MOTIVATION by DatingGuru

VIEWS: 7 PAGES: 16

									MODULE 19

MOTIVATION
 “Treat others as you
 would like to be
 treated”

 • How do human needs
   influence motivation to work?
 • How do thought processes
   and decisions affect
   motivation to work?
 • What role does reinforcement
   play in motivation?
MOTIVATION

Human Needs
MODULE GUIDE 19.1



  Maslow described a hierarchy of needs
   topped by self-actualization.
  Alderfer’s ERG theory focuses on
   existence, relatedness, and growth needs.
  Herzberg’s two-factor theory focuses on
   higher-order need satisfaction.
  McClelland identified acquired needs for
   achievement, power, and affiliation.
MOTIVATION

Human Needs

   Motivation
      accounts for the level, direction, and
       persistence of effort expended at work.
   Need
      an unfulfilled physiological or psychological
       desire.
MOTIVATION

Human Needs

  Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
MOTIVATION

Human Needs

  Alderfer’s ERG Theory
      Existence Needs
         are desires for physiological and material well-
          being. Relatedness needs are desires for satis-
          fying interpersonal relationships.
      Relatedness Needs
         are desires for satisfying interpersonal
          relationships.
      Growth Needs
         are desires for continued psychological growth
          and development.
MOTIVATION

Human Needs

  Herzberg’s Two-factor Theory
      Hygiene Factor
         is found in the job context, such as working
          conditions, interpersonal relations, organizational
          policies, and salary.
      Motivator Factor
         is found in job content, such as a sense of
          achievement, recognition, responsibility,
          advancement, or personal growth.
MOTIVATION

Human Needs

  McClelland’s Acquired Needs
      Need for Achievement
         is the desire to do something better, to solve
          problems, or to master complex tasks.
      Need for Power
         is the desire to control, influence, or be
          responsible for other people.
      Need for Affiliation
         Is the desire to establish and maintain good
          relations with other people.
MOTIVATION

Thought Processes and Decisions
MODULE GUIDE 19.2



  Equity theory explains how social
   comparisons can motivate individual
   behavior.
  Expectancy theory considers motivation =
   expectancy x instrumentality x valence
  Goal-setting theory says that well chosen
   and well set goals can be motivating.
MOTIVATION

Thought Processes and Decisions


 Adams’ Equity Theory
     Explains how social comparisons can
      motivate individual behavior
     Any perceived inequities will motivate us to
      behave in a manner that will change them
MOTIVATION

Thought Processes and Decisions
  Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
     motivation = expectancy x instrumentality x valence
      Expectancy
          a person’s belief that working hard will result in achieving a desired
           level of task performance
      Instrumentality
          a person’s belief that successful performance will lead to rewards and
           other potential outcomes
      Valence
          the value a person assigns to the possible rewards and other work-
           related outcomes.
MOTIVATION

Thought Processes and Decisions
              Vroom’s Expectancy Theory
MOTIVATION

Thought Processes and Decisions
   Locke’s Goal-setting Theory
         emphasizes the motivational power of goals that are
          specific and challenging.
                             MANAGEMENT TIPS

  • Set specific goals—avoid more generally stated ones, such as “Do
      your best.”
  •   Set challenging goals—when realistic and attainable, they motivate
      better than easy ones.
  •   Build commitment—people work harder for goals they accept and
      believe in.
  •   Clarify priorities—expectations should be clear on which goals to
      pursue first.
  •   Provide feedback—people need to know how well they are doing.
  •   Reward results—don’t let accomplishments pass unnoticed.
MOTIVATION

Reinforcement
MODULE GUIDE 19.3



 Operant conditioning influences behavior by
  controlling its consequences.
 Positive reinforcement connects desirable
  behavior with pleasant consequences.
 Punishment connects undesirable behavior
  with unpleasant consequences.
MOTIVATION

Reinforcement

  The law of effect states that behavior
   followed by a pleasant consequence is
   likely to be repeated; behavior
   followed by an unpleasant
   consequence is unlikely to be
   repeated.
MOTIVATION

Reinforcement
  Operant Conditioning – B. F. Skinner
     Influences behavior by controlling its consequences
     Positive reinforcement strengthens a behavior by
      making a desirable consequence contingent on its
      occurrence.
     Negative reinforcement strengthens a behavior by
      making the avoidance of an undesirable consequence
      contingent on its occurrence.
     Punishment discourages by making an unpleasant
      consequence contingent on its occurrence.
     Extinction discourages a behavior by making the
      removal of a desirable consequence contingent on its
      occurrence.
MOTIVATION

Reinforcement
             Operant Conditioning – B. F. Skinner

								
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