UNIX due to the free or relatively low cost of academic licenses. The
Berkeley Software Distribution (BSD) of UNIX would also go on to introduce the
TCP/IP networking protocols that are the foundation of Internet communication.
Pushing the free, open nature of UNIX even further was the introduction of the
Linux operating system in 1992. Written by Finnish computer science student
Linus Torvalds, Linux is a UNIX clone distributed under the free software license
known as the GNU General Public License (GPL). The GPL ensures that any
changes or improvements to the source code of the Linux operating system
remains freely available []. Continuous improvements and modifications to the
Linux operating system have made it a contender to commercial products in the
server and portable operating systems market today. In 1998, Compaq Western
Research Laboratories developed one of the first portable devices running the
Linux operating system as part of their Itsy research project [].
Meanwhile, the release of the Microsoft Disk Operating System (MS-DOS) in
1981-82 would coincide with the introduction of inexpensive personal computers.
MS-DOS would remain the foundation for all Microsoft operating systems until the
introduction of Windows NT (New Technology) in 1993. Windows NT would
incorporate many of the advanced features previously found only in UNIX as well
as introduce the Win32 application programming interface (API) which from then
on would be used as the basis for all Microsoft operating systems, including
Windows CE. Introduced in 1996,Windows CE was designed for portable
computers while still supporting a subset of the Win32 API to allow the large
Windows programmer community to quickly begin developing applications for the

                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
new operating system.
In 1993, Apple Computer introduced the Newton MessagePad, a portable
computer with a proprietary operating system. Although it was a commercial
failure and was discontinued in 1998, it remains a significant milestone in the
development of the personal digital assistant (PDA) market. A contemporary to
the Newton OS is the now-defunct GeoWorks GEOS operating system as used on
the Casio Zoomer, Hewlett-Packard OmniGo 100, and Nokia Communicator 9000.
Experiences with these products would influence the design and development of
the successive generation of portable operating systems, including current
market leader Palm OS.

Current Market Analysis
Current contenders in the portable operating systems market include the
PalmSource Palm OS, Microsoft Windows CE, distributions of the Linux operating
system, and the Symbian OS. In the United States, currently the largest market
for portable digital assistants (PDAs), the PalmSource Palm OS leads the market
with a 79% retail market share in 2001, including devices manufactured by Palm,
Handspring, and Sony []. Following at a distance is Microsoft Windows CE with a
12% retail market share the same year, including devices manufactured by
Compaq and Hewlett-Packard. In Western Europe, where cellular phones are
more popular than PDAs, Symbian obtained a 34% market share during the third
quarter of 2001 from sales of the Nokia Communicator 9210, followed by 29.9%
for the Palm OS and 20.8% for Windows CE [].
At the time of this writing, there are no portable devices sold with the Linux
operating system on the commercial market. However, it has rapidly been gaining
popularity with companies and the free software developer community. Compaq
has been a large supporter of the developer community, providing technical
information for running Linux on their iPaq Pocket PC. Upcoming commercial
devices using the Linux operating system include the Sharp Zaurus SL-5500 [],
Royal Lin@x [], and the Gmate Yopy []. However, as an example of the rough
economic climate for portable devices, after only a few months on the market,
Agenda Computing, manufacturers of the Agenda VR3 Linux-based PDA,
discontinued operations and filed for bankrupcy [].
The following sections analyze the competing products in greater detail, looking
at market influence as well as technical properties.

PalmSource Palm OS
PalmSource is a subsidiary of Palm Computing, creator of the original PalmPilot
PDA. PalmSource claims that the Palm OS is used in over 21 million portable
computing devices, comprising 72% of world market []. Licensees include Acer,
AlphaSmart, Garmin, HandEra, HandSpring, Kyocera, Samsung, Sony, and
Symbol. The Palm OS is only available to licensees, but they are given freedom to
customize the OS to their needs. Some enhancements developed by licensees
include support for higher resolution displays, audio recording and playback,
memory and I/O expansion slots, and telephony.
The current Palm OS was developed by stripping down the AMX real time
preemptive multitasking kernel from Kadak to a single tasking kernel highly
optimized for the Motorola DragonBall 68000 series CPU [] []. PalmSource has
provided a C language API for accessing all the features of the operating system,
including user interface and graphics, local storage, and networking. A popular
development tool is Metrowerks Codewarrior for Palm OS, which provides an IDE

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that is tightly integrated with the C language API. Alternatively, free UNIX-based
command line tools for the C language API are available and are officially
supported by PalmSource. This makes it easy for other third-party developers to
build IDEs that have full access to the C language API. Other languages such as
BASIC and Java are well supported by third-parties, but generally do not provide
access to the same amount of hardware functionality.
The single-tasking nature of the current Palm OS means that many common
programming constructs are generally not available without additional run-time
support, such as threads. It seems unlikely that a Palm OS application can
simultaneously receive, decode, and display streaming video with a reasonable
quality. Video playback is possible, but currently only with proprietary software
that requires specially encoded files stored locally on the device [] []. Freely
available developer libraries for video playback have not been found during the
course of this survey. The operating system source code is not freely available.
Recent previews of Palm OS 5 have highlighted the new operating system’s
support for higher performance ARM-based CPUs as well as improved multimedia
and wireless networking capabilities. Development of the Palm OS continues with
talent and intellectual property acquired from Be, Inc., well known for their early
efforts in building a high-performance multimedia operating system.

Microsoft Windows CE
Microsoft steadily continues to gain market share with its Windows CE operating
system. It is licensed to OEMs with varying configurations. Developers can
customize their own version of Windows CE, or can license a complete package
such as Pocket PC or SmartPhone, which includes specialized applications.
Licensees include Audiovox Communications Corp., Casio, Compaq, Fujitsu,
Hewlett-Packard, Intermec, Itronix, NEC, Sharp, Symbol, and Toshiba. Market
strength for Windows CE is in the enterprise market, where tight integration with
existing systems and software, particularly Microsofts own products, provides
added value.
Microsoft claims real-time performance from its kernel, with a minimum
configuration size of 200kb. Hardware support includes CPUs with ARM, MIPS, SH,
and x86 cores []. In addition, the latest version adds support for both 802.11b
and Bluetooth wireless networking [].
Windows CE was originally designed to offer programmers a subset of the Win32
API also used on desktop Windows operating systems, including
95/98/Me/NT/2000/XP. This was intended to allow the large community of
desktop Windows programmers to easily transition to portable application
development. Although this subset of the Win32 API was originally very
restricted, it has since grown in later versions along with a greater selection of
libraries to support additional technologies including Windows Media and
telephony.
Microsoft eMbedded Visual Tools is an integrated development environment (IDE)
for programming Windows CE applications []. It currently supports using the
Visual Basic eMbedded and Visual C++ eMbedded languages. Although third party
development tools, such as NSBasic, exist, in order to have full access to the
latest API, Microsoft tools are necessary. With the release of Windows CE .NET
(a.k.a version 3.0), Microsoft is introducing the .NET Compact Framework that
will provide new APIs that are a subset of the full .NET Framework available for
desktop Windows []. The Common Language Infrastructure (CLI) of the .NET
Framework opens the door to more programming languages to be supported on

                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
the Windows CE .NET operating system. These tools are freely available for
download from Microsoft.
For configuring the operating system itself, Microsoft Platform Builder is a tool for
customizing the components of Windows CE. It is freely available, but in order to
produce a customized version of the operating system that will run on actual
hardware, additional tools must be purchased. For additional aid in customizing
the operating system, Microsoft provides access to the source code for parts of
Windows CE under the terms of the Microsoft Shared Source License [].
Developers are allowed to view the code, but not modify, build, or distribute it for
commercial use.

Symbian OS
The Symbian OS is produced by Symbian Ltd, a company jointly owned by Psion,
Ericsson, Sony Ericsson, Motorola, Nokia, and Matsushita (Panasonic). Devices
currently on the market using the Symbian OS are the Ericsson R380e [] and the
Nokia Communicator 9210 []. Upcoming devices include the Sony Erisson P800
and the Nokia 7650.
The Symbian OS was developed specifically for portable wireless devices running
on ARM-based CPUs []. A C++ API provides access to all of the operating system
features, including graphics, sound, and networking. Free developer tools are
available from Symbian. Also included as part of the operating system is a Java
Virtual Machine and libraries supporting the PersonalJava, Java 2 Micro Edition,
and JavaPhone APIs.
Fewer third-party tools are available for developing Symbian applications.
Metrowerks Codewarrior for Symbian is in development. Also, the source code for
the operating system is not freely available.

Linux
The source code for core of the the Linux operating system, called the kernel, as
well as the necessary development tools to compile the code into a working
system are distributed for free under the GNU General Public License (GPL). A
distribution of Linux packages the kernel and a customized set of applications
and utilities together. Distributions are available both from companies and free
independent developer organizations. Distributions for portable devices include
Lineo Embedix [], LynuxWorks BlueCat [], Empower Linux DA [], and the free
open source familiar distribution [].
The Linux kernel has been ported to portable device hardware largely unchanged,
including ARM, MIPS, and SH based CPU cores. This has made it easy to port
additional common applications and libraries, including support for X Windows.
The GPL ensures that the source code for all of these developments will continue
to remain freely available. A large and active developer community
enthusiastically provides continuous improvements and support.

Alternative Technologies
There is a class of software that provides hardware and operating system
independent APIs for development. Such run-time environments, including virtual
machines, act much like a second operating system running as a process within
the native operating system. By writing applications for a run-time environment,
it is possible to completely change the hardware and operating system with no or
few changes to the application itself. In exchange for this flexibility, however,


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                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
performance is often degraded due to the additional layer of software and the
functionality is often reduced to a lowest-common denominator set.
Sun Microsystems Java is one of the most popular virtual machine environments
available. The Java 2 Micro Edition (J2ME) platform is a configurable API
specification designed for portable devices []. The Connected Limited Device
Configuration (CLDC) [] provides a minimal set of API support, upon which the
Mobile Information Device Profile (MIDP) [] adds support for common Internet
protocols, persistent storage, and user interface development. This platform is
rapidly gaining popularity, but still suffers from the lack of a thriving third-party
development community. Most tools have been retrofitted from existing desktop
application development tools. Also, J2ME lacks support for multimedia. Much of
the J2ME platform is available in source code form through Sun Community
Source Licensing, an open-source license closer to the BSD license than the GPL,
allowing for companies, particularly Sun, to take open source code proprietary.
Some common licensees include Insignia with their Jeode VM [], Hewlett-Packard
with their MicroChaiVM [], and IBM with their J9 VM []. Development tools can be
downloaded for free from Sun.
Qualcomm, the main industry proponent of CDMA wireless technology, has
introduced the Binary Runtime Environment for Wireless (BREW) platform []. Not
a true virtual machine specification, applications written for the BREW platform
are compiled into native hardware code; currently only Qualcomm processors
based on an ARM core are supported. However, the BREW API itself is largely
hardware independent. It provides comprehensive support for wireless
communications and multimedia. Development tools are free except for the
native hardware compiler. As a new development platform, third-party support is
minimal. Tool support is currently limited to integration with Microsoft Visual
Studio. However, Qualcomm's presence in the wireless market could make it a
serious contender in a short amount of time.
Other platforms include the Tao Virtual Processor [], a virtual machine
specification that is the basis for the new Amiga Digital Environment []. Drawing
upon the Amiga legacy, this new environment includes significant support for
multimedia (using Tao’s intent Media Platform). However, development tools and
the operating system are not freely available and a third-party community is
virtually non-existant.

References
1.How Operating Systems Work
   http://www.howstuffworks.com/operating-system.htm
2.The Creation of the UNIX Operating System
   http://www.bell-labs.com/history/unix/
3.GNU General Public License
   http://www.fsf.org/licenses/gpl.html
4.PalmInfoCenter: Palm's U.S. Market Share Slips a Bit in 2001
   http://www.palminfocenter.com/view_Story.asp?ID=2929
5.allNetDevices: Symbian Grabs European Market Lead
   http://www.allnetdevices.com/wireless/news/2001/11/01/symbian_grabs.html
6.Itsy
   http://research.compaq.com/wrl/projects/itsy/
7.Sharp Zaurus SL-5500

                      For internal use only - Do not distribute
                    For internal use only - Do not distribute
  http://www.sharp-usa.com/products/ModelLanding/0,1058,699,00.html
8.Royal announces low-cost Linux PDA
   http://news.com.com/2100-1040-807609.html
9.G.Mate YOPY
   http://www.gmate.com/english/products/pop_overview.htm
10.Agenda Computing
  http://www.agendacomputing.com/
11.Palm OS: Introducing Palm OS 5
  http://www.palmos.com/platform/os5/topten.html
12.Kadak Products, Ltd.
  http://www.kadak.com/
13.Motorola DragonBall
  http://e-
  www.motorola.com/webapp/sps/site/homepage.jsp?nodeId=03M0ym4sBSl
14.FirePad FireViewer
  http://www.firepad.com/products/fireviewer/
15.TealPoint TealMovie
  http://www.tealpoint.com/softmovi.htm
16.Microsoft Windows CE: Reliable Core Operating System Services
  http://www.microsoft.com/windows/embedded/ce.net/evaluation/overview/reli
  able.asp
17.Microsoft Windows CE: Scalable Wireless Technologies
  http://www.microsoft.com/windows/Embedded/ce.NET/evaluation/overview/sc
  alable.asp
18.Microsoft Windows CE: Platform Builder
  http://www.microsoft.com/windows/Embedded/ce.NET/evaluation/overview/sc
  alable.asp
19.Microsoft eMbedded Visual Tools Product Information
  http://msdn.microsoft.com/vstudio/device/prodinfo.asp
20.Microsoft .NET Compact Framework Overview
  http://msdn.microsoft.com/vstudio/device/compactfx.asp
21.Microsoft Shared Source Licensing
  http://www.microsoft.com/windows/Embedded/ce.NET/evaluation/sharedsourc
  e/default.asp
22.Symbian Company Ownership
  http://www.symbian.com/about/ownership.html
23.Ericsson R380e
  http://www.sonyericsson.com/R380e/
24.Nokia 9210 Communicator
  http://www.nokia.com/phones/9210/
25.Symbian News and Events: Sony Ericsson P800
  http://www.symbian.com/news/2002/soneric-p800-2.html
26.Nokia 7650
  http://www.nokia.com/phones/7650/index.html


                    For internal use only - Do not distribute
                     For internal use only - Do not distribute
27.Symbian: Technology Symbian OS Version 7
  http://www.symbian.com/technology/symbos-v7x-det.html
28.LynuxWorks BlueCat
  http://www.lynuxworks.com/products/bluecat/bluecat.php3
29.Lineo Embedix
  http://www.lineo.com/products/embedix/
30.Empower Linux DA
  http://www.linuxda.com/products/os.html
31.The Familiar Project
  http://familiar.handhelds.org/
32.Java 2 Micro Edition Platform
  http://java.sun.com/j2me/
33.CLDC and the K Virtual Machine
  http://java.sun.com/products/cldc/
34.Mobile Information Device Profile
  http://java.sun.com/products/midp/
35.Insignia Jeode
  http://www.insignia.com/products/default.asp
36.Hewlett-Packard MicroChaiVM
  http://www.hp.com/products1/embedded/products/devtools/microchai_vm.ht
  ml
37.IBM J9
  http://www.embedded.oti.com/
38.Qualcomm BREW
  http://www.qualcomm.com/brew/
39.Amiga Digital Environemnt
  http://www.amiga.com/
40.Tao Group
  http://www.tao-group.com/




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