REVISI by MoAriev

VIEWS: 14 PAGES: 12

									I.   INTRODUCTION

     A. Background of the study
         Teaching English to young learners has become more important recently. It is proven by
     introduction of primary English as Foreign language (EFL) teaching as a world-wide
     phenomenon. In reality many teachers teach in primary school eve though their educational
     background has not been trained for this level.
         Teacher should consider how to communicate English with students effectively. As we
     know, in most classrooms, even at elementary schools, whatever the classrooms
     arrangement, the teacher is physically the central focus of students’ attention for most of the
     school day. Therefore, the role of teacher in guiding his students in conveying their own
     ideas is still needed intensively.
         The cooperation and communication between teacher and students are also part of the
     teaching learning process as well as part of growing process up toward English, then the
     sooner the students learn simple, meaningful expressions in English, the easier it will be. As
     our government constructs curriculum, English subject in elementary school includes oral
     communication proficiency based on school context. Reading and writing skills are supposed
     to support oral communication only. By learning English, elementary school students are
     expected to be able to use English to accompany action in classroom, participate in school
     interactions, and recognize simple written English.
         In this study I will focus on teaching spelling to fourth grade students of elementary
     school. Spelling is one of the language components. But, unfortunately, in comparison with
     reading, spelling has received little attention from from teachers. Where as, the ability to
     spell is the basic and essential skill within language curriculum.
         Spelling needs high concentration to encode every letter. It is not an easy task for
     elementary school students. Since English is a foreign language for Indonesian students, we
     have to choose appropriate teaching methods and techniques which will help them in
     learning English without being frustrated.
         Most children see life in terms of games, and almost anything else, except perhaps eating,
     sleeping or watching television, is regarded as something they “have to” do rather than “want
     to” do. Children world are having fun. Especially, games in the language classroom help
     children to see learning English as enjoyable and rewarding. Playing games in the classroom
develops the ability to co-operate, to complete without being aggressive, and to be a ‘good
loser’.
    Game is one of the medium or sample to know how far they can spell well. Many studies
have proven that using a game is beneficial for young learners in learning a new language,
especially English. A study on the use of chopstick game improves the spelling skill both in
spelling letters and words. This game is pleasing and encouraging students to learn and
improving the spelling skill (Handayani, 2008: 48).
    From the study above, it was proved that using games is an effective medium in teaching
spelling to elementary students. The children will be more interested and more active
learning. They understand more about the game spelling. However there are still many kinds
of games that could be used as a medium to teach spelling. That is why I will take another
game which trains the spelling skill.
    The game that I will use to train spelling named animal game. This game sustains the
students’ concentration and also provides physical movements because of young children
especially in elementary school are mostly active. This game includes an element of role-
play. Students are given the name and some characteristics of animals. However, these are
not role-plays in the true sense, as the role-play element is always subordinate to the game
for the purposes of language use. In this game the students have to listen for instructions
from teacher include words for animals. They then play a game in which they imitate the
animals sound or wave. Animal game could be an alternative medium to learn spelling skill
of elementary school students. In fact, by playing game, students are hopefully easier to learn
spelling without any bored atmosphere.
    Due to this fact, I want to find out how well ‘Animal Game’ gives contribution in
teaching spelling to the fourth graders.


B. Statement of the problem
    The problem that will be addressed in this study is:
    1. How is ‘Animal Game’ as a medium in teaching spelling to the elemetary school?
    2. What are the problem faced by the teacher and the students n teaching learning
          process by animal game?
    3. How does the teacher solve the problems?
C. Objective of the Study
   The objectives of the study of the research are as follow:
   1. To find out the technique of animal game as a medium in teaching spelling to the
       elemantary school.
   2. To identify the problem faced by teacher and students in learning process by animal
       game.
   3. To identify the solution to solve the problem by the teacher.


D. Significance of the Study
   The significance of the study can be stated as follows:
   1) For the students, the ‘Animal Game’ will make them actively involve in teaching
       learning process happily and fun.
   2) For English teachers, hopefully it would be a reference particularly in improving their
       spelling teaching by using games.


E. Definition of Key Terms
   In order to avoid any ambiguity in meaning, I then limit the definition of terms used in
this study as follows:
   1) Spelling
       Spelling is the ability to spell, action of spelling.
   2) Animal Game
       Game as a medium to teach spelling in which the students imitate the animals.
   Therefore, ‘Animal Game’ as a Medium in Teaching spelling letters to Elementary
School Students is defined as a medium to promote students interaction in spelling and
learning instructions in English in an active way.


II. REVIEW OF THE RELATED LITERATURE
   A. Review of Related Literature

       1. The Game as a Medium
    Handayani(2008:9) states that many teachers are still applying conventional methods
    in teaching spelling. They ask their students to memorize the letters A to Z and all
    spelling materials without providing supporting media. Nowadays, as profesional
    teachers, their behavior should be changed by providing appropriate media.

        Using games may be one of the appropriate ways in learning a new language to
    children because languange learning is a hard task which can be sometimes
    frustrating: especially for the Indonesian elementary school students. Therefore using
    games may be the best choice.

    2. General Concept of Games

A medium, broadly conceived, is any person, material, or event that establishes
conditions which enables the learners to acquire knowledge, skills, and attitudes.
However, a ,edium will be defined as “the graphic”, photographic, electronic, or
mechanical means for arresting, processing, and reconstituting visual or verbal
information” (http://education.yahoo.com/references/dictionary/entry/medium). Edling
and Paulson as cited in Handayani (2008:10) siad that every medium is a means to an end
or to a goal.

One day of medium that can be used to know how far the students are able to spell well is
game. By the game, children can express their idea and ability. Children usually like
something new and intereting. Playing game together with friends are very fun. They can
play and learn by doing something. Then, the children can be more active by cooperating
with their friends. A game is an activity carried out by cooperating or competing
decisions makes seeking to achieve within a set of rules, their objectives. Playing a game
is a something enjoyable to children done. Deighton as cited in Harmer(2001:272) states
that a game can be defined as something enjoyable; however serious involving
competition for specified objectives and observing rules.

    3. The Actions of Animal Game as a Medium

Game is an action that related with plays something, fun and cooperating. Each game has
different playing and rules. It has also different purposes.
       Here, I will introduce a new game that can be applied in teaching spelling to
elementary scholl students, named Animal Game. Animal game is a kind of attractive
game that its activities consist of pgysical movements. This game includes an element of
role-play. Students are given the name of animals and act some characteristics of animals
like animal sound or move. How ever, these are not role-plays in the true sense, as the
role play element is always subordinate to the game for the purposes of language use. In
this game the students have to listen to instructions from teacher.

   The students learn to spell the letters of name of animals. They then play a game in
which they imitate the animals sound or move. Animal game could be alternative
medium to learn spelling skill of elementary school students. In fact, by palying game,
students are hopefully easier to learn spelling without any boring atmosphere. Some
variations are able to be given if necessary during learning spelling.

    4. The Rules of Animal Game

    Many kinds of games can be utilized in language learning. Animal game that I used
is taken from “Animal Movement” game in a book by Vanessa Reilly and Sheila M.
Ward that has been modified to be applicable for learning spelling.

The rules of the animal game are:

1. Teacher divides the students into 3 groups. Each group consists of eight children or
   more.
2. Each group is provided with two boxes that consist of alphabet cards and animal
   cards.
3. The first player in every group chooses one animal card and put it on a board. Then
   takes one letter from an alphabet box that indicates for the name of that animal, put it
   below the picture and spell the letter.
4. The next members do the same like previous member to take a letter until the name of
   animals completed to spell.
5. The group who completes the game the quickest is the winner.
5. Teaching English in Elementary School

   Since English has become an international language , more and more people
 learn English. The importance of English as a world language has made people to
 learn English as early as possible. In Indonesia for example, English is taught even
 before the children enter the playgroup there is a special class for children who are
 still around two or three years old. This is supported by the fact that the optimum
 age for children to learn a foreign language is when they are still in a very young
 age.

   Jean Brewster and Gail Ellis (2002:2) stated that young learners learn language
 better and more easily than adult learner. It mean there is a widispread belief that
 there are definite advantages.

   Jean Brewster and Gail Ellis (2002:2) stated that young learners are different
 from adult learners because:

 a. They have a lot of physically energy and often need to be physically active.

 b. They have a wide range of emotional needs.

 c. They are emotionally excitable.

 d. They are still developing literacy in their first language.

 e. They get bored easily.

 f. They are excellent mimic.

 g. They can concentrate for a surprisingly long tie if they are interested.

 h. They can be easily distracted but also very enthusiastic.

    English is the most important language in the world. It is one of the international
 languages. Now days, English is taught in the country as a subject from the
 Elementary school to University. English has been taught first foreign language.
 The Indonesian government always makes efforts to improve the quality of teachers
and other component which are involved in educational process. Education in
Indonesia is growing up day by day. The teaching of English as foreign language
for Indonesian students takes rather differently from the taching of Indonesian as a
mother tongue. So the Indonesian students must have improvement learning style in
English class lesson.

   Based on English curriculum (2004:1) the main goal of English teaching is to
improve students ability in learning English. In the Elementary school, English
taught as alocal content subject it is inline with the government program the nine-
year basic education. According to curriculum 2004, Elementary school may add
some lessons. There are many kinds of local content taught in elementary school
one of them is English. In the period most of students usually learn English for the
first time. For the first to the third class students just introduced simple vocabulary.
And the fourth to the sixth, students introduces with the sample sentence. One of
objectives of learning English in Elementary School as stated in the local content of
the learning guide lines (BBPP Mulok SD, 2004:2) is that the students are expected
to have the skills of attentively listening, reading and writing in English. In
Elementary school the focus of learning English is vocabulary mastery especially in
telling time at the fifth year. A successful of learning English understanding in
English of school depend on their way in learning English.

   According to Pihla (in http://www_pihla.com on 1st January,2009) Elementary
school is a school for 6-12 year old children. The Elementary school promotes and
supports the children’s basic facilities amongst others cognitive and social skills.
The montessori methods enable the staff to take into account each individual child,
his/her development and       maturity, in pedagogical guidance. In addition, the
methods offer possibilities of independent activities in a pleasant environment. In
the elementary school also offers English language shower, in other words chidren
participate daily in short activities conducted in English.

The aim of the elementary school is to develop the child and his other school
capabilities in an integrated manner, with regard to all aspects of education. And in
     this thesis, the writer chooses the effectiveness of using a song in teaching English
     pronounciation a case of fourth grade students of SDN Gemah 01 Semarang.

    6. The characteristics of Young Learners

       Teaching a foreign language especially English to young learners is different with
teaching a foreign language to adults or adolescents students. Most Indonesian children
will be around ten years old when they are in the fourth grade. They love to play and
learn best when they are enjoying themselves, they either pretend to understand, or they
understand in their own terms and do what they think you want them to do, they also
have a very shorth attention and concetration span. But, actually as we know that children
a learner have a high imagination about what they thought, they saw and they heard. And
also they can tell you what they have done or heard or what they are doing.

    7. Teaching Spelling to Elementary Shools Students

       In Indonesia, primary education is divided into two levels. There are kindergarten
and elementary school. The students in these levels are often called young learners
because they just begin to learn a new language that is different from their native
language.

       The young learners that their own language is not English have difficulties in
dealing with communicating. Students cannot communicate well and express what they
have in mind because they lack of vocabulary, structure fluency and they cannot
pronounce the words well. In fact, they have a limited memory span. It is important for
teachers to have alternative ways to teach English. For avoiding the conversation
breakdown, teachers can use the immediate practicality and frequency of use of
classroom interaction. It helps students appreciate English as real communication and
develop their confidence, in both their English abilities and in themselves as active
individuals by enabling them to use it to get things done.

       As a matter of fact, when children start to learn new language, learning proper
spelling by rote is a traditioanal element of elementary education. Spelling is a major skill
that students must master before they can feel truly comfortable reading and writing. So,
the teacher places teaching spelling on general writing and reading(and yes, spelling is
definitely part of that).

        English spelling is actually not difficult, once the logic is clear. While many
spellings are phonetic and are spelt as they are spoken, the confusion arises from groups
of words that are drawn from different European language. On the other hand, the young
learners developquickly in learning a new language. They watch, listen and imitate their
teacher.

        So, in this case the teachers should have a good sense to find the appropiate
medium to support their teaching and accompany the students to have fun learning
atmosphere. Therefore using animal game may be appropiate medium in learning a new
language especially in spelling.




    8. The General Concept of Spelling

        Spelling is the forming of words through the traditional arrangement of letters.
People often do not pay attention too much to correct spelling, but even one spelling error
will spoil a sentence. But in my opinion that spelling is the forming of words through the
letters which is very important for students because it has a close relationship when they
are in learning of reading and writing.




    9. The Problems of the Spelling

        Based on the nature of English spelling, the inconsistent relationship of
phonemes-graphemes of English spelling causes many problems. It makes learning to
spell even more complicated for those who learn English as a foreign language.

        The errors made by students in their word composition should be the guides for
the teachers to find and determine an appropiate method of teaching spelling and a
method of remedying students who have poor spelling ability. So, the students who have
poor spelling ability can be minimazed as much as possible.
      10. Applying ‘Animal game’ in Teaching spelling

         Animal game as medium for elementary school students means play in the class. I
  am of the opinion that students will be able to spell better by games, here as a medium for
  students: teacher has good strategy teaching and learning process.

         This game includes an elemeny of role-play. Students are given the name and
  some characteristics of animal. In this game the students have to listen to instruction from
  teacher including words for animals and the way animal moves. The students learn to
  spell the letters of name for animals. They then play a game in which they sometimes
  imitate the animals sound or move. For example, when one group gets the picture of
  kangaroo, they will be moved by jumping.

         Students are ordered to make groups. And then teacher provides one box for each
  group that consists of animal cards numberes 1 to 9. Every member chooses one number
  and puts it on a board. Then every member takes one letter from an alphabet box for the
  name of that animal put below the picture and spell the letter. The next members do the
  same like previous member until the name of animal completed to spell. The writer will
  be helped by some teachers to give score for each member quickest is the winner.

         Then, I am of the opinion tha Animal game could be an alternative medium to the
  students in learning of spelling letters. That is good for elementary schools students to
  excercise learning and remember the letter to Z.

III. METHODOLOGY OF THE RESEARCH
     A. Research Design
     B. Subject of The Reseacrh
         1. Population


         2. Simple and Sampling



     C. Instrument
   Observation sheet is used in this research. The obeservation sheet consists of day,
   date, observer/teacher, students, topic, teachers, technique, problems of teacher,
   problems of the students and the solution. The observation sheet above will be
   used to get data. Picture is use as the media to teach objects in the classroom.


D. Method of Data Collection
   to achievement the objectives of the research, the writen world collect the data by
   observation after teacher give the lesson animal game.
   1. Method of collecting data
      Observation method is used to collecting data and the subject matter of the
      researcher are student and teacher. Observation method is used to know how
      for the students able to adsorb to understand to lesson animal game. How
      teacher deal with the problem arise along teaching process and how the
      response of the students.
      The reseacher would observe about how the picture used in teaching english
      to the fourth year students, what were the problems faced by the teacher and
      students in teaching learning process by using and how do solve the problems.
   2. Procedure of colleting data
      The subject matter of the research are students and teacher. To know how for
      the students able to adsorb and to understand the lesson animal game,
      observation method is used to collecting data. Some steps are used to collect
      the data. The steps are as follows:
        a. First step asks for permission the headmaster of SDN Gemah 01-02
          Semarang to make the research.
        b. After ask for permission the headmaster and then ask for permission from
          the teacher of class to make the research in the class.
        c. Make schedule with the teacher to the observation
        d. The observation would be done 4 times. At first teacher will teach
          English as usual. After teaching the lesson, the teacher gives animal game
          activities. The teacher will observe the respond and the ability of the
          students in learning English using the technique.
      E. Method of Data Analysis
          In order to analyze the data collected, there some steps to do, the steps are as
          follows:
          1. Identify the technique in Animal Game as a medium in teaching spelling to
              the elementary school.
          2. Identify the problem of animal game as medium teaching spelling to the
              elementary school.
          3. Interpret technique animal game as a medium teaching spelling to the
              elementary school based on teory.
IV. OUTLINE OF THE STUDY
  Outline of study is as follows:
  Chapter I presents the introduction covering background of the study, reason for choosing
  the topic, statement of the problem, objective of the study, significance of the study,
  definition of terms, and outline of the study.
  Chapter II is the review of the related literature as the theoretical basis for the study.
  Chapter III discusses the method of investigation. It consist of research design, research
  object, research participant, research procedure, method of collecting data, instrument,
  scoring system, teaching materials and method of analyzing data.
  Chapter IV includes research findings, which consist of data analysis and discussions of t
  he research.
  Chapeter V contains the conclusion and suggestions of the research.

								
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