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I. INTRODUCTION A. Background of the study Teaching English to young learners has become more important recently. It is proven by introduction of primary English as Foreign language (EFL) teaching as a world-wide phenomenon. In reality many teachers teach in primary school eve though their educational background has not been trained for this level. Teacher should consider how to communicate English with students effectively. As we know, in most classrooms, even at elementary schools, whatever the classrooms arrangement, the teacher is physically the central focus of students’ attention for most of the school day. Therefore, the role of teacher in guiding his students in conveying their own ideas is still needed intensively. The cooperation and communication between teacher and students are also part of the teaching learning process as well as part of growing process up toward English, then the sooner the students learn simple, meaningful expressions in English, the easier it will be. As our government constructs curriculum, English subject in elementary school includes oral communication proficiency based on school context. Reading and writing skills are supposed to support oral communication only. By learning English, elementary school students are expected to be able to use English to accompany action in classroom, participate in school interactions, and recognize simple written English. In this study I will focus on teaching spelling to fourth grade students of elementary school. Spelling is one of the language components. But, unfortunately, in comparison with reading, spelling has received little attention from from teachers. Where as, the ability to spell is the basic and essential skill within language curriculum. Spelling needs high concentration to encode every letter. It is not an easy task for elementary school students. Since English is a foreign language for Indonesian students, we have to choose appropriate teaching methods and techniques which will help them in learning English without being frustrated. Most children see life in terms of games, and almost anything else, except perhaps eating, sleeping or watching television, is regarded as something they “have to” do rather than “want to” do. Children world are having fun. Especially, games in the language classroom help children to see learning English as enjoyable and rewarding. Playing games in the classroom develops the ability to co-operate, to complete without being aggressive, and to be a ‘good loser’. Game is one of the medium or sample to know how far they can spell well. Many studies have proven that using a game is beneficial for young learners in learning a new language, especially English. A study on the use of chopstick game improves the spelling skill both in spelling letters and words. This game is pleasing and encouraging students to learn and improving the spelling skill (Handayani, 2008: 48). From the study above, it was proved that using games is an effective medium in teaching spelling to elementary students. The children will be more interested and more active learning. They understand more about the game spelling. However there are still many kinds of games that could be used as a medium to teach spelling. That is why I will take another game which trains the spelling skill. The game that I will use to train spelling named animal game. This game sustains the students’ concentration and also provides physical movements because of young children especially in elementary school are mostly active. This game includes an element of role- play. Students are given the name and some characteristics of animals. However, these are not role-plays in the true sense, as the role-play element is always subordinate to the game for the purposes of language use. In this game the students have to listen for instructions from teacher include words for animals. They then play a game in which they imitate the animals sound or wave. Animal game could be an alternative medium to learn spelling skill of elementary school students. In fact, by playing game, students are hopefully easier to learn spelling without any bored atmosphere. Due to this fact, I want to find out how well ‘Animal Game’ gives contribution in teaching spelling to the fourth graders. B. Statement of the problem The problem that will be addressed in this study is: 1. How is ‘Animal Game’ as a medium in teaching spelling to the elemetary school? 2. What are the problem faced by the teacher and the students n teaching learning process by animal game? 3. How does the teacher solve the problems? C. Objective of the Study The objectives of the study of the research are as follow: 1. To find out the technique of animal game as a medium in teaching spelling to the elemantary school. 2. To identify the problem faced by teacher and students in learning process by animal game. 3. To identify the solution to solve the problem by the teacher. D. Significance of the Study The significance of the study can be stated as follows: 1) For the students, the ‘Animal Game’ will make them actively involve in teaching learning process happily and fun. 2) For English teachers, hopefully it would be a reference particularly in improving their spelling teaching by using games. E. Definition of Key Terms In order to avoid any ambiguity in meaning, I then limit the definition of terms used in this study as follows: 1) Spelling Spelling is the ability to spell, action of spelling. 2) Animal Game Game as a medium to teach spelling in which the students imitate the animals. Therefore, ‘Animal Game’ as a Medium in Teaching spelling letters to Elementary School Students is defined as a medium to promote students interaction in spelling and learning instructions in English in an active way. II. REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE A. Review of Related Literature 1. The Game as a Medium Handayani(2008:9) states that many teachers are still applying conventional methods in teaching spelling. They ask their students to memorize the letters A to Z and all spelling materials without providing supporting media. Nowadays, as profesional teachers, their behavior should be changed by providing appropriate media. Using games may be one of the appropriate ways in learning a new language to children because languange learning is a hard task which can be sometimes frustrating: especially for the Indonesian elementary school students. Therefore using games may be the best choice. 2. General Concept of Games A medium, broadly conceived, is any person, material, or event that establishes conditions which enables the learners to acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes. However, a ,edium will be defined as “the graphic”, photographic, electronic, or mechanical means for arresting, processing, and reconstituting visual or verbal information” (http://education.yahoo.com/references/dictionary/entry/medium). Edling and Paulson as cited in Handayani (2008:10) siad that every medium is a means to an end or to a goal. One day of medium that can be used to know how far the students are able to spell well is game. By the game, children can express their idea and ability. Children usually like something new and intereting. Playing game together with friends are very fun. They can play and learn by doing something. Then, the children can be more active by cooperating with their friends. A game is an activity carried out by cooperating or competing decisions makes seeking to achieve within a set of rules, their objectives. Playing a game is a something enjoyable to children done. Deighton as cited in Harmer(2001:272) states that a game can be defined as something enjoyable; however serious involving competition for specified objectives and observing rules. 3. The Actions of Animal Game as a Medium Game is an action that related with plays something, fun and cooperating. Each game has different playing and rules. It has also different purposes. Here, I will introduce a new game that can be applied in teaching spelling to elementary scholl students, named Animal Game. Animal game is a kind of attractive game that its activities consist of pgysical movements. This game includes an element of role-play. Students are given the name of animals and act some characteristics of animals like animal sound or move. How ever, these are not role-plays in the true sense, as the role play element is always subordinate to the game for the purposes of language use. In this game the students have to listen to instructions from teacher. The students learn to spell the letters of name of animals. They then play a game in which they imitate the animals sound or move. Animal game could be alternative medium to learn spelling skill of elementary school students. In fact, by palying game, students are hopefully easier to learn spelling without any boring atmosphere. Some variations are able to be given if necessary during learning spelling. 4. The Rules of Animal Game Many kinds of games can be utilized in language learning. Animal game that I used is taken from “Animal Movement” game in a book by Vanessa Reilly and Sheila M. Ward that has been modified to be applicable for learning spelling. The rules of the animal game are: 1. Teacher divides the students into 3 groups. Each group consists of eight children or more. 2. Each group is provided with two boxes that consist of alphabet cards and animal cards. 3. The first player in every group chooses one animal card and put it on a board. Then takes one letter from an alphabet box that indicates for the name of that animal, put it below the picture and spell the letter. 4. The next members do the same like previous member to take a letter until the name of animals completed to spell. 5. The group who completes the game the quickest is the winner. 5. Teaching English in Elementary School Since English has become an international language , more and more people learn English. The importance of English as a world language has made people to learn English as early as possible. In Indonesia for example, English is taught even before the children enter the playgroup there is a special class for children who are still around two or three years old. This is supported by the fact that the optimum age for children to learn a foreign language is when they are still in a very young age. Jean Brewster and Gail Ellis (2002:2) stated that young learners learn language better and more easily than adult learner. It mean there is a widispread belief that there are definite advantages. Jean Brewster and Gail Ellis (2002:2) stated that young learners are different from adult learners because: a. They have a lot of physically energy and often need to be physically active. b. They have a wide range of emotional needs. c. They are emotionally excitable. d. They are still developing literacy in their first language. e. They get bored easily. f. They are excellent mimic. g. They can concentrate for a surprisingly long tie if they are interested. h. They can be easily distracted but also very enthusiastic. English is the most important language in the world. It is one of the international languages. Now days, English is taught in the country as a subject from the Elementary school to University. English has been taught first foreign language. The Indonesian government always makes efforts to improve the quality of teachers and other component which are involved in educational process. Education in Indonesia is growing up day by day. The teaching of English as foreign language for Indonesian students takes rather differently from the taching of Indonesian as a mother tongue. So the Indonesian students must have improvement learning style in English class lesson. Based on English curriculum (2004:1) the main goal of English teaching is to improve students ability in learning English. In the Elementary school, English taught as alocal content subject it is inline with the government program the nine- year basic education. According to curriculum 2004, Elementary school may add some lessons. There are many kinds of local content taught in elementary school one of them is English. In the period most of students usually learn English for the first time. For the first to the third class students just introduced simple vocabulary. And the fourth to the sixth, students introduces with the sample sentence. One of objectives of learning English in Elementary School as stated in the local content of the learning guide lines (BBPP Mulok SD, 2004:2) is that the students are expected to have the skills of attentively listening, reading and writing in English. In Elementary school the focus of learning English is vocabulary mastery especially in telling time at the fifth year. A successful of learning English understanding in English of school depend on their way in learning English. According to Pihla (in http://www_pihla.com on 1st January,2009) Elementary school is a school for 6-12 year old children. The Elementary school promotes and supports the children’s basic facilities amongst others cognitive and social skills. The montessori methods enable the staff to take into account each individual child, his/her development and maturity, in pedagogical guidance. In addition, the methods offer possibilities of independent activities in a pleasant environment. In the elementary school also offers English language shower, in other words chidren participate daily in short activities conducted in English. The aim of the elementary school is to develop the child and his other school capabilities in an integrated manner, with regard to all aspects of education. And in this thesis, the writer chooses the effectiveness of using a song in teaching English pronounciation a case of fourth grade students of SDN Gemah 01 Semarang. 6. The characteristics of Young Learners Teaching a foreign language especially English to young learners is different with teaching a foreign language to adults or adolescents students. Most Indonesian children will be around ten years old when they are in the fourth grade. They love to play and learn best when they are enjoying themselves, they either pretend to understand, or they understand in their own terms and do what they think you want them to do, they also have a very shorth attention and concetration span. But, actually as we know that children a learner have a high imagination about what they thought, they saw and they heard. And also they can tell you what they have done or heard or what they are doing. 7. Teaching Spelling to Elementary Shools Students In Indonesia, primary education is divided into two levels. There are kindergarten and elementary school. The students in these levels are often called young learners because they just begin to learn a new language that is different from their native language. The young learners that their own language is not English have difficulties in dealing with communicating. Students cannot communicate well and express what they have in mind because they lack of vocabulary, structure fluency and they cannot pronounce the words well. In fact, they have a limited memory span. It is important for teachers to have alternative ways to teach English. For avoiding the conversation breakdown, teachers can use the immediate practicality and frequency of use of classroom interaction. It helps students appreciate English as real communication and develop their confidence, in both their English abilities and in themselves as active individuals by enabling them to use it to get things done. As a matter of fact, when children start to learn new language, learning proper spelling by rote is a traditioanal element of elementary education. Spelling is a major skill that students must master before they can feel truly comfortable reading and writing. So, the teacher places teaching spelling on general writing and reading(and yes, spelling is definitely part of that). English spelling is actually not difficult, once the logic is clear. While many spellings are phonetic and are spelt as they are spoken, the confusion arises from groups of words that are drawn from different European language. On the other hand, the young learners developquickly in learning a new language. They watch, listen and imitate their teacher. So, in this case the teachers should have a good sense to find the appropiate medium to support their teaching and accompany the students to have fun learning atmosphere. Therefore using animal game may be appropiate medium in learning a new language especially in spelling. 8. The General Concept of Spelling Spelling is the forming of words through the traditional arrangement of letters. People often do not pay attention too much to correct spelling, but even one spelling error will spoil a sentence. But in my opinion that spelling is the forming of words through the letters which is very important for students because it has a close relationship when they are in learning of reading and writing. 9. The Problems of the Spelling Based on the nature of English spelling, the inconsistent relationship of phonemes-graphemes of English spelling causes many problems. It makes learning to spell even more complicated for those who learn English as a foreign language. The errors made by students in their word composition should be the guides for the teachers to find and determine an appropiate method of teaching spelling and a method of remedying students who have poor spelling ability. So, the students who have poor spelling ability can be minimazed as much as possible. 10. Applying ‘Animal game’ in Teaching spelling Animal game as medium for elementary school students means play in the class. I am of the opinion that students will be able to spell better by games, here as a medium for students: teacher has good strategy teaching and learning process. This game includes an elemeny of role-play. Students are given the name and some characteristics of animal. In this game the students have to listen to instruction from teacher including words for animals and the way animal moves. The students learn to spell the letters of name for animals. They then play a game in which they sometimes imitate the animals sound or move. For example, when one group gets the picture of kangaroo, they will be moved by jumping. Students are ordered to make groups. And then teacher provides one box for each group that consists of animal cards numberes 1 to 9. Every member chooses one number and puts it on a board. Then every member takes one letter from an alphabet box for the name of that animal put below the picture and spell the letter. The next members do the same like previous member until the name of animal completed to spell. The writer will be helped by some teachers to give score for each member quickest is the winner. Then, I am of the opinion tha Animal game could be an alternative medium to the students in learning of spelling letters. That is good for elementary schools students to excercise learning and remember the letter to Z. III. METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH A. Research Design B. Subject of The Reseacrh 1. Population 2. Simple and Sampling C. Instrument Observation sheet is used in this research. The obeservation sheet consists of day, date, observer/teacher, students, topic, teachers, technique, problems of teacher, problems of the students and the solution. The observation sheet above will be used to get data. Picture is use as the media to teach objects in the classroom. D. Method of Data Collection to achievement the objectives of the research, the writen world collect the data by observation after teacher give the lesson animal game. 1. Method of collecting data Observation method is used to collecting data and the subject matter of the researcher are student and teacher. Observation method is used to know how for the students able to adsorb to understand to lesson animal game. How teacher deal with the problem arise along teaching process and how the response of the students. The reseacher would observe about how the picture used in teaching english to the fourth year students, what were the problems faced by the teacher and students in teaching learning process by using and how do solve the problems. 2. Procedure of colleting data The subject matter of the research are students and teacher. To know how for the students able to adsorb and to understand the lesson animal game, observation method is used to collecting data. Some steps are used to collect the data. The steps are as follows: a. First step asks for permission the headmaster of SDN Gemah 01-02 Semarang to make the research. b. After ask for permission the headmaster and then ask for permission from the teacher of class to make the research in the class. c. Make schedule with the teacher to the observation d. The observation would be done 4 times. At first teacher will teach English as usual. After teaching the lesson, the teacher gives animal game activities. The teacher will observe the respond and the ability of the students in learning English using the technique. E. Method of Data Analysis In order to analyze the data collected, there some steps to do, the steps are as follows: 1. Identify the technique in Animal Game as a medium in teaching spelling to the elementary school. 2. Identify the problem of animal game as medium teaching spelling to the elementary school. 3. Interpret technique animal game as a medium teaching spelling to the elementary school based on teory. IV. OUTLINE OF THE STUDY Outline of study is as follows: Chapter I presents the introduction covering background of the study, reason for choosing the topic, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study, definition of terms, and outline of the study. Chapter II is the review of the related literature as the theoretical basis for the study. Chapter III discusses the method of investigation. It consist of research design, research object, research participant, research procedure, method of collecting data, instrument, scoring system, teaching materials and method of analyzing data. Chapter IV includes research findings, which consist of data analysis and discussions of t he research. Chapeter V contains the conclusion and suggestions of the research.
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