salmonella by huanghengdong

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									                                                                                            Health Department




                            Salmonella
                                                                                                                  June 2008


What is salmonella?                                             How is salmonella spread?
Salmonella is a bacteria that is found in contaminated foods.   Salmonella is spread by the ingestion of the organisms in
Salmonella grows when foods are improperly handled or           food derived from infected animals or contaminated by
prepared.                                                       feces of an infected animal or person. This includes raw
                                                                and undercooked eggs and egg products, raw milk, and
What are the symptoms of salmonella?                            raw milk products, contaminated water, meat and meat
Symptoms include the sudden onset of a headache,                products, poultry and poultry products and unwashed and
abdominal pain, diarrhea, nausea and sometimes vomiting.        uncooked fruits and vegetables. In addition, individuals
Dehydration, especially among infants or elderly, may be        can get salmonella from pet turtles, iguanas, lizards,
severe. A fever is almost always present.                       snakes, ducklings and chicks.

How soon do symptoms appear after infection                     How is salmonella treated?
and how long is it contagious?                                  Salmonella infections usually resolve in 5-7 days and often
The incubation period is normally about 12—36 hours, but        do not require treatment unless the patient becomes
can take anywhere from six to 72 hours for symptoms to          severely dehydrated or the infection spreads from the
appear. Persons with salmonella are contagious throughout       intestines. Persons with severe diarrhea may require
the course of the infection, which can be from several days     hydration, often with intravenous fluids. Antibiotics are
to several weeks.                                               not usually necessary unless the infection spreads from the
                                                                intestines. Unfortunately, some Salmonella bacteria have
A person with salmonella can spread the infection by failing    become resistant to antibiotics.
to wash their hands after having a bowel movement. Good
hand washing is vital! Salmonella cannot be contracted by
simply being around someone who has it. You must ingest
the organism from either undercooked meat and meat
products, undercooked eggs and egg products, or having
contact with reptiles, birds, or feces.
                                                                                               Health Department




                            Salmonella                                                                               June 2008


                                                                   Precautions include:
Information for food handlers
                                                                   • Wash hands with soap and water before and after
Cross-contamination of foods should be avoided. Uncooked
                                                                       handling foods of animal origin.
meats should be keep separate from produce, cooked foods,
and ready-to-eat foods. Hands, cutting boards, counters,
                                                                   •   Carefully clean all cutting boards, countertops and
knives, and other utensils should be washed thoroughly after
                                                                       utensils with soap and hot water after preparing raw
handling uncooked foods. Hands should be washed between
                                                                       food of animal origin or switching between types of
handling different food items.
                                                                       food products.
People who have salmonella should not prepare food or pour
water for others. Food handlers should not report to work if       •   Thaw foods in the refrigerator, under running cold
they have diarrhea. When visiting the doctor, food handlers            water, or as part of the cooking process.
should mention they are a restaurant worker. Food may
become contaminated by the unwashed hands of an infected           •   Never let foods sit at room temperature for more than
food handler, who forgot to wash his/her hands with soap               two hours.
after using the bathroom.
                                                                   •   Never consume raw eggs or raw egg products.
How can you prevent salmonella?
                                                                   •   Cook poultry thoroughly.
Persons with diarrhea, especially children, should wash their
hands carefully and frequently with soap and water to reduce
the risk of spreading the infection. In addition, there are a      •   Avoid purchasing bruised or damaged tomatoes and
number of precautions you can take to avoid contracting the            discard any that appear spoiled.
infection.
                                                                   •   Thoroughly wash all tomatoes under running water.

                                                                   •   Refrigerate or discard cut, peeled, or cooked tomatoes
                                                                       within 2 hours.
                How can I get more information
                       on salmonella?                              •   Keep tomatoes that will be consumed raw separate
                                                                       from raw meats, raw seafood, and raw produce items.
                        For more information
                      on salmonella or any other
                                                                   •   Children should not keep chicks, ducklings, turtles,
           health issues, call the Sedgwick County Health
    Department at 660-7392. Or visit the Sedgwick County website       iguanas, lizards or snakes as pets.
                     at www.sedgwickcounty.org.

								
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