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Schulz_Norbert

VIEWS: 3 PAGES: 28

									            Accretion Disk Processes with
                        Chandra HETG


Accretion Phenomena in Accreting Neutron Stars
             From atol to Z-sources




           Norbert S. Schulz, L. Ji, M. Nowak
                 Claude R. Canizares
      MIT Kavli Institute for Astrophysics & Space Research

                      T. Kallman
                             GSFC, Greenbelt MD


                                Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
Atoll-, Banana- and Z-sources
         Schulz, Hasinger&Truemper 1989, Hasinger & van der Klis 1989




                  Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
Atoll-, Banana- and Z-sources
           Schulz, Hasinger&Truemper 1989



                                                 sub-LEddington
                                                 accretion rates




                   super-LEddington
                   accretion rates

                              Spectral States of XTE J1701 - 462: Link Between
                              Z and Atoll Sources (Lin et al. 2010)
                      Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
          Atoll-sources with Chandra HETG
M. Linares PhD Thesis 2009
                             1S 0921-63     74.7ks     1          4U 1822-00    2.2 ks          1
                             4U 0614+091    200.2 ks   4          4U 1822-37 180.4 ks           3
                             4U 0919-54      28.5 ks   1          4U 1857+01    4.9 ks           1
                             4U 1254-690     51.6 ks    1         EXO 0749-767 76.4 ks           3
                             4U 1323-619     39.2 ks    1         GS 1826-24   164.2ks           3
                             4U 1543-62      37,8 ks    1         GR 1915-11   328.4ks          11
                             4U 1608-52      23,8 ks    1         Her X-1      245.0ks          10
                             4U 1624-49      73.7 ks    1         4U 1730-335   28.7ks            1
                             4U 1630-47      51.1 ks    1         Ser X-1        76.8ks           1
                             4U 1636-53     110.1 ks    4         XB 1916-05     46.4ks           1
                             4U 1705-44      59.2 ks    3
                             4U 1728-34     135.3 ks    4
                             4U 1735-44      73.7 ks    3
                             4U 1746-37      41.7 ks    1
                             4U 1812-12      86.1 ks    1
                             4U 1820-39     120.0 ks    5



                             26 Atoll sources for
                             2.3 Msec in
                             69 observations


                                 Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
           Accretion of Matter in X-ray Binaries




                            ~7      8       9      10 11             log r [cm]
Spectral
continua

                             Photo-emission and absorption
                             line spectra for log Lx > 37 [erg/s]
                              Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
Accretion Disk Morphologies


                          OpticaLthick cool reflection
                          surface


                          Thin & hot ionization layer




                          Accretion disk atmosphere



                        Accretion disk atmosphere/
                        Accretion Disk Corona *ADC)
             Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
Accretion Disk Atmospheres
                             Assumptions:

                             - energy balance between heating
                               by incident radiation and cooling by
                               recombining emission.
                             - uniform static corona in thermal equi-
                               librium.

                             Compare:

                             - the deduced emission measure
                               n2V from the measured line luminosity
                                     Lline=n2VaatomElineAion
    log Lx = 38                with the expected one from an X-ray
                               heated ADC
          = 37                   d EM/d x = 2.5x1065x-3L382 f(R,T)

                              yellow:measured quantities
                              blue atomic data and ADC models
                              green: quantities to compare

              Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
                             Accretion Disk Coronae
                                         Her X-1 (Ji et al. 2008)



4U 1626-67 (Schulz et al. 2002)




2S 0921-80 (Kallman et al. 2003)                   Cir X-1 (Schulz et al. 2008)




                                        Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
  Atoll Sources:    4U 1822-37 with Einstein

White & Holt 1982




                       Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
    Atoll Sources:   4U 1822-37 with RXTE

White & Holt 1982
                                           Heinz & Nowak 2001




                       Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
       Atoll Sources:   4U 1822-37 with Chandra
Cottam et al. 2001




                           Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
        Atoll Sources:   4U 1822-37 with Chandra
Ji et al. 2010




                            Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
     Atoll Sources:   4U 1822-37 with Chandra
Heinz & Nowak 2001




                         Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
Atoll Sources:   4U 1822-37 with Chandra




                    Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
Atoll Sources:   4U 1822-37 with Chandra




                    Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
Atoll Sources:   4U 0614+091 with Chandra




                    Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
        Atoll Sources:                 4U 0614+091 with Chandra
Schulz 1999, Piraino et al. 1999, Migliari et al. 2010, Schulz et al. 2010




                                              Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
Atoll Sources:   4U 0614+091 with Chandra
                                               Madej et al. 2010
                                               Schulz et al. 2010




                    Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
Atoll Sources:   4U 0614+091 with Chandra




                    Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
Banana-sources with Chandra HETG

                       GX 3+1                       9.2 ks 1
                       GX 13+1                     29.9 ks 1
                       GX 9+9                      46.2 ks 1

                       GX 13+1                     150 ks 5
                       GX 9+9                      200 ks 3




                    3 Banana sources for
                    85.3 ksec in
                    4 observations



              Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
Banana Sources:   GX 13+1 with Chandra




                    GX 13+1 (4U 1811-17) is a persistently bright
                    (Fx = 9x10-9 erg cm-2 s-1, NH = 1022 cm-2) LMXB
                    with a K5 III companion at distance of 7+/-1 kpc.




                  Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
Z-sources with Chandra HETG

                       Cir X-1                   265.4 ks           9
                       Cyg X-2                   258.0 ks           5
                       GX 17+2                    79.9 ks           3
                       GX 340+0                    80.1 ks          4
                       GX 349+2                    51.1 ks          4
                       GX 5-1                      81.8 ks          5
                       Sco X-1                     15.0 ks          1

                       GX 349+2                    130.0 ks           4


                     7 Z -sources for
                     831.8 ksec in
                     31 observations



              Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
                     Z-source and Microquasar: Cir X-1

    (Parkingson et al. 2003)


                                                                                     Fender et al. 2004




Possibly ultra-relativistic jet
Neutron star binary
Low/Intermediate mass companion
Accretion disk wind of 400 -2000 km/s
                                              QuickTime™ and a
                                              GIF decompressor
                                        are neede d to see this picture.




Variable cool & hot absorbers
Suggested soft ionized absorber
                                                          7th Microquasar Workshop, Foca, Sept. 1-6, 2008
Z-sources with Chandra HETG

                                      Church&Church 2001, 2004
                                      Church et al. 2006, 2010
                                      Jackson et L. 2009




                                      Extended ADC model




                                    Cyg X-2 like Z-tracks

                                    Sco X-1 like Z-tracks


              Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
      Interpretation of Z-tracks with ExADCs
Church, Jackson,
& Church 2009




                          Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
Z-sources:   Cyg X-2

               Low-mass X-ray Binary:
                 Z-source prototype
                 Distance: 8-12 kpc
                 Luminosity: >> 1037 erg/s
                 Companion: A9III evolved, 0.6 MSun
                 Binary period: 9.84 days
                 Compact Object: Neutron star(type I bursts)

               Spectral Properties (DiSalvo et al. 2002):
                 Column Density: 2x1021 cm-2
                 Diskbb/bbody : 0.8 keV / 1.7 keV
                 Electron Temperature: > 3 keV
                 Comptoniztation (seed): 1-2 keV
                 Fe-K line: 6.7 keV,
                            42 eV EW
                   Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
Extended ADCs in Z-sources: Cyg X-2




      rdisk = [0.7 -- 2.7] x1010 cm

      nZ = < 1014 cm-3
      nfexxv ~ 1016 cm-3

       log x : 2.8 (HB) --> 3.4 (FB)
       Lx : 0.6 LEdd --> 1.4 LEdd




                     Chandra Accretion Workschop— Cambridge, MA. July 13-15, 2010
                           Summary

Chandra HETG has observed 36 LMXBs (identified Atoll, Banana, and
Z-Sources) for ~ 3.2 Msec in 104 observations.

The Atoll source 4U 1822 -37 shows a thin ionization layer of ionization
parameter log x < 2.6 inferring Lx ~ 1038 erg/s;
Highly ionized Fe XXVI emission from central corona

The Atoll source 4U 0614+091 is likely of ultra-compact nature with
an accretion disk radius of a few 109 cm, probable higher Ne abundance.
It exhibits a highly variable and moderately relativistic O VIII line from
it inner disk

The Z-source Cyg X-2 exhibits broad line emission indicating the presence
of an extended (r~1010 cm) ADC . Line fluxes indicate ADC heating from
HB --> NB --> FB from sub- to super Eddington luminosities,

								
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