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Calculation of sample size for research

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					  Calculation of sample size
         for research




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Pilot st udy
A c c or d i n g t o O p p e n h e i m ( 1 9 9 2 ) a p i l o t s t u d y h e l p s t o s e e w h e t h e r
quest ionnair e            c an    c apt ur e     the      measur ement .            For      the      c urr ent
r es e a r c h t h e p i l o t s t u d y w a s d o n e b ef o r e ac t u a l d a t a c ol l ec t i o n , t h a n
t h e v a l i d i t y a n d r e l i a b i l i t y w e r e t es t e d , s a m p l e s i z e es t i m a t e d a n d
f inally quest ionnair e was developed.
Five part icipants have been                        as k e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e c u r r e n t
s t u d y . A l l f i v e r es p o n d e n t s h a v e b e e n c h o s e n f r o m t h e T T O of
Man a v R ac hn a U n i vers it y.             R es p on d ents h a ve b e en t ol d in ad vanc e
t h a t t h i s i s a p i l o t s t u d y a n d h a v e b e e n as k e d t o e v a l u a t e i f t h e
q u e s t i o n s a r e c l e a r a n d u n d e r s t a n d a b l e . T h e r es p o n s e s s h o w e d t h a t
quest ionnair e do not r equir e f urt her modif ic ation.


S ampling des ign
T h er e a r e d i f f er e n t     m e t h o d s t o c o l l ec t d a t a s u c h          as d a t a f r o m
e n t e r p r i s e s , f r o m s a m p l e of u n i t s o r d a t a f r o m r a n d o m s a m p l e u n i t s
( M a r c o u l i d e s , 1 9 9 8 ) . A p p e n d i x 8 i l l u s t r a t e s t y p e s of s a m p l i n g . T h e
curr ent st udy will adopt non -pr obabilit y s ampling; t he dat a will be
c ol l ec t e d   f r om    t h os e   people        who      ar e    able      to    pr o vi d e     r equir ed
inf or mation ( Pins onneault and K r aem er, 1993).
A c c or d i n g t o S a k a r a n ( 1 9 9 2 ) a p o p u l a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s c om p l e t e s e t of
p e o p l e , t h i n g s of i n t e r es t o r e v e n t s t h a t n e e d t o b e s t u d i e d .
T h e t a r g e t p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s r e s e a r c h a r e r e s e a r c h e r s , ac a d e m i c s ,
f o u n d e r s of U S O a n d t h o s e w h o h a v e d i r e c t i n v o l v e m e n t i n u n i v e r s i t y
s p i n - of f p r oc e s s es a s t h e y a r e d i r ec t l y l i n k e d t o t h e s t u d i e d p r o b l e m
( M c M i l l a n , 2 0 0 0 ) . T h e s a m p l e o f c u r r e n t r es e a r c h r ef er s t o s o m e
member s elect ed f r om t he pop ulation, which will allow gett ing a big
n u m b e r o f f i l l e d q u e s t i o n n a i r es ec o n o m i c a l l y a n d q u i c k l y ( B a b b i e ,
1973).


S ample s ize
I t i s u n l i k e l y t o f i n d r es e a r c h wi t h a o n e h u n d r e d p e r c e n t r es p o n s e
(S aunders         et . al. ,     2002) . T he s ample s ize s hould                      be enough t o
g u a r a n t e e r e p r es e n t a t i o n of t h e w h o l e p o p u l a t i o n ( B o r d e n s & A b b o t t ,
2005), addit ionally t he c ost and time c onc erns s hould be c ons ider ed.
The      r es p o n d e n t s     f or    t his     r es earc h       should         be     thos e       who      have
c on n ec t i o n wi t h u n i v e r s i t y s p i n - of f p r oc e s s es , t h e r ef o r e t h e y w i l l b e
the     populat ion           f or    the     c ur r ent      r es earc h.        H ow ever ,          ther e   is     no
a v a i l a b l e i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t h o w m a n y s p i n - of f s ar e i n I n d i a a n d
part icular in D elhi and N at ional C apit al R egion ( NC R) and who ar e
i n v o l v e d i n U S O p r oc e s s es , t h e r ef o r e t h e c u r r e n t r es e a r c h w i l l t a k e
t h e p o p u l a t i o n of D e l h i a n d N C R , w h o a r e l i t e r a t e as t h e y h a v e
p o t e n t i a l t o s t a r t s p i n - of f . T a b l e 1 0 i l l u s t r a t e s p o p u l a t i o n of D e l h i a n d
NCR in 2011.

Table P opulat ion of D elhi and NCR in 2011 ( est imat ed)




B as e d      on     True       K nowledge            ( 2011) ,        and      I n d i aO n l i n e    ( 2011)      the
l i t e r ac y r a t e i n D e l h i i s 8 1 . 8 2 % , t h e r ef o r e t h e p o p u l a t i o n of t h i s
r es e a r c h w i l l b e 1 9 , 4 7 3 . 1 6 0 ( 2 3 . 8 mi l l i o n * 8 1 . 8 2 % ) .
T he annual aver age population’ gr owt h r at e in D elhi and NCR is
3 . 8 1 % ( D e l h i , d e m o g r a p h i c p r of i l e , 2 0 0 2 ) ; t h e r ef o r e p o p u l a t i o n o f
t h o s e w h o c a n b e c o n n e c t e d t o u n i v e r s i t y s p i n - of f p r o c es s es f o r t h e
n ext 3 year s eq u al :




                                      P opulat ion s ize = 21,784. 821




F i g u r e C a lc u l a t i o n o f s a m p l e s i z e
Source: Sam ple Size
        Fig ur e A lt er nati ve sol ut io n
h t t p : / / ww w. r a o s o f t . c o m / s a m p l e s i z e . h t m l ? m a r g i n = 5 & c o n f i d e n c e = 9 0 & p o p u l a t i o n = 2 0 0 0
0 & resp on se=5 0 & sam p le1 =1 0 0 & sam p le2 =2 0 0& sam p le3 =3 0 0& con fid en ce1 =9 0 & con f id
en ce2 =9 5 & con fid en ce3 =9 9




    Source: Alternati ve solution
    h t t p : / / ww w. r a o s o f t . c o m / s a m p l e s i z e . h t m l ? m a r g i n = 5 & c o n f i d e n c e = 9 0 & p o p u l a t i o n = 2 0 0 0
    0 & resp on se=5 0 & sam p le1 =1 0 0 & sam p le2 =2 0 0& sam p le3 =3 0 0& con fid en ce1 =9 0 & con f id
    en ce2 =9 5 & con fid en ce3 =9 9



 T h e r ec o m m e n d e d s a m p l e s i z e f or t h e c u r r e n t r e s e ar c h i s                                              385
 r es p o n d e n t s , c o n f i d e n c e l e v e l of 9 5 % a n d m a r g i n e r r o r of 5 % .

				
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Description: Calculation of sample size for research, Pilot study, Sampling design, Sample size
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