The Person by ewghwehws


									The Person
   Part II
    Critical Phases of the Life Cycle
   Primary attachment in the Parent-Child dyad –
    The First Social system
     We should not refer to the infant as an autonomous
      entity in itself.
     It is a component of a system – two-person

     The newborn enters the world in a totally dependent
     Initially in an undifferentiated state

     Profoundly egocentric
              Trust vs. Mistrust
   The necessity to develop a feeling of trust in
    others and in one’s self and for healthy mistrust
    of one’s environment.
   Based in communication between the infant and
    the caring person. (Bonding)
   Primary needs are the oral, nutritive needs.
        Dysfunctional Conditions
   Transactions between a human system and its
    social environment are necessary to its definition
    of boundary of self.
   If not defined, infantile autism may result.
   If not differentiated, symbiosis results.
              Maternal Deprivation
   Absence of relationships
   Child’s lack of response
   Distorted relationships
       Situations in which the child is undifferentiated from the
       Interlocking dependency
       The parent may assimilate the child
       The parent perceives the child as the embodiment of a single
        quality, such as stupid, evil, or totally demanding.
        Insufficient Relationships
   A situation in which a mother provides
    insufficient opportunity for interaction.
   The parenting person is unable to give
    emotionally because of own isolation, cruelty,
    coldness, or learned inability to relate to others.
   Parent may be narcissistic and involved with self
    so that no more than physical care is provided.
   Circumstances exhaust the caring person’s
    energies and little love is available for nurturance
    of the child.
   One or more of these distorted or insufficient
    relationships are often found in cases of child
   The interruption of an already established relationship
    and to the need for continuity and predictability.
   Prolonged separation between the ages of six and
    twelve months is most harmful and may not be
   Bowlby found that juvenile delinquency was highly
    correlated with separation experiences in the preschool
    years and suggested that early childhood separation is a
    causal factor for some delinquents.
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
   Establishment of a sense of self as an entity,
    distinguished from the environment.
   First assertion is through communication.
   Sensitivity to order is characteristic.
   Assertion of will becomes critical.
   There is ambivalence at this time.
   Communication continues to be predominantly
              Initiative vs. Guilt
   Occurs through its interaction with the social
    environment (the family system).
   Oedipal conflict is central, as is the sense of
    right and wrong.
   Identification is a frequent method of coping.
   Favorable ratio of initiative will create purpose
    and direction.
   Common issues:
       Creation of a qualitative sense of self. Identification with the
        parent of the same sex.
       Play is an important mode of behavior with solitary
        daydreaming and peer play the two most dominant forms.
       Children imagine how they might influence the world and are
        likely to be sensitive to anything that threatens the integrity of
        their bodies.
   A critical time for the development of the conscience.
          Industry vs. Inferiority
   Occurs in the interaction with components of
    the community system: formal organizations
    (schools) and informal organizations
   Mastery: seeking to assert control over both its
    physical self and its environment, physical
    objects, social transactions and ideas/concepts.
   A time to learn the technology and ways of one’s
   The child participates in these organizations,
    developing a sense of self as competent and
    incompetent, in some ratio.
   If the culture transmitted by the school is alien to or
    opposed to, the culture of the child’s family, the young
    is in a difficult position.
   To accept a differing way or culture may be felt as an
    act of betrayal of self, family, or tribe.
   The child may seek mastery outside the school,
    seeking master of its own culture, not that of
     Lack of participation in school by people of color
      may be an example of this.
     Educational system serves to socialize the student
      into accepting and supporting the ways of the
      majority culture.
     Such socialization is a means of social control.
   Society expects the child to demonstrate mastery
    and competence primarily in the single
    institution of the school.
   Public schools find it very difficult to complete
    all the assignments the cultures gives them.
   The school has been required to deal with
    society’s primary problems: racism, sexism,
    poverty, and the use of drugs.
                   Peer Group
   This experience is a necessary element in which
    mastery is tested.
   The peer group of middle childhood is modeled
    after the culture within which it exists.
   The peer group is likely to be strongest in direct
    relation to the stability of the population it
    draws from.
   Peer groups in suburbia are likely to be weak
    and transitory.
   Peer groups in small towns or urban
    neighborhoods may be stronger.
   Inferiority results from:
     Insufficient accrual of resources from previous crisis
     Unclear or unreasonable expectations by adults or
     Excessively high criteria by which to judge
      competence and mastery.
   The feeling the child has about their own
    competence that is crucial, not competence as
    measured by adult standards.
   Mastery of ground rules of life is important to
    children at this stage.
   Peer groups have fairness, social order, and the
    “rules of the game” at the core of their reason
    for existing.
    Problems of Middle Childhood
   Poor school performance
   Symptoms not expected at this age.
   Social inferiority
   Cultural incongruity
     Self-Development of Identity
   A time when biological and social imperatives
    demand that the evolving person organize and
    develop an identity that goes beyond an
    accumulation of roles.
   It is a state of being that cannot be viewed by
    others; or objectively evaluated by them.
   Identity confusion is the dispersion of selves,
    and the alienation of the self.
   The person is not capable of putting energy to
    concerted use – the person is entropic.
   Schizophrenia would be an example of this
   Moratorium refers to a socially approved period of
    delay where the person is allowed to, or forced to;
    postpone assumption of the full responsibilities of adult
   It is both necessary and desirable to allow for
    integration, and the setting of life goals.
   Negative identity occurs because any identity is
    better than no identity at all.
     An identity perversely based on all those
      identifications and roles which had been presented
      as most undesirable or dangerous and yet also as
      most real.
     When denied legitimate opportunity to achieve,
      youths will adopt illegitimate means.
   Begins with biology and ends by social
   The task of identity formation can be viewed as
    the prerequisite for loving and working.
   Peer group: associations with peers are
    extremely necessary experiences.
   Peer groups take over some of the parental roles
    of support and value-giving.
   An attitude of respect for competence develops
    in the peer group.
   For some, the peer group gains overriding
    importance, totally replacing the family.
   The adolescent is an important person in our
   Economically, the adolescent has the status of a
    part-time worker and a full-time consumer.
   There is a dual ambivalence that exists between adults
    and adolescents.
       Manifested in the family system
       Parents and youths are torn between wanting youths to grow
        up and wanting them to remain children.
   Adolescenthood requires the culture to make
    adjustments because the generation coming up has
    absorbed the past, lives in the present, and must
    confront the future with new forms of living
    constructed of knowledge and experience not available
    to their elders.
   As the culture system seeks a steady state, its
    youth component must interact with, and
    exchange energy/information with other
    components: age groups, organizations,
    institutions, communities, and families.
   In order for this to happen, the culture will
    change (accommodate) or seek to maintain the
    status quo (assimilate).

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