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					        SCADA Security

Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition

             Mr Mark Rydell
            SCADA Lesson
   What is SCADA?

   Why is SCADA Security important?

   How SCADA Systems Evolved
                 SCADA systems
   SCADA – Supervisory Control and Data
    Acquisition
   SCADA systems are vital components of
    most nation’s critical infrastructures
   SCADA systems control:
    •   Gas pipelines
    •   Water and wastewater systems
    •   Transportation systems
    •   Electrical Utilities
    •   Refineries and chemical plants
    •   Manufacturing operations
          SCADA Systems
SCADA systems are intended to provide a
human operator with updated real-time
information about the current state of the
remote process being monitored, as well as
the ability to manipulate the process
remotely.      William T. Shaw
               SCADA Systems
   Used to monitor and remotely control
    critical industrial processes

   Industrial control systems (ICS)
    • SCADA systems
    • Distributed Control Systems (DCS)
    • Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC)

   SCADA Components
    •   Master Terminal Unit (Architecture unique)
    •   Human Machine Interface
    •   Remote Terminal Unit
    •   Communications
           SCADA Systems
 Highly distributed
 Geographically separated assets

 Centralized data acquisition and
  control are critical
    • Oil and gas pipelines
    • Electrical power grids
    • Railway transportation systems
   Field devices control local operations
      Distributed Control System
   Supervisory control of multiple integrated
    systems responsible for a local process
   DCSs used extensively in process-based
    industries
   Examples:
    • Oil and gas refineries
    • Electrical power generation
    • Automotive production
   Feedback loops maintain set points
   Programmable logic controllers used in the
    field
Programmable Logic Controllers
 Computer based solid state devices
 Control industrial equipment and
  processes
 Regulate process flow

    • Automobile assembly line
        SCADA, DCS or PLC
                Compare and Contrast

   Location
    • SCADA – geographically dispersed
    • DCS and PLC – factory centered
   Communications
    • SCADA – long distance, slow speed
    • DCS and PLC – LAN, high speed
   Control
    • SCADA – supervisory level
    • DCS and PLC – closed feedback loops
    SCADA – Why the emphasis?
   SCADA Supports Critical Infrastructures

   80-90% of critical infrastructures (CI) are
    privately owned and operated

   Critical to National survival and prosperity,
    yet dependent on industries driven by
    profit, not security
    SCADA – Why the emphasis?
   Many challenges exist when securing SCADA
     • Complex systems…patching, rebooting, authentication
     • Preponderance of legacy hardware, software and
       transmission protocols ($)
     • Multiple and divers access points…by design…radio,
       wireless, phone
     • The need to connect to business network
   The Cyberwar Plan. Article by Shane Harris, Saturday, Nov. 14, 2009:
    President Obama confirmed that cyber-warriors have aimed at American
    networks. "We know that cyber-intruders have probed our electrical grid,"
    he said at the White House in May, when he unveiled the next stage of the
    national cyber-security strategy. The president also confirmed, for the first
    time, that the weapons of cyberwar had claimed victims. "In other
    countries, cyberattacks have plunged entire cities into darkness."
   Video
           SCADA Evolution
   1960s – Integrated Circuit led to
    minicomputers capable of computer
    control of processes
    • Confined to one physical location
    • Not connected to an external network
    • Local area network
    • Closed loop control
    • Proprietary protocols
           SCADA Evolution
   1960 -1980s – Central Architectures
    • Single powerful computer performing all
      functions
    • 2nd identical computer for redundancy
            SCADA Evolution
   1980s to present – Distributed
    Architectures
    • Multiple computers networked together
      with each performing a specific function
    • LAN improvements – practical and possible
    • Functions:
       Remote terminal polling
       Complex applications processing

       Historian – data archiving and trending

    • Graceful degradation
           SCADA Evolution
   1990s to present – Client/Server
    • Powerful PCs
    • TCP/IP networking
    • High speed Ethernet
    • Commercial real-time operating systems
   Looking more like IT systems
    • Scalable and fault tolerant
    • Smart software makes redundancy easy
           SCADA Evolution
   Human Machine Interface
    • Printouts
    • Map board
    • Mimic panel
    • Video projection technology
SCADA Evolution
   HMI Example
           SCADA Evolution
   Remote Terminal Unit
    • Electronic devices located at key
      measurement and control points
    • Originally hardwired devices with limited
      capabilities and one proprietary
      communications protocol
    • Modern RTUs contain their own
      microprocessors and can support
      multiple sophisticated protocols
            SCADA Evolution
   Communications
    • Initially used telephone systems and
      radio transmitters designed for voice
       Slow
       Some remote areas had to build their own

        communication systems
    • Latest systems are digital networks
      designed to transfer data
       TCP/IP
       Wireless including cellular and satellite
     SCADA Evolution Summary
   SCADA systems are based on
    computer technology so they have
    evolved with computer technology

   New technologies have also been
    introduced to SCADA systems

   Huge decreases in proprietary nature
     SCADA Evolution Summary
   The Good News
    • Cheaper
    • Interoperable between vendors
    • Larger pool of available workers
   The Bad News
    • Susceptible to malware, hackers and
      cyber attacks
   We can’t go back. We must provide
    secure designs for now & the future
                          And Finally….
(CBS Transcript) Nothing has ever changed the world as quickly as the Internet has. Less
   than a decade ago, "60 Minutes“ went to the Pentagon to do a story on something
   called information warfare, or cyber war as some people called it. It involved using
   computers and the Internet as weapons. Much of it was still theory, but we were told
   that before too long it might be possible for a hacker with a computer to disable
   critical infrastructure in a major city and disrupt essential services, to steal millions of
   dollars from banks all over the world, infiltrate defense systems, extort millions from
   public companies, and even sabotage our weapons systems. Today it's not only
   possible, all of that has actually happened, plus a lot more we don't even know about.
   It's why President Obama has made cyber war defense a top national priority and why
   some people are already saying that the next big war is less likely to begin with a
   bang than a blackout. "Can you imagine your life without electric power?" Retired
   Admiral Mike McConnell asked correspondent Steve Kroft. Until February of this year,
   McConnell was the nation's top spy. As chief of national intelligence, he oversaw the
   Central Intelligence Agency, the Defense Intelligence Agency and the National
   Security Agency. Few people know as much about cyber warfare, and our dependency
   on the power grid, and the computer networks that deliver our oil and gas, pump and
   purify our water, keep track of our money, and operate our transportation systems.
   "If I were an attacker and I wanted to do strategic damage to the United States, I
   would either take the cold of winter or the heat of summer, I probably would sack
   electric power on the U.S. East Cost, summer, I probably would sack electric power
   on the U.S. East Cost, maybe the West Coast, and attempt to cause a cascading
   effect. All of those things are in the art of the possible from a sophisticated attacker,"
   McConnell explained.
                    And Finally….
"Do you believe our adversaries have the capability of bringing down a
   power grid?" Kroft asked.
"I do," McConnell replied.
Asked if the U.S. is prepared for such an attack, McConnell told Kroft,
"No. The United States is not prepared for such an attack."

				
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