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					Using Sources Effectively


      Introductory Tags
       Who Said What?

Good source data is a
tremendous strength to an
effective argument. Many times
what is equally important, and
sometimes more important, is
who said it.
          Who Said What?
For example, when Colin Powell says
that if the U. S. invaded Iraq as part of
the war on terror, we would lose the
support of many Arab countries, his
expertise makes that statement more
powerful than if Joe Schwartz, a writer
for the Paragoonah Weekly Rag, says it.
They may be equally right—or wrong,
but one demands our respect.
       Who Said What?

Therefore, when you do
research, you should not only
gather the data, but you should
also take pains to take notes on
who is the source and what is
the context.
    Just the Facts, Ma’am.

Example: one article noted that
while airpower is a powerful
weapon, “you need significant
ground forces to make the
strategy effective” (qtd. in Hersh
62).
 Better: Using Introductory Tags
         to Give Expertise
Example: Robert Pape, a political
scientist at the University of Chicago
who has written extensively about
airpower, points out that while
airpower is a powerful weapon, “you
need significant ground forces to make
the strategy effective” (qtd. in Hersh
62).
  Best: Using Introductory Tags to
    Give Expertise and Context
Example: Robert Pape, a political scientist at
the University of Chicago who has written
extensively about airpower, doubts that the U.
S. would be as successful in Iraq as it has
been in Afghanistan. He points out that while
airpower is a powerful weapon, “you need
significant ground forces to make the strategy
effective” (qtd. in Hersh 62).
   Data in the Works Cited
Hersh, Seymour M. “The Iraq Hawks.”
    The New Yorker 24 & 31 Dec.
    2001: 58-63.
Affirmative action is not only intended for people of color. It is necessary for women as well. For example:
      “The case for the affirmative-action promotion of the five women was even stronger. Until the 1970s women were formally barred fr




          Just the Facts, Ma’am. Ex. # 2
     Affirmative action is not only intended for people of color. It is
     necessary for women as well. For example:
            “The case for the affirmative-action promotion of the
            five women was even stronger. Until the 1970s
            women were formally barred from being hired for most
            jobs in the police department, including patrol officer. As
            a result, few were hired and many were deterred from
            applying because of the truncated career opportunities.”
            (qtd. in Sotos)
     [Note: Quotation marks were there in the original source; that is why they are
     retained here.]
        With a Tag—Much Better
Affirmative action is not only intended for people of color. It is
necessary for women as well. For example, in June of 2002 the
7th Circuit Court ruled that affirmative action was needed to
remedy some injustices in the hiring policies of Chicago’s police
department. Circuit Judge Richard Posner explained the court’s
decision as follows:
        “The case for the affirmative-action promotion of the
        five women was even stronger. Until the 1970s women
        were formally barred from being hired for most jobs in
        the police department, including patrol officer. As a
        result, few were hired and many were deterred from
        applying because of the truncated career opportunities.”
        (qtd. in Sotos)
[The text would be doublespaced, of course.]

				
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