AFROTC Detachment 088

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       FALL 2006
                          Updated - August 2006

The views and opinions expressed or implied in this publication are not to be construed
as carrying official sanction of the Air Education & Training Command, Air University,
                            or the Department of the Air Force.

This publication has been reviewed and approved by personnel of the 88th Cadet Wing
Staff and Cadre in accordance with current directives on doctrine, policy, essentiality,
                                propriety, and quality.

The contents of this guide are intended for use by United States Air Force ROTC cadets
                    and cadre and may be reprinted in part of whole.

                                      Created by:
                  C/Col Adam White and C/Maj Ashley Richardson

                                      Edited by:
                  C/Col Drew Bateman and C/FTP Travis Antoniono

Rationale for the ATG: The Air Force Officer Accession and Training Schools Training
Guide (ATG) is designed to inform the General Military Course (GMC) cadet on how all
supervision and training is conducted within the Air Force Reserve Officer Training
Corps (AFROTC). As a cadet in the AFROTC program, this training occurs in
accordance to specific guidelines set forth in the ATG and all cadets are expected to
follow said guidelines. AFROTC is a program where cadets are expected to comply with
these standards and always put forth a maximum effort. Upon enrollment in the AS300
course, all cadets are issued a copy of the ATG. This is to ensure that corps leadership is
following proper training and instruction regulations at all times.

A. Military People

1. United States Air Force

       a. Officers – All line officers in the military have gone through one of three types
       of training: a service academy, ROTC, or Officer Training School (OTS). Officers
       provide the leadership necessary for the success of the military.

       b. Enlisted Personnel – The first four ranks in the enlisted corps are referred to as
       ‘airmen.’ The next five ranks, beginning with Staff Sergeant, are referred to as
       Non-Commissioned Officers (NCOs). They are all integral to an operational Air
       Force and make up the backbone of the military.

2. Air Force ROTC

       a. POC – The Professional Officer Course (POC) Corps is made up of the
       collegiate juniors, which are Intermediate Cadet Leaders (ICL), and seniors,
       which are Senior Cadet Leaders (SCL), who have completed Field Training.
       These cadets are preparing for a commission in the United States Air Force within
       the next two to three years and should be addressed by IMT and FTP cadets as
       Sir/Ma’am or Cadet Last Name.

       b. FTP – The Field Training Preparation (FTP) Corps is made up of cadets who
       have one year until they may compete for a Field Training allocation. They should
       be referred to as Cadet Last Name.

       c. IMT – The Initial Military Training (IMT) Corps is made up of cadets that have
       two years until they may compete for a Field Training allocation. IMT cadets will
       be addressed as Cadet Last Name.

B. Grade Structure & Insignia

1. Air Force Enlisted

                           Air Force Enlisted
                                No insignia
                           Airman Basic (AB)

                             Airman (Amn)


                        Airman First Class (A1C)

                          Senior Airman (SrA)

                          Staff Sergeant (SSgt)

                        Technical Sergeant (TSgt)

              Master Sergeant

      First Sergeant (Master Sergeant)

      Senior Master Sergeant (SMSgt)

       First Sergeant (Senior Master

      Chief Master Sergeant (CMSgt)

        First Sergeant (Chief Master

                   Command Chief Master Sergeant


                        Chief Master Sergeant of the Air
                                 Force (CMAF)

2. Air Force Officers

            Air Force Officer


            Second Lieutenant


             First Lieutenant






           Lieutenant Colonel



            Brigadier General

             Major General

           Lieutenant General


3. AFROTC Grade Structure

       All cadets are either in the IMT, FTP, or POC Corps, which together make up the
       Cadet Wing. All IMT cadets carry the rank of Cadet Fourth Class (C/IMT) and
       wear one diagonal stripe on their shoulder. All FTP cadets carry the rank of Cadet
       Third Class (C/FTP) and wear two diagonal stripes on their shoulder. POC cadets
       are referred to as cadet officers and wear variant rank depending on their position
       within the Cadet Wing.

4. AFROTC Insignia

  IMT Cadet                  FTP Cadet           Cadet Second Lieutenant   Cadet First Lieutenant
   (C/IMT)                    (C/FTP)                  (C/2Lt)                   (C/1Lt)

 Cadet Captain              Cadet Major            Cadet Lieutenant          Cadet Colonel
  (C/Capt)                   (C/Maj)                   Colonel                 (C/Col)

C. Chain of Command

1. General

        One of the most important principles of management in any organization,
        especially in the military, is establishing and following a chain of command.
        Essentially, there are two key categories in the chain: those whom are responsible
        for you and those whom you are responsible for. You should always follow the
        chain of command to the greatest extent possible.

         The “Chain of Command” is the direct line of authority from the Commander in
         Chief to the lowest working level. To bypass your supervisor and consult a higher
         authority is contrary to military procedure and frowned upon. There may be times
         when your supervisor is not available and you will be forced to consult a higher
         authority. In such a case, inform your supervisor of the facts as soon as possible.

2. Your Chain of Command

         President - The Honorable George W. Bush
         Secretary of Defense - The Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld
         Secretary of the Air Force - The Honorable Michael W Wynne
         Chief of Staff of the Air Force - Gen T. Michael Moseley
         Commander, Air Education and Training Command - Gen William R. Looney III
         Commander, Air University - Lt Gen Stephen R. Lorenz
         Commander, AFOATS - Brig Gen Ronnie D. Hawkins
         Commandant, Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps - Col Steven E. Wayne
         AFROTC Southwest Region Commander - Col Mitch Dodd III
         Detachment Commander – Lt Col Kevin R. Houdek
         Commandant of Cadets - Capt Darren R. Reid
         Cadet Wing Commander - C/Col Batemen
         Cadet Wing Operations Group Commander - C/Lt Col McCabe
         Cadet Squadron Commander - C/Maj _____________
         Cadet Flight Commander - C/Capt ____________

NOTE – Cadet Officer positions change each semester.

D. The Cadet Corps

1. The Initial Military Training

         The Initial Military Training (IMT) is the first year of the four-year AFROTC
         program. The IMT has two main aspects: Leadership Laboratory (LLAB) and
         academic instruction. LLAB is a learning environment designed to instruct and
         apply Air Force customs and courtesies, drill and ceremonies, and other military
         training. The academic instruction begins with an overview of the Air Force and
         moves into the basics of air and space power.

2. Field Training Preparation

         AFROTC Field Training (FT) is offered during the summer months at selected
         Air Force bases across the nation. FT is the officer-equivalent of the Basic
         Training required of airmen. Cadets accepted for entry into the two-year
         AFROTC program are required to attend a six-week FT encampment and cadets
         in the four-year AFROTC program must attend a four-week encampment.
         Without exception, FT must be attended the summer directly preceding POC

3. The Professional Officer Course

       After successfully completing FT, cadets may be accepted into the Professional
       Officer Course (POC). Similar to the IMT and FTP courses, the POC consists of
       LLAB and academic instruction, although the expectations are inherently
       different. POC cadets are responsible for planning, organizing, directing,
       coordinating, and controlling the activities within the Cadet Corps. The academic
       instruction covers Air Force leadership, personnel management, quality
       improvement, and American defense policy. POC cadets should be focused on
       perfecting their leadership skills and preparing to commission as 2nd Lieutenants
       in the United States Air Force.

A. General

The following is quoted from Air Force Regulation (AFR) 30-1, Air Force Standards -
Customs and Courtesies:

“Customs and courtesies are no more than a set of rules – some written and some
unwritten – which tell you what you should and should not do. They are acts of respect
and courtesy; and a measure of your manners in dealing with other people. They have
evolved as a result of the need for order, as well as the mutual respect and sense of
fraternity which exists among military personnel.”

B. The Salute

1. History of the Salute

       Since the earliest days of warfare, men at arms have used various types of salutes
       to greet one another. Our own salute evolved from medieval times, when military
       men often wore armor, which included a helmet and visor. Upon encountering a
       stranger, a knight would lift his hand and raise his visor, thus uncovering his face
       for recognition. If recognized as a friend, each man left his visor up and dropped
       his hand and the greeting was completed.

       Though it varies in form across the globe, the rendering of the hand salute says, in
       effect, "I greet you." The gesture is always rendered friendly, cheerfully, and
       willingly and is a signal of recognition and respect between comrades-in-arms.

2. Whom to Salute

       Tradition has it that if you are junior you salute first. The one saluted always
       returns the salute unless unable to do so by reason of physical incapacity or
       because the right hand cannot be freed. Any commissioned and warrant officer in

       the Army, Navy, Air Force, Marine Corps and Coast Guard is entitled to be
       saluted. Additionally, commissioned officers of friendly foreign countries, the
       President of the United States, the Secretary of Defense, and the Secretary of the
       Air Force are entitled to salutes as well. At Detachment 88 we have a strong
       working relationship with CSUS Army ROTC and it should be noted that the
       Army officers and NCOs on campus are rendered the same courtesies as our Air
       Force cadre.

3. How to Salute

       Whether you initiate a salute or return one, the salute should be executed smartly
       and with pride. A sloppy salute is not a "more friendly" salute; rather, it's poor
       military conduct.

       To salute properly:

       A - Smartly raise your right hand so that the tip of your forefinger touches the
       lower part of your headgear just to the right of your right eye. (When you're not
       covered--military term for not wearing headgear--your forefinger should just
       touch your right eyebrow or rim of your glasses.)

       B - Your arm, shoulder to elbow, should be parallel to the ground at a natural
       angle from your body. Your thumb and fingers should be extended and joined
       with a straight line between the tip of your middle finger and your elbow.

       C - Your posture should be erect and alert with your head and eyes turned toward
       the person being saluted. Bring your hand all the way up and then drop the salute
       as soon as the person you are saluting has dropped theirs. Return your hand
       smoothly and sharply to your side in one motion. When saluting, take care not to
       tilt your head toward your hand, slap your side, or have anything in your mouth or
       right hand.

       When encountering cadets or officers who you know by name, it is courteous to
       say, “Good Morning, Cadet Smith” or “Good Afternoon, Major Thompson.”
       Doing so personalizes the greeting and extends a warmer greeting. You are
       encouraged to use names as much as possible in place of the mechanical

4. When to Salute

       You will only salute when in an official AFROTC uniform. This constitutes the
       full uniform with a cover (hat) and only when outdoors, the exception to this
       when you are reporting in (see section D). When in civilian clothing or indoors,
       you will only render a verbal greeting as described above.

       Your guide for saluting should be both recognition and distance. Once recognized
       as an officer, it is appropriate to salute at a distance at which recognition is easy,
       normally six to twelve paces. You want to offer your salute early enough to allow
       the officer time to both return it and extend a verbal greeting before you pass.

       If you are with a group not in formation and you are the first to see an officer
       approach, call the group to attention and salute for the group.

       If you are in a group of cadets that are walking together in the same direction but
       not in formation, salute any passing officer in unison. This is called “grouping the
       salute” and permits the officer to return all salutes at once.

       If an officer approaches you to engage in conversation, salute at both the
       beginning and end of the conversation.

       Should you encounter an officer while at double-time (running), slow your pace
       to quick-time (walking), render a salute, and then resume your pace.

       If you are in a group that is drilling or engaged in athletics, do not call the group
       to attention for an officer. When in formation, such as a flight, the flight
       commander is responsible for rendering any salutes.

       There will be occasions when you are in the company of one officer and a second
       officer approaches. The saluting requirement varies; therefore, adhere to the
       following guidelines:

              - If you are in the company of a junior officer and a senior officer
              approaches, tactfully ensure that the junior is aware of the senior’s
              approach. When the junior officer salutes the senior officer, salute at the
              same time, making sure to hold your salute the longest.

              - If you are in the company of a senior officer and a junior officer
              approaches, salute the junior officer first and hold your salute until after
              both officers have dropped theirs.

      “When in doubt, whip it out!”
C. The Greeting

       A tradition reserved for the military, the rendering of a proper military greeting
       also says, “I am a proud member of the profession of arms.” The customary
       greeting given along with the salute is:

       From early morning to 1200: “Good Morning, ____________”.
       From 1200 to 1700 (or when flag is lowered): “Good Afternoon, ____________”.
       From 1700 until retiring: “Good Evening, ____________”.

      As mentioned in the previous section, it is best to use names when greeting
      someone, as it is a more personal exchange; however, there are specific
      regulations as to greetings when passing by a group of seniors.

      If passing a group comprised of officers only, you address the group as “officers”
              i.e.: “Good morning, officers”

      If passing a group comprised of cadet officers only, the proper term is “cadet
              i.e.: “Good morning, cadet officers”

      If passing a group comprised of both officers and cadet officers, both male and
      female, the proper greeting is “ladies and gentlemen”
              i.e.: “Good afternoon ladies and gentlemen”
      Or…if the group is comprised solely of male or female officers and cadet officers,
      substitute the proper term “gentlemen” or “ladies”.

      When passing by an NCO or enlisted member, remember to always render a
      proper verbal greeting by addressing them by their position and name.
             i.e.: “Good morning, Sergeant Dunn”

D. Formal Reporting

      When reporting to an officer in his or her office, knock twice on the door while
      standing at attention. When instructed to enter, march to within two paces of his
      or her desk, salute, and say,

      “Sir/Ma’am, Cadet Last Name reports as ordered” (if you have been directed to


      “Sir/Ma’am, Cadet Last Name reports to ask a question/make a statement” (if you
      are reporting on your own)

      Hold your salute until it is returned and remain standing at attention until directed
      to sit. If you are told to stand at ease, immediately assume the position of parade
      rest. If you are told to sit, sit at the position of attention. While you are at the
      position of attention, your eyes should be locked ahead of you and you should not
      adjust your gaze to meet those of the officer. However, when at ease, it is
      common courtesy to look the officer in the eye. At the end of the conversation
      ask, “Will that be all, Sir/Ma’am?” Proceed to a point two paces from their desk,
      assume the position of attention, salute, and state, “Good Morning
      (afternoon/evening) Sir/Ma’am” After your salute is returned, execute whichever
      facing movement is necessary to exit the room and leave in a sharp manner. It
      should be noted that when reporting in, as in the case of midterm and final

       evaluations with the cadre, you should be in an appropriate uniform and not in
       civilian clothing.

E. Respect for the Flag

1. When Outdoors in Uniform

       When in uniform and the National Anthem or “To the Colors” is played, face the
       flag (if the flag is not visible then face the music), stand at attention, and render a
       salute. The salute begins on the first note of the music and is held until the last

2. When Outdoors in Civilian Clothes

       When in civilian clothes and the National Anthem or “To the Colors” is played,
       face the flag (if the flag is not visible then face the music) and stand at attention,
       with your right hand over your heart. If you are wearing a hat, remove it and hold
       it in your right hand over your heart for the duration of the song.

3. Outdoors to an Escorted Flag

       If you are at an outdoor event in uniform and an uncased flag is escorted past you,
       face the flag, stand at attention, and render a salute. The salute is rendered six
       paces before the flag and held until the flag has passed six paces beyond you. The
       American Flag outranks even the highest officers. Thus, should an officer cross
       your path holding the flag, you should salute the flag, not the officer.

4. On a Stationary Flagstaff

       Flags on stationary flagstaffs are not saluted except when being raised or lowered,
       for example reveille and retreat.

5. During Indoor Ceremonies

       When ceremonies are occurring indoors and the National Anthem, “To the
       Colors” or the Pledge of Allegiance is being conducted, face the flag and assume
       the position of attention. If the flag is not visible, face the music or the front and
       assume the position of attention.

6. By Vehicle Passengers

       When on a military base, all vehicles must come to a complete stop at the first
       sound of “To the Colors” or the Pledge of Allegiance. All occupants should sit at
       the position attention until the music stops.

7. Disrespect to the Flag

       The flag is never dipped in salute, displayed with the union stars down, or
       permitted to touch the ground under any circumstances. If the flag is to be used as
       a casket cover, nothing is to be placed on top of it.

8. Disposal of the Flag

       When a national flag is worn out, it should be destroyed with the utmost respect
       by first cutting the blue field from the flag, then cremating the two pieces.

A. Uniforms

1. General

       a. When to Wear

       Each Leadership Laboratory (LLAB) day, cadets are required to wear the
       prescribed uniform combination from 0630 to 1630. The uniform of the day
       (UOD) is also required to all Air Force classes as well as when reporting in to
       cadre for evaluations or scheduled meetings. When worn, the uniform must be
       complete in every detail. All uniform items should be kept zipped, snapped,
       buttoned and in serviceable condition.

       b. When Not to Wear

       Unless specifically authorized by the detachment commander, cadets may not
       wear the uniform while participating in non-military extracurricular activities.
       Cadets are likewise prohibited from wearing the uniform to off-campus
       establishments except to make short convenience stops. The UOD should not be
       worn when the Force Protection Condition (FPCON) dictates otherwise.

2. Issued Uniform Items

       The Detachment 88 administrative assistant, Mrs. Cathy Davis, will issue all
       authorized uniform items. Any issued clothing lost, damaged, or destroyed
       through carelessness or misuse must be replaced at the cadet’s own expense.

3. Optional Uniform Items

       Umbrellas may also be purchased but they must be solid dark blue or black and
       free of any ornamentation. The umbrella should be carried in ones left hand to
       leave the right free for saluting.

       Sunglasses may be purchased but they must be conservative in appearance. The
       frames must be black/brown/gold/silver and the lenses may not be mirrored. They
       may have a small logo as long as it is the same color as the frame or lens.
       Sunglasses are prohibited from being worn while indoors and in formation, and
       should not be worn on the head, hanging around the neck or any part of the

       Only book bags solid blue or black in color are authorized for wear while in
       uniform. When wearing a book bag, the bag should present a professional
       appearance and be in good condition. Book bags may be worn over both of the
       cadet’s shoulders on the university campus only. Book bags that are not solid blue
       or black in color must be carried in the left hand, except as authorized for safety
       concerns. However, book bags provided by AFROTC as recruiting promotional
       items may be worn if the detachment commander determines they are consistent
       with the professional image intended.

       Cadets will not wear cellular phones, pagers, or beepers anywhere on the
       AFROTC uniform. Detachment commanders may make exceptions for cadets
       who serve as volunteer Emergency Medical Technicians, volunteer Firefighters,
       or similar emergency fields.

4. Care of the Uniform

       Each cadet is responsible for cleaning and laundering his or her own uniform.
       Clothing should be neatly pressed and shoes shined as to present a proper,
       military image.

5. Illustrations

          Male Short-Sleeve Blues:                    Female Short-Sleeve Blues:

B. Personal Appearance

1. Men:

       Hair should be clean, well groomed, and tapered with a bulk of no more than 1¼
       inches, regardless of length. Hair should not touch the ears and only the closely
       shaved hair on the back of the neck may touch the collar.

       Sideburns must be neatly trimmed and tapered in the same manner as the haircut.
       They must be straight and end in a clean-shaven horizontal line no lower than the
       lowest part of the exterior ear opening.

       Mustaches must not extend downward beyond the upper lip or sideways beyond
       the corner of the mouth. Handlebar mustaches are prohibited.

       Men are required to have a fresh shave whenever in uniform or around the

      Men are prohibited from wearing any visible jewelry when in uniform or around
      the det with the following exceptions. A conservative watch, A wedding band, or
      one conservative bracelet (including a medical bracelet) may be worn. The
      bracelet will be no wider than one inch and will not detract from a proper military
      image. No decorative jewelry, earrings, or necklaces may be visible even while in
      civilian clothing in the detachment.

2. Women:

      Hair should be clean, neat, and present a feminine appearance. When groomed,
      hair must not touch the eyebrows, extend below the bottom of the collar, exceed 3
      inches in bulk, or prevent the proper wear of headgear. Hair may be braided and
      pinned up to attain proper length but cannot contain ornamentation such as
      ribbons or jeweled pins. However, plain pins, combs and barrettes that match the
      individual’s hair color may be worn to keep hair in place.

      Cosmetics should be conservative and in good taste.

      No more than three rings may be worn while in uniform. No necklaces or
      bracelets may be visible. Only one earring may be worn in each ear, and they
      must be small and simple diamonds, pearls, gold or silver.

      Nail Polish must be light and natural in color. No colored polish may be worn
      while in uniform.

A. General

      All cadets are expected to adhere closely to both the Honor Code and Air Force
      Core Values. Good judgment, common sense, and responsibility should always be
      exercised as poor or questionable conduct will not be tolerated. As an AFROTC
      cadet, there are additional policies which must be closely followed:

      Becoming intoxicated while in uniform will not be tolerated. When out of
      uniform, cadets are expected to drink responsibly.

      Using inappropriate or derogatory language is unprofessional and should be kept
      to a minimum.

      Taking part in public demonstrations or speaking on matters of interest to the US
      Government while in uniform is strictly prohibited.

B. The Honor Code

1. Definition

       “We will not lie, steal, or cheat, nor tolerate among us anyone who does.”

       Lying - Defined as a statement of untruth meant to deceive or mislead another.

                Quibbling – The act of using trivial details to purposely deceive another
                into believing ones innocence.


                Question: "Did you prepare your uniform properly?"
                Response: "Yes, sir."

                In reality, the cadet’s shirt is wrinkled and slacks dirty but the shoes were
                shined. This is considered quibbling because the cadet was lying to imply
                all actions were taken to have the uniform in proper condition, when in
                fact they were not.

                Evasive Statement – The act of leaving out important facts to purposely
                deceive another into believing ones innocence.


                Question: “Where are your gloves?"
                Response: "I could not find them."

                In reality, the cadet lost his gloves over three months ago. This is an
                evasive statement because the cadet was lying to imply that he or she just
                recently lost them.

       Stealing – Defined as the act of depriving someone of their property or use of
       their property without their express permission.

       Cheating – Defined as intentionally taking unfair advantage of another resulting
       in an unearned advantage.

       Toleration – The act of holding others accountable for the standards of the first
       three elements of the Honor Code. Toleration differs most notably from the first
       three elements by that the first three are internal and toleration is external.
       Although the Code states, “nor tolerate among us anyone who does”, it is the
       actions of the individual that are not tolerated. Condemn the person’s actions, not
       the person themself.

2. Philosophy

       In the military, integrity, service, and excellence are essential; without such
       values, our credibility as a peacekeeping force would erode. The Honor Code
       establishes a standard of moral behavior we must accept and make a conscious
       effort to live by and provides the foundation of a personal code of ethics that will
       last a lifetime.

3. Misuse

       a. Improper Questions

       Each individual should internalize the Honor Code so when called upon they can
       give a true and honorable response. Questions without a purpose or probable
       cause are to be considered improper and do not warrant an answer. Using the
       Honor Code as a weapon detracts from its importance and prevents individuals
       from trusting or believing in the Code's concept.

       b. Pop-Off Mistakes

       Giving an incorrect “yes” or “no” statement in haste is called a pop-off mistake.
       This is typically the result of pressure or stress and can be overlooked if the cadet
       who answered incorrectly tries to rectify the error within a reasonable time.

C. The Air Force Core Values

1. Definition

       “Integrity First, Service Before Self, Excellence In All We Do”

       Integrity, service, and excellence are three simple words that epitomize the core of
       the military profession. They are the bedrock of integrity, fortified by service to
       our country which fuels the drive for excellence.

2. Philosophy

       a. Integrity First

       Integrity is the basis for the trust that is imperative in today's military and is the
       hallmark of the military profession. It's doing the right thing even when nobody's

       b. Service Before Self

       Military service is an uncommon profession that calls for people of uncommon
       dedication. Although personal goals often coincide with Air Force goals, there is
       no room for personal agendas at the expense of the institution or the American

       c. Excellence In All We Do

       Because we've been entrusted with our nation's security -- because our mission
       often involves the risk of human life -- because we are authorized to act on behalf
       of our entire country -- the commitment to excel is a moral obligation for
       members of a professional military force. For those reasons, "excellence in all we
       do" is not just a slogan; it is a first-line core value for every Air Force member.

D. Cadet Fraternization Policy

1. General

       Professional behavior consists of friendly, cooperative, teamwork, where no one
       cadet is favored over another. Fraternization, or even the appearance of it, is
       improper, unprofessional, and damages the cohesion, morale, and efficiency of
       any unit. When a superior/subordinate relationship is undermined by
       inappropriate social contact, it destroys the professional image of all those

2. Guidelines

       The Cadet Corps Fraternization Policy consists of the following guidelines:

       Cadets will treat all military personnel with proper customs and courtesies at all

       Cadets will observe all proper customs and courtesies when involved in AFROTC
       training environments.

       Dating between cadets can be a tricky situation. Dating within the direct chain of
       command or between POC and GMC cadets is discouraged. The most important
       thing to remember is to draw a distinct line between your professional and
       personal life. When your personal life begins to affect your professional image,
       the relationship has become inappropriate. Remember to always use common

3. Cadet-Officer Relations

       The single most important thing to remember is that cadets are not officers. When
       interacting with officers, cadets should abstain from establishing, encouraging, or

       participating in excessively familiar relationships as such relationships are
       unprofessional and detrimental to the mission of the Corps. Moreover, cadets
       should make every effort to demonstrate the proper courtesy and respect to every
       officer they come in contact with, regardless of service or rank.

4. Cadet-Enlisted Relations

       NCOs and airmen are the backbone of the Air Force and accordingly command
       great respect. Although cadets do not salute enlisted personnel, a proper verbal
       greeting is always rendered. It is inappropriate for a cadet to act in any way
       superior to an enlisted member.

3. Cadet-Civilian Relations

       Generally speaking, age is an appropriate yardstick to determine who your non-
       military superiors are. Although everyone deserves respect, as a cadet you should
       be specifically respectful of those who are older than you.

E. Military Etiquette

       1. Tardiness

       Tardiness is impolite and reflects inattention to detail and will not be tolerated in
       the military. Always do your best to make your scheduled appointments; if an
       unexpected event delays you, call ahead and give an explanation.

       2. Formal Events

       All social activities in the Air Force can be classified as either formal or informal.
       A formal affair is characterized by certain established policies and procedures and
       is relatively ceremonious and stylized. As a cadet, your conduct is always on
       display and thus you should conduct yourself in a manner befitting a future Air
       Force officer. If alcoholic beverages are served, drink responsibly and never
       drink and drive. An informal event involves a more casual environment, however
       it should be remembered that military customs and courtesies are still applicable.
       No matter what the event, use your judgment and don’t let a more laid back
       atmosphere impede your judgment.

       3. Courtesy When Dining

       Before joining a senior at a table, you should request permission to do so.
       However, if you have been invited to dine by the senior you need not request
       permission to join him or her. The senior most person should order first, be served
       first, and begin eating first.

       4. Places of Honor

       The first place of honor is on the right. A junior should always afford a senior this
       position of honor when walking, riding, or sitting with them. Therefore, when
       accompanying a senior, you should always take the position to the senior’s left.
       Always remember the phrase: “rank right”.

       The second place of honor is that of “going first.” In most cases, a junior should
       open the door and stand aside to allow a senior to pass through first. In some
       instances, such as a junior woman and a senior man, complications may arise. If
       so, always remember to combine common sense with common courtesy.

       6. Detachment Etiquette

       The detachment building is considered a military installation, thus, all regulations
       will be followed whether in or out of uniform when entering the building. The 7
       Basic Responses (see appendix) must be used at all times and appropriate clothing
       and grooming standards must be followed. No open-toed shoes, hats, excessive
       makeup or jewelry, or inappropriate clothing should be worn in or around the
       detachment. When in doubt, ask your flight commander and use your common

F. Discipline

       1. Civil Involvements

       Regardless of disposition or insignificance, cadets must report any
       involvement with law enforcement officers or civil authorities within 72
       hours of incident. Whether the infraction is as trivial as a parking ticket or as
       severe as a car accident, cadets must notify the detachment, either by leaving a
       message or speaking to a cadre member as soon as possible. If the National
       Agency Check required for security clearances and commissioning finds an
       unreported involvement, cause for disenrollment may be warranted.

       2. Letters of Counseling

       A Letter of Counseling (LOC) is an official memorandum that documents a
       counseling session between two cadets and may be issued by a POC for any
       number of reasons. Once issued, the LOC will be placed in the cadet’s personnel
       information file for future reference. Three LOCs in one semester is equivalent to
       one Letter of Reprimand.

       3. Letter of Reprimand

       A Letter of Reprimand (LOR) is a more serious version of a LOC. In cases of
       severe cadet misconduct, a LOR is issued and placed in the cadet’s personnel

       information file for future reference. A total of three LORs in one semester may
       lead to disenrollment.

A. Formal Activities

1. Reveille and Retreat

       Each weekday, the American flag is ceremoniously raised at 0800 and lowered at
       1630. This symbolizes the start and end of each day and is commonly referred to
       as the Duty Day. Flights within the Cadet Corps will rotate performing proper
       reveille and retreat procedures. Reveille and retreat should always be conducted
       by cadets in Short Sleeve Blues (SSB’s) unless otherwise determined by the
       detachment commander.

2. Guidon Bearer

       The guidon bearer is the cadet who holds the flag in each flight. This is an
       important position as this cadet is responsible for the symbol of the flight and the
       focal point of the flight’s motivation. The first thing recognized in a flight is their
       guidon and pennant. Monthly Honor and Warrior flight streamers are hung on the
       tip of the guidon, symbolizing the flight’s accomplishments throughout the

3. Parade

       The parade is designed to display the official change of command and honor the
       cadets that have worked hard all semester. Honor Flight and Warrior Flight will
       also be awarded at the parade and select cadets will have key parade positions.
       The parade gives all cadets a chance to show their friends and family what ROTC
       is all about and show off your flight’s accomplishments throughout the semester.

4. Combat Dining In

       The Combat Dining In takes place in the spring semester of each AFROTC school
       year. The Combat Dining In gives members of all cadet grades an opportunity to
       create bonds of friendship and camaraderie and helps build esprit de corps within
       the Cadet Corps. The evening is filled with competition, speakers, food, and fun
       and the dress is always Battle Dress Uniforms (BDUs). Attendance is mandatory
       to pass LLAB and guests are prohibited from attending.

5. Military Ball

       The Military Ball represents one of the most formal aspects of the Air Force
       social life. The purpose of the Military Ball is to provide a situation for cadets,
       cadre, and guests of an AFROTC detachment to see how history and custom play
       an important role in the Air Force. The Military Ball takes place each fall
       semester and is rooted in formality, tradition, and ceremony. Cadets must wear
       modified Service Dress Blues (comparable to Air Force Mess Dress) and are
       afforded the option of bringing guests and taking professional photograph’s

6. Physical Training

       a. General

       AFROTC Physical Training (PT) helps guide cadets towards a well-balanced
       lifestyle by instilling the basics of health and wellness through exercise.
       Additionally, PT teaches cadets the proper style and form for the exercises that
       will be performed at Field Training. Finally, cadets take the Physical Fitness
       Assessment (PFA) each semester and must meet or exceed minimums determined
       by HQ AFROTC (see below).

       b. Fitness Standards

       The Physical Fitness Assessment (PFA) measures the overall fitness of each cadet
       in AFROTC. The PFA is scored on a 100-point composite scale and is a function
       of 4 measurements—1.5 mile run time (50%) + abdominal circumference (30%)
       + push-up repetitions in 1 minute (10%) + crunch repetitions in 1 minute (10%).
       The point values for each of the 4 measurement areas are adjusted by gender and
       age. A score under 70 points will result in a failure of the PFA.

       c. Physical Fitness Assessment Descriptions

       1. Sit-Ups

       - One minute to complete exercise.
       - Start in down position.
       - Arms must cross-chest and hands must remain in contact with shoulders.
       - Feet flat on ground and no wider than hip width apart.
       - When coming up, both elbows must touch the upper leg.
       - When going down, both shoulder blades must touch the ground
       - May rest in the up position for up to 5 seconds
       - When resting, the arms may not touch the legs or leave the shoulders

       2. Pushups

       - One minute to complete exercise.
       - Start in the up position.
       - Place hands slightly wider than shoulder-width apart and feet no wider than hips.
       - Keep body straight throughout exercise repetition.
       - Elbows must bend to 90-degree angle in the down position.
       - Lift body until arms are fully extended
       - Rest in the up position only.

B. Additional Activities

1. Arnold Air Society

       Arnold Air Society (AAS) is a professional, honorary service organization
       comprised of AFROTC cadets. Although AAS is not an official part of AFROTC,
       being a member does afford cadets additional opportunities for leadership,
       management and team-building exercises. AAS is an affiliate of the Air Force
       Association (AFA) and a cadet-controlled entity. AFROTC provides active
       counseling and guidance to AAS in all phases of its operation. AAS gives its
       members a chance to improve their leadership capability as an IMT/FTP cadet
       and also allows for cadet interaction on a national level. Conclaves are held each
       year all over the country which give cadets the opportunity to interact with other
       cadets from across the nation. There is an AAS advisor at each AFROTC
       detachment hosting an AAS squadron; Detachment 88’s AAS advisor is Lt Col
       Houdek. If you are interested in joining, talk to an AAS member and find out
       more about the opportunities Detachment 88’s Major General Norma E. Brown
       Squadron has to offer.

2. Drill Team

       Detachment 88’s Drill Team (DT) is a precision rifle maneuvers team designed to
       give cadets the chance to create a broad knowledge base especially in Drill and
       Ceremonies. It also gives those involved a chance to develop a close camaraderie
       that can be hard to find elsewhere. The DT helps develop the potential inherent in
       all cadets and prepares them to become better Air Force officers. DT members
       receive instruction and training in drill and rifle maneuvers and demonstrate these
       skills in regional and national competitions. The Drill Team also gives cadets an
       excellent chance to help plan and execute activities outside of the Cadet Corps
       and develop their leadership abilities.

3. Color Guard

       Detachment 88’s Color Guard (CG) is a group of cadets that present the Colors at
       detachment functions and events within the surrounding community. CG gives
       cadets a good opportunity to not only practice drill and ceremonies but also
       become active in the community and the Cadet Corps.

4. Southern California Invitational Drill Meet

       The Southern California Invitational Drill Meet (SCIDM) is a national drill
       competition which takes places annually at the University of Southern California.
       Detachment 88 sends both its Drill Team and Color Guard to compete at the meet
       and in recent years has done exceptionally well. SCIDM participants will be
       chosen by their Drill Team and Color Guard commanders throughout the

5. Base Visits

       Each semester, Detachment 88 offers cadets the opportunity to experience a piece
       of the real Air Force by visiting selected Air Force bases in the western United
       States. Base visits are a wonderful opportunity for IMT/FTP cadets to view many
       of the different career fields in the USAF.

6. Professional Development Training

       a. General

       Professional Development Training (PDT) is a collection of summer programs
       across the nation available for AFROTC cadets. These programs are intended to
       be incentives for cadets where they will receive valuable military training and
       experience. Participation in these programs is voluntary, but once a PDT
       assignment is accepted, a cadet may withdraw from this commitment only due to
       extraordinary circumstances.

       b. Programs

       Aerospace Science 100 Incentive Shadowing Training Program (ASSIST) is a
       program designed to give new cadets an understanding and appreciation of the
       diverse careers that contribute to the execution of the Air Force’s mission. This 5-
       day program is conducted at various Air Force installations across the continental
       United States. During the PDT, cadets will tour base facilities, receive mission
       briefings, take part in hands-on training, and may receive incentive flights.

       Combat Survival Training (CST) is a 20-day program that incorporates combat,
       aircrew, and water-survival training. Training is physically and mentally
       demanding and accomplished at high altitude at the USAFA. To be eligible for
       this PDT, cadets must receive a secret security clearance and be medically
       certified by a physician to participate in survival training.

       Medical Orientation (MO) is a 2-week program designed to increase cadet
       interest in pursuing a career in military healthcare. Cadets can expect to observe
       the specialties of internal medicine, general medicine, general surgery,

orthopedics, emergency medicine, and pediatrics. Training is conducted
exclusively at Wilford Hall USAF Medical Center in Lackland AFB, San
Antonio, Texas.

Rising Sophomore Summer Program (RSSP) is a 40-day program that exposes
cadets to the Air Force way of life and provides the opportunity for cadets to
shadow both commissioned and non-commissioned officers in a variety of career
fields. RSSP will be conducted on one of five AFBs across the nation and cadets
will receive free round trip transportation, meals, lodging, and approximately $25
a day for duration of training. Only AS100 completed scholarship cadets are
eligible for this PDT.

Operation Air Force (OAF) is a three-week, joint training program with the U.S.
Air Force Academy. Its objectives are to acquaint you with the everyday tasks,
activities and perceptions of Air Force officers and enlisted personnel as well as
to motivate and educate you on the workings of operational units. Training is
conducted at a variety of locations worldwide. The beginning of the program is an
orientation of the activities that make up the mission of the hosting base. You are
then matched to a junior officer, ideally in your chosen career field, to observe
and work together for the remainder of the program.

The George and Carol Olmsted Travel and Cultural Immersion Program (OCIP)
is a two-week program in which cadets travel to a non-English speaking country
and are exposed to foreign cultures and languages. They also may have the
opportunity to attend foreign conferences, seminars, and briefings, visit foreign
military academies, work on research projects and participate in educational tours.

Foreign Language Immersion (FLI) is a four-week program designed for students
with at least two full years of college-level studies in a specific foreign language.
Cadets will live with a local family or in a student dormitory, study at a local
university, and receive both total language and cultural immersion through the
constant, practical use of foreign language. You must contractually agree to speak
only the language of study for the entire training period. Featured destinations
include: Beijing, China; Frankfurt, Germany; St. Petersburg, Russia; Tokyo,

Field Engineering and Readiness Lab (FERL) is a five-week program that
provides opportunities for a limited number of Air Force ROTC cadets with entry-
level civil engineering (CE) courses to get hands-on work experience in the CE
career field. FERL will introduce you to the basics of civil engineering, give you
practical "hands-on" construction experiences and an engineering "feel" for the
capabilities of construction equipment. You'll gain experience working with both
military and Air Force Academy instructors on actual CE projects at various Air
Force bases and at Air Force Academy. Training consists of two weeks working
with CE at a designated Air Force base and 3 weeks of hands-on construction
activities at the Air Force Academy.

       Cadet Training Assistant (CTA) Although it's not a Professional Development
       Training Program, being a CTA is still a great summer experience. As CTA you
       are assigned to a Flight Training Officer (FTO) during a Field Training unit.
       Eligibility is limited to those who have completed Field Training and Aerospace
       Studies 300. CTAs are selected by the region commander on the basis of their
       competence, dependability, professionalism and Professional Officer Course
       standing. CTAs serve as staff members operating in one of four jobs: athletics,
       physical training, standardization or drill ceremonies.

A. Detachment Resources

1. Operations Orders

       Every week, AFROTC instructions called Operations Orders or “Ops Orders” are
       posted on the bulletin board in the main hallway of the detachment and also at the
       detachment website at . The LLAB and PT orders are
       weekly instructions as to what will be going on with those wing activities, what
       uniform is required, and what time and place they will be held.

       Note that the walls of the detachment hallway are packed with information that
       vary from fun facts to vital information on upcoming events. Always be aware of
       what is posted on the hallway walls as you will be held responsible for it.

2.   Commander’s Corner

       The Commander’s Corner is a space on the wall next to the conference room for
       any announcements the Detachment Commander may have for the Cadet Corps.
       These announcements may include, but are not limited to: articles on current
       events, Air Force policy and guidelines, and detachment happenings.

3. Inspector General’s Board

       The Inspector General’s (IG) board is located on the right hand side of the
       hallway, near the entrance to the Detachment hallway. The IG board includes
       updates on the standards expected of all cadets, memos from the IG, and
       questions and comments submitted by cadets to the IG.

4. Public Affairs Board

       The Public Affairs (PA) board is located next to the Gears in the Machine board
       in between the uniform office and the conference room. The PA board includes

       information and news from Air Force ROTC and the Air Force. If you have any
       pictures or articles that you would like to submit, put them in the CW/PA’s box.

5. Warrior Board

       The Warrior Board is located across from the computer room. This board contains
       pictures of cadets from the previous weeks events.

6. Gears in the Machine Board

       The Gears in the Machine board is located next to the conference room. Cadets
       can find a rotation of cadet biographies and pictures on it.

7. Officer’s Club

       The Cadet Officer’s Club, commonly referred to as the O’Club, is a lounge
       intended for the use of Det 88 cadets. The O’ Club allows cadets the opportunity
       to socialize and “hang out” in a comfortable environment when at the detachment.
       Among other things, cadets can find Air Force related publications, Cadet Corps
       announcements, and snacks for purchase here. Although the O’ Club is a more
       relaxed environment, the room should always be called to attention whenever a
       C/Col or military officer enters or leaves the room.

8. Computer Lab

       The computer lab is shared between Air Force ROTC and Army ROTC cadets.
       AFROTC computers are on the right side of the lab and are for use at any time.
       The computer lab is a working environment and therefore does not need to be
       called to attention for officers. Food and drink are strictly prohibited from the lab
       at all times, and remember to keep the lab neat and orderly as it is a military
       working environment.

9. Cadet Office

       The cadet office is reserved for wing staff members and the Arnold Air Society
       squadron commander. Cadets will not enter the room at any time without the
       permission of a wing staff member or the AAS squadron commander.

10. Wing Staff & U.S. Staff Portraits

       In order to successfully utilize the chain of command, it is imperative that cadets
       know their chain of command. The Wing Staff and U.S. Staff portraits visually
       represent the chain of command which all cadets are responsible for knowing.

11. Cadet Mailboxes

      Each cadet has his or her own folder in one of the filing cabinets in the O’Club.
      These “mailboxes” are intended as a place to pass along information and
      detachment paperwork and should be checked a minimum of once per week. Take
      care to keep your mailbox neat and unobstructed at all times.

12. Safety Board

      The safety board is located at the top of the stairs and is a good resource for all
      aspects of safety. Be sure to check it often, as detachment regulations regarding
      safety will be posted here.

13. Education Corner

      The Education Board is maintained by the detachment Education Officer, and is a
      great resource for education related information. Be sure to check the board
      frequently for information on new standards, scholarship information and changes
      to training requirements.

                   B. Text Resources

            1. Official Memorandums

                   An Official Memorandum is a formatted way to pass along information from one
                   cadet to another. All official correspondence within the Cadet Corps uses the
                   Official Memorandum format because it is professional and easy to document.
                   Routine uses for Official Memorandums include: AS100 class assignments,
                   documenting LLAB absences, and submitting information to the cadre.
                   Additional information on official memorandums can be found in the Tongue and
                   Quill or on the Detachment 88 website at: under the
                   file library.

            2. Template


                                 DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE
                                      AIR UNIVERSITY (AETC)

1” margin
                                                                                Day Month Year

            FROM: YOUR POSITION (abbreviated)

            SUBJECT: Appropriate Heading

            1. Overview of memo.

            2. Relevant information.

            3. Contact information.
                                                                                                    1” margin

                                                 (4 Spaces)

                                                                       NAME, RANK, AFROTC
                                                                       POSITION OR FLIGHT


3. Example of Completed Memo

                     DEPARTMENT OF THE AIR FORCE
                          AIR UNIVERSITY (AETC)

                                                                                08 Aug 04


SUBJECT: Sonic Boom Article Submission

1. This memo is in regards to an article I would like to submit to the Sonic Boom.

2. I would like to submit an article to be considered for the 14 Oct publication of the
Sonic Boom. It is an article about campus safety and the where to go for help when on

3. Should you have any questions or concerns, please feel free to contact me either via
telephone at (916) 555-1234 or email at

                                                    MIKE J. SMITH, C/GMC, AFROTC
                                                    Safety Tech



A. Cadet Knowledge

TW 1:

7 Basic Responses- These basic responses are required whenever addressing a senior
cadet or officer.
1. "Yes, Sir/Ma'am."
2. "No, Sir/Ma'am."
3. “No excuse, Sir/Ma’am.”
4. "Sir/ Ma'am, may I make a statement?"
5. "Sir/Ma'am, may I ask a question?"
6. "Sir/Ma'am, I do not know."
7. “Sir/Ma’am, I do not understand.”

TW 2:

AF Mission
Deliver Sovereign options for the defense of the United States of America and its
global intrests - to fly and fight in Air, Space, and cyberspace.

AF Vision 2020
Global Vigilance, Reach and Power.

TW 3:

A highly successful organization, respected throughout the Air Force, the education
community, and the nation.

AFROTC Mission
To produce leaders for the Air Force and build better citizens for America.

TW 4:

Cadet Honor Code
We will not lie, steal or cheat nor tolerate among us anyone who does.

Air Force Core Values
Integrity First
Service Before Self
Excellence in All We Do

TW 5:

Phonetic Alphabet
A — ALPHA        J — JULIET                   S — SIERRA
B — BRAVO       K — KILO                       T — TANGO
C — CHARLIE L — LIMA                           U — UNIFORM
D — DELTA       M — MIKE                       V — VICTOR
E — ECHO        N — NOVEMBER                  W — WHISKEY
F — FOXTROT O — OSCAR                         X — X-RAY
G — GOLF         P — PAPA                     Y — YANKEE
H — HOTEL       Q — QUEBEC                    Z — ZULU
I — INDIA         R — ROMEO

TW 6:

Chain of Command
President - The Honorable George W. Bush
Secretary of Defense - The Honorable Donald H. Rumsfeld
Secretary of the Air Force - The Honorable Michael W. Wynne
Chief of Staff of the Air Force - Gen T. Michael Moseley
Commander, Air Education and Training Command - Gen William R. Looney III
Commander, Air University - Lt Gen Stephen R. Lorenz
Commander, AFOATS - Brig Gen Ronnie D. Hawkins, Jr.
Commandant, Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps - Col Steven E. Wayne
AFROTC Southwest Region Commander - Col Charles M. Dodd III
Detachment Commander – Lt Col Kevin R. Houdek
Commandant of Cadets - Capt Darren R. Reid
Cadet Wing Commander - C/Col Bateman
Cadet Wing Operations Group Commander - C/Lt Col McCabe

TW 7:

Code of Conduct: Articles I & II

Article I: I am an American, fighting in the forces which guard my country and our way
of life. I am prepared to give my life in their defense.

Article II: I will never surrender of my own free will. If in command, I will never
surrender the members of my command while they still have the means to

TW 8:

Code of Conduct: Articles III & IV
Article III: If I am captured, I will continue to resist by all means available. I will make
every effort to escape and aid others to escape. I will accept neither parole nor special
favors from the enemy.

Article IV: If I become a prisoner of war, I will keep faith with my fellow prisoners. I
will give no information, nor take part in any action, which might be harmful
to my comrades. If I am senior, I will take command. If not, I will obey the
lawful orders of those appointed over me and will back them up in every way.

TW 9:

Code of Conduct: Articles V & VI
Article V: When questioned, should I become a prisoner of war, I am required to give my
name, rank, service number, and date of birth. I will evade answering further questions to
the utmost of my ability. I will make no oral or written statements disloyal to my country
and its allies or harmful to their cause.

Article VI: I will never forget that I am an American, fighting for freedom, responsible
for my actions, and dedicated to the principles which made my country free. I will trust in
my God and in the United States of America.

TW 10:

Oath of Office
I, (Full Name) having been appointed a (Rank) in the United States Air Force, do solemnly swear
(or affirm) that I will support and defend the Constitution of the United States against all enemies,
foreign and domestic; that I will bear true faith and allegiance to the same; that I take this
obligation freely, without any mental reservation or purpose of evasion; and that I will well and
faithfully discharge the duties of the office upon which I am about to enter, SO HELP ME GOD.

TW 11:

Major Commands
Air Combat Command (ACC) - Langley AFB, Virginia
Air Education and Training Command (AETC) - Randolph AFB, Texas
Air Force Materiel Command (AFMC) - Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio
Air Force Space Command (AFSC) - Peterson AFB, Colorado
Air Force Special Operations Command (AFSOC) - Hurlburt Field, Flordia
Air Mobility Command (AMC) - Scott AFB, Illinois
Pacific Air Forces (PACAF) - Hickam AFB, Hawaii
United State Air Forces in Europe (USAFE) - Ramstein AB, Germany
Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC) - Warner-Robins AFB, Georgia

TW 12:

Principles of War
Objective. Direct military operations toward a defined and attainable objective that
contributes to strategic, operational, or tactical aims.

Offensive. Dictates that we act rather than react and dictate the time, place, purpose,
scope, intensity, and pace of operations. The initiative must be seized, retained, and fully
Mass. Concentrate combat power at the decisive time and place.
Economy of Force. Create usable mass by using minimum combat power on secondary
objectives. Make the fullest use of all forces available.
Maneuver. Place the enemy in a position of disadvantage through the flexible
application of combat power.
Unity of Command. Ensures unity of effort for every objective under one responsible
Security. Protects friendly forces and their operations from enemy actions that could
provide the enemy with unexpected advantage.
Surprise. Strike the enemy at a time or place or in a manner for which he is unprepared.
Simplicity. Avoid unnecessary complexity in preparing, planning, and conducting
military operations.

TW 13:

Air and Space Power Functions
Strategic Attack
Command and Control
Air Refueling
Special Operations Employment
Combat Search and Rescue
Navigation and Positioning
Weather Services

TW 14:

Tenets of Air and Space Power
Centralized Control/Decentralized Execution. Through centralized control,
commanders give coherence, guidance, and organization to the air and space effort to
maintain the ability to focus the tremendous impact of air and space wherever needed
across the theater of operations. Delegation of execution authority to responsible and
capable lower-level commanders is essential to achieve effective span of control and to
foster initiative, situational responsiveness, and tactical flexibility.

Flexibility/Versatility. Flexibility allows aerospace forces to exploit mass and maneuver
simultaneously to a far greater extent than surface forces. Versatility in aerospace power
stems from the fact that it can be employed equally effectively at the strategic,
operational, and tactical levels of warfare.
Priority. Limited resources require that air and space forces be applied where they can
make the greatest contribution to the most current Joint Force Commander (JFC)
Synergy. It is the precise, coordinated application of the various elements of air, space,
and surface which brings disproportionate pressure on enemy leaders to comply with our
national will. Aerospace power is unique in its ability to accomplish this and thus dictate
the tempo and direction of an entire war-fighting effort.
Balance. The air commander should balance combat opportunity, necessity,
effectiveness, efficiency and the impact on accomplishing assigned objectives against the
associated risk to friendly aerospace assets are not available in vast numbers and cannot
be produced quickly.
Concentration. Aerospace power is most effective when it is focused in purpose and not
needlessly dispersed because of high demand.
Persistence. Aerospace power should be applied persistently. Resourceful enemies may
rebuild destroyed targets, circumventing even the most devastating strategic effects. The
goal then is to keep the pressure on and not allow the enemy that time.

The Air Force Song

By Robert Crawford

Off we go into the wild blue yonder,
Climbing high into the sun;
Here they come zooming to meet our thunder,
At’em boys, giv’er the gun! (give ‘er the gun, now!)
Down we dive spouting our flame from under;
Off with one hell-uv-a-roar!
We live in fame or go down in flame; (hey!)
Nothing’ll stop the US Air Force!

Minds of men fashioned a crate of thunder
Sent it high into the blue;
Hands of men blasted the world asunder,
How they lived God only knew! (God only knew, then!)
Souls of men dreaming of skies to conquer
Gave us wings, ever to soar.
With Scouts before and bombers galore, (hey!)

Nothing can stop the US Air Force!

Here's a toast to the host of those who
love the vastness of the sky,
To a friend we send this message
of his brother men who fly.
We drink to those who gave their all of old
Then down we roar to score the rainbow's
pot of gold.
A toast to the host of men we boast
The US Air Force!

Off we go into the wild sky yonder
Keep the wing level and true
If you'd live to be a gray haired wonder
Keep the nose out of the blue
Flying men, guarding our nation's borders
We'll be there followed by more
In echelon, we carry on
Nothing can stop the US Air Force!

3 Levels of Warfare

1. Strategic. The level of war at which a nation or group of nations determines national
or alliance security objectives and develops and uses national resources to accomplish
those objectives.

2. Operational. The level of war at which campaigns and major operations are planned,
conducted, and sustained to accomplish strategic objectives within theaters or areas of

3. Tactical. The level at which battles and engagements are planned and executed to
accomplish military objectives assigned to tactical units or task forces.

OTS Mission

Building today’s leaders for tomorrow’s Air Force.

Reporting In/Out Procedures

Knock twice. Officer will tell you to enter. Come to within two paces of officer's desk
and stand at attention. Salute and say, "Sir/Ma’am, Cadet Last Name reports as
ordered." (if you were ordered to report) or “Sir/Ma’am Cadet Last Name reports to
ask a question/make a statement.” Wait until officer drops salute and proceed with

meeting. When reporting out, ask, "Will that be all Sir/Ma’am?". If they say yes, resume
your position standing at attention two paces from the front of the desk and say “Good
morning/afternoon/evening Sir/Ma’am.” As soon as your salute has been returned, leave
the room in a sharp manner.

History of the US Army

The United States Army was founded on 14 June 1775, by an act of the Continental
Congress in response to the increased British military activity in the 13 Colonies. George
Washington became our first Commander in Chief of the US Army. Today’s Army is
responsive and dominant at every point on the spectrum of conflicts. They provide to the
Nation an array of deployable, agile, versatile, lethal, survivable, and sustainable
formations, which are affordable and capable of resolving conflicts decisively. The
Army’s deployment is the surest sign of America’s commitment to accomplishing any
mission that occurs on land. Assigned to Major Commands throughout the world, these
forces are organized under tactical units called corps, divisions, brigades, regiments, and
smaller supporting units. The Army Vision: Soldiers on Point for the Nation…Persuasive
in Peace, Invincible in War.

History of the US Navy

The United States Navy was founded on 13 October 1775, and the Department of the
Navy was established on 30 April 1798. For centuries, sea power has played a vital role
in determining and supporting national strategies. We have progressed from sail to steam,
to nuclear power; from guns to missiles; from biplanes to supersonic aircraft, to the space
age. Still, sea power remains a fundamental factor in the world strategy. Because of its
great dependence on overseas sources for raw materials and because of its overseas allies,
the US must maintain naval forces capable of controlling the sea lines of communication
and projecting its sea power across the oceans. The Navy has three principle components:
the Navy Department, the operating forces, including the Marine Corps, the reserve
components, the shore establishment, and in time of war, the US Coast Guard. The
peacetime mission of the US Navy is to be prepared to conduct prompt and sustained
combat operations at sea in support of our national interest; in effect, to ensure continued
maritime superiority for the United States.

History of the US Marine Corps

On 10 November 1775, the Continental Congress passed a resolution directing, “Two
battalions of Marines be raised” for service as landing forces with the fleet. This
resolution established the Continental Marines and marked the birth date of the United
States Marine Corps. Serving on land and at sea, these first Marines distinguished
themselves in a number of important operations, including their first amphibious raid into
the Bahamas in March, 1776, under the command of Captain Samuel Nicholas. Nicholas,

the first commissioned officer in the Continental Marines, is also considered to be the
first Marine Commandant. For organizational purposes, the Corps in divided into three
broad categories: Headquarters USMC, the operational forces, and the supporting
establishment. Seventy percent of all active duty Marines are assigned to the operational
forces. The way in which the Marine Corps fights its wars is based on two operational
concepts: maneuver and combined arms. The term “Marine” represents a national
institution whose reputation and standing is in the hands of every Marine. As long as our
nation exercises command of the seas, Marines will form the cutting edge.

History of the US Coast Guard

The United States Coast Guard has its roots in the Revenue Cutter Service, started 4
August, 1790. However, it did not gain its current name until it combined with the
Lifesaving Service in 1915. The Coast Guard is the primary federal agency with maritime
authority for the United States. The service’s multi-mission approach permits a relatively
small organization to respond to public needs in a wide variety of maritime activities and
to shift emphasis on sort notice when the need arises. The Coast Guard’s four main
mission areas are: Maritime Law Enforcement, Maritime Safety, Marine Environmental
Protection, and National Security. In support of these four main missions, Coast Guard
personnel perform the following jobs on a routine daily basis: aids to navigation, boating
safety, defense operations, environmental response, maritime licensing, port safety and
security, search and rescue, and waterway management. The Coast Guard falls under the
Department of Transportation and has participated in all major national conflicts.

High Flight

By John Gillespie Magee, Jr.

Oh, I have slipped the surly bonds of earth
And danced the skies on laughter-silvered wings
Sunward I’ve climbed and joined the tumbling mirth
Of sun-split clouds and done a hundred things
You have not dreamed of wheeled and soared and swung
High in the sunlit silence
Hov’ring there, I’ve chased the shouting wind along and
Flung my eager craft through footless halls of air
Up, up the long delirious, burning blue
I’ve topped the wind-swept heights with easy grace
Where never lark, or even eagle flew
And, while with silent, lifting mind I’ve trod
The high untrespassed sanctity of space
Put out my hand and touched the face of God.

General Colin Powell’s Rules

1. It ain’t as bad as you think. It will look better in the morning.
2. Get mad, then get over it.
3. Avoid having your ego so close to your position that when your position falls, your ego
falls with it.
4. It can be done!
5. Be careful what you choose. You may get it.
6. Don’t let adverse facts stand in the way of a good decision.
7. You can’t make someone else’s choices. You shouldn’t let someone else make yours.
8. Check the small things.
9. Share credit.
10. Remain calm. Be kind.
11. Have a vision. Be demanding.
12. Don’t take counsel of your fears or naysayers.
13. Perpetual optimism is a force multiplier.

Always With Honor

By Don Alverson

One full day
encompassing all of life.
To work, to learn,
to know what one must know.
never ending competition
the kind which builds men’s minds.
One full day
from birth ‘til final call.
When each new charge has passed,
his duty taken.
The Blue Corps is born again,
with Pride,
with Courage, and
Always With Honor.

AF Core Competencies

Air and Space Superiority. The ability to control what moves through air and
space…ensures freedom of action.

Global Attack. The ability to engage adversary targets anywhere, anytime…holds any
adversary at risk.

Rapid Global Mobility. The ability to rapidly position forces anywhere in the
world…ensures unprecedented responsiveness.

Precision Engagement. The ability to deliver effects with minimal risk and collateral
damage…denies the enemy sanctuary.

Information Superiority. The ability to control and exploit information to our nation’s
advantage…ensures decision dominance.

Agile Combat Support. The ability to sustain flexible and efficient combat
operations…is the foundations of success.

10 Propositions Regarding Air Power

1. Whoever controls the air generally controls the surface.

2. Air Power is an inherently strategic force.

3. Air Power is primarily an offensive weapon.

4. In essence, Air Power is targeting; targeting is intelligence; and intelligence is
  analyzing the effects of air operations.

5. Air Power produces physical and psychological shock by dominating the fourth
  dimension – time.

6. Air Power can conduct parallel operations at all levels of war, simultaneously.

7. Precision air weapons have redefined the meaning of mass.

8. Air Power’s unique characteristics necessitate that it be centrally controlled by airmen.

9. Technology and Air Power are integrally and synergistically related.

10. Air Power includes not only military assets, but an aerospace industry and
commercial aviation.

Significance of the Air Force Seal

Official Colors. The official colors of ultramarine blue and Air Force yellow appear
predominantly on the Air Force Seal. The circular background of the seal is ultramarine
blue. The trim is Air Force yellow.

The Crest. The American bald eagle symbolizes the United States and its air power and
appears in its natural colors. The wreath under the eagle is made up of six alternate folds
of metal (white representing silver) and light blue. The white clouds behind the eagle
show the start of a new sky – the Department of the Air Force.

The Shield. The shield, below the eagle, is divided into two parts by a nebulous line
representing clouds. The top part bears an Air Force yellow thunderbolt with flames in its
natural colors that show striking power through the use of aerospace. The stars represent
the original 13 colonies. The yellow Roman numerals represent 1947, the year the Air
Force was established.

Code of the United States Fighting Force

As a member of the Armed Forces of the United States, you are protecting your nation. It
is your duty to oppose all enemies of the United States in combat or, if a captive, in a
prisoner of war compound. Your behavior is guided by the Code of Conduct, which has
evolved from the heroic lives, experiences, and deeds of Americans from the
Revolutionary War to the Southeast Asian Conflict. Your courage, dedication, and
motivation supported by understanding, trust, and fidelity will help you endure the terrors
of captivity, prevail over your captors, and return to your family, home, and nation with
pride and honor.

USAF Chiefs of Staff

Gen. Carl A. Spaatz -- Sep 26, 1947 – Apr 29, 1948
Gen. Hoyt S. Vandenberg -- Apr 30, 1948 – Jun 29, 1953
Gen. Nathan F. Twining -- Jun 30, 1953 – Jun 30, 1957
Gen. Thomas D. White -- Jul 1, 1957 – Jun 29, 1961
Gen. Curtis E. LeMay -- Jun 30, 1961 – Jan 31, 1965
Gen. John McConnell -- Feb 1, 1965 – Jul 31, 1969
Gen. John D. Ryan -- Aug 1, 1969 – Jul 31, 1973
Gen. George S. Brown -- Aug 1, 1973 – Jun 30, 1974
Gen. David C. Jones -- Jul 1, 1974 – Jun 30, 1978
Gen. Lew Allen, Jr. -- Jul 1, 1978 – Jun 30, 1978
Gen. Charles A. Gabriel -- Jul 1, 1982 – Jun 30, 1986
Gen. Larry D. Welch -- Jul 1, 1986 – Jun 30, 1990
Gen. Micheal J. Dugan -- Jul 1, 1990 – Sep 17, 1990
Gen. John Michael Joh -- Sep 18, 1990 – Oct 29, 1990
Gen. Merrill A. McPeak -- Oct 30, 1990 – Oct 25, 1994

Gen. Ronald D. Fogelman -- Oct 26, 1994 – Sep 1, 1997
Gen. Ralph E. Eberhardt -- Sep 2, 1997 – Oct 5, 1997
Gen. Michael E. Ryan -- Oct 6, 1997 – Sep 5, 2001
Gen. John P. Jumper -- Sep 6, 2001 – Sept 2005
Gen T. Michael Moseley Sept 2005 – present

Standards of Accountability

Uniformly Known
Consistently Applied
Non-Selectively Enforced

Air Force Hymn
(Author Unknown)

Lord, guard and guide the men who fly
Through the great spaces of the sky;
Be with them traversing the air
In darkening storms or sunshine fair.

You who support with tender might
The balanced birds in all their flight;
Lord of the tempered winds, be near
That, having you, they know no fear.

Control their minds with instinct fit
When’er, adventuring, they quit
The firm security of land;
Grant steadfast eye and skillful hand.

Aloft in solitudes of space,
Uphold them with your saving grace.
O God, protect the men who fly
Through lonely ways beneath the sky.

Quote of the Week

TW 1:
“In order to assure an adequate national defense, it is necessary – and sufficient – to be in
a position, in case of war, to conquer the command of the air.”
- Italian Air Marshall Giullo Douhet

TW 2:
“A leader should be doubly careful about his dress, appearance, and deportment…You
are always on parade.”
- General George S. Patton, Jr.

TW 3:
“The American people rightly look to their military leaders to be not only skilled in the
technical aspects of the profession of arms, but to be men of integrity."
- General Joseph L. Collins

T W 4:
“What you have chosen to do for your country by devoting your life to the service of
your country is the greatest contribution than any man could make.”
- John F. Kennedy

TW 5:
“People sleep peaceably in their beds at night only because rough men stand ready to do
violence on their behalf.”
- George Orwell

TW 6:
“The military profession is more than an occupation; it is a style of life.”
- Morris Janowitz

TW 7:
“It is probable that future war will be conducted by a special class, the air force, as it was
by the armored knights of the Middle Ages.”
- Generally Billy Mitchell

TW 8:
“Duty, then, is the sublimest word in the English language. You should do your duty in
all things. You can never do more. You should never wish to do less.”
- General Robert E. Lee

TW 9:
“It is easier to fight for one’s principles than to live up to them.”

- Alfred Adler
TW 10:
“Leadership is intangible; therefore no weapon ever desinged can replace it.”
- General Omar Bradley

TW 11:
“Those who expect to reap the blessings of freedom must, like men, undergo the fatigue
of supporting it.”
- Thomas Paine

TW 12:
“If our Air Forces are never used, they have achieved their finest goal.”
- General Nathan Twining
TW 13:
“Leadership, at its highest, consists of getting people to work for you when they are
under no obligation to do so.”
- Charles F. Kettering

TW 14:
“If I didn't have air supremacy, I wouldn't be here.”
- General Dwight D. Eisenhower

B. Acronyms

The Air Force is a world of acronyms; make an effort to learn some of the most common
ones as soon as possible. All acronyms in bold are AFROTC pertinent knowledge for
which you will be held accountable.

       AAS – Arnold Air Society
       AB – Air Base
       ABC – Aerospace Basic Course
       ABM – Air Battle Management
       ADJ – Adjutant
       AEF – Air Expeditionary Force
       AETC – Air Education and Training Command
       AF – Air Force
       AFA – Air Force Association
       AFB – Air Force Base
       AFI – Air Force Instruction
       AFM – Air Force Manual
       AFOQT – Air Force Officer Qualifying Test
       AFOATS – Air Force Officer Accession Training Schools
       AFP – Air Force Pamphlet
       AFR – Air Force Regulation
       AFROTC – Air Force Reserve Officer Training Corps
       AFSC – Air Force Specialty Code
       ANG – Air National Guard
       APAS – Assistant Professor of Aerospace Studies
       ARCON – Area Conclave (AAS)
       AS – Aerospace Studies
       AS 100 – First year of AFROTC
       AS 200 – Second year of AFROTC
       AS 300 – Third year of AFROTC
       AS 400 – Fourth year of AFROTC
       AS 500 – Completed GMC
       AS 700 – Completed POC
       AWC – Air War College
       BAT – Basic Aptitude Test
       BDU – Battle Dress Uniform
       BX – Base Exchange
       C/ - Cadet
       CAP – Civil Air Patrol
       CC – Commander
       C & C – Customs and Courtesies
       CG – Color Guard
       COC – Commandant of Cadets
       CSP – College Scholarship Program

CSUS – California State University Sacramento
CTA – Cadet Training Assistant
CW – Cadet Wing
D & C – Drill & Ceremonies
DCID – Dress, Cover, Interval, Distance
Det – Detachment
DOD – Department of Defense
DT – Drill Team
EAF – Expeditionary Air Force
EO – Education Officer
FLT – Flight Training
FT – Field Training
FTP – Field Training Preparation
FTPA – Field Training Prep Advisor
FTX – Field Training Exercise
GMC – General Military Course
GMCA - General Military Course Advisor
HQ – Headquarters
IG – Inspector General
IM – Information Management
IMT-Initial Military Training
IMTA-Initial Military Training Advisor
IT – Information Technology
LLAB – Leadership Laboratory
MEPS – Military Entrance Processing Station
NATCON–National Conclave (AAS)
NCO – Noncommissioned Officer
NCOIC – Noncommissioned Officer in Charge
NLT – No Later Than
ORI – Operational Readiness Inspection
OSI – Office of Special Investigations
OTS – Officer Training School
PA – Public Affairs
PAS – Professor of Aerospace Studies
PDT – Professional Development Training
PFA – Physical Fitness Assessment
PME – Professional Military Education
PMT – Professional Military Training
POC – Professional Officer Course
POW/MIA – Prisoner of War/Missing in Action
PT – Physical Training
SCIDM – Southern California Invitational Drill Meet
SOS – Squadron Officer School
SSAN – Social Security Account Number
SSB – Short Sleeve Blues
SUNT – Specialized Undergraduate Navigator Training

SUPT – Specialized Undergraduate Pilot Training
SQ – Squadron
TW – Training Week
UAO – Unit Admissions Officer
UCD – University of California Davis
USAF – United States Air Force
UST – Undergraduate Space Training
WG -- Wing
XP – Executive Planner


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