DSS- Collaborative Computing Technologies

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					Collaborative Computing
Group Support Systems

Prof. Rushen Chahal
         Prof. Rushen Chahal
  Collaborative Computing
Technologies: Group Support


   Perform groupwork
   Need to collaborate
   Need to communicate

               Prof. Rushen Chahal
       Opening Vignette:
Chrysler SCORES with Groupware

   Chrysler used groupware to enhance
    collaboration and communication with
   Identify waste in the Value Chain
   Eliminate the waste

              Prof. Rushen Chahal
   Lotus Notes Application
   Extended Enterprise System
   Incentives for suppliers to contribute
   Vendor relationship system
   Provides a competitive advantage

                  Prof. Rushen Chahal
          SCORE Benefits
   Enhanced relationships with suppliers
   Better-quality purchasing practices
   Better quality product
   Lower costs (in 2000: $2 billion)

                 Prof. Rushen Chahal
Groupwork Characteristics
   Group performs a task
   Different places
   Different times
   Same or different organizations
   Permanent or temporary

                 Prof. Rushen Chahal
      More Characteristics
   Span managerial levels
   Synergy or conflict
   Productivity gains / losses
   Quick response may be required
   Hard to meet in one place
   Multiple sources of knowledge
   External expertise
                Prof. Rushen Chahal
       Anytime / Anyplace
   Enabled by Web
   Low cost PCs

               Prof. Rushen Chahal
Prof. Rushen Chahal
   Joint activity
   Equal or near equal status
   Outcome depends on participant’s knowledge,
   Outcome depends on group composition
   Outcome depends on decision-making process
   Disagreement settled by rank or negotiation

                  Prof. Rushen Chahal
   To support groupwork / meetings …
   Computer-supported cooperative work
   Software that provides collaborative
    support to groups

                 Prof. Rushen Chahal
    Communication Support
   Vital
   Needed for collaboration

   Modern information technologies provide
    inexpensive, fast, capable, reliable means
    of supporting communication
   Internet / Web

                 Prof. Rushen Chahal
Supporting Communication

   Word of mouth
   Delivery persons
   Horseback
   Snailmail
   Telegraph
   Telephone
   Radio
   Television
   Videoconferencing
   Internet / Web
                 Prof. Rushen Chahal
Nonverbal Communication

   Important issue
   Not captured by most communication

                Prof. Rushen Chahal
    Supporting Collaboration
   People work together
   Group Support Systems (GSS)
   Groupware:
       Electronic meeting systems
       Electronic conferencing systems

                    Prof. Rushen Chahal
            A Time/Place
   Same Time / Same Place
    Decision Room
   Same Time / Different Place
    Video Conference
   Different Time / Same Place
    via Internet
   Different Time / Different Place

                    Prof. Rushen Chahal
   Lotus Notes / Domino Server
    Includes Learning Space
   Netscape Collabra Server
   Microsoft NetMeeting
   Novell Groupwise
   GroupSystems
   TCBWorks
   WebEx

                    Prof. Rushen Chahal
    Group Support Systems
   Goal: to support groupwork
   Increase benefits / decrease losses of
   Based on
       Nominal Group Technique
       Delphi Method
   Electronic Meeting System (EMS)

                   Prof. Rushen Chahal
       Important Features
   Parallelism
   Anonymity

   Lead to process gains and task gains

                  Prof. Rushen Chahal
Prof. Rushen Chahal
         GSS Process Gains
   Parallel information processing / flow
   Larger groups can participate
   Rapid computer discussions
   Quiet people can participate equally
   Noisy people can’t strongly drive meeting
   Saves travel time (millions $ / year)

                   Prof. Rushen Chahal
Prof. Rushen Chahal
       GSS Process Losses
   Free-riding
   Flaming

                  Prof. Rushen Chahal
Prof. Rushen Chahal
         GSS Technologies
   Decision room
   Multiple use facility
   Web-based

                  Prof. Rushen Chahal
           The Decision
    (Electronic Meeting) Room

   12 to 30 networked personal computers
   Usually recessed
   Server PC
   Large-screen projection system
   Breakout rooms
   Need a Trained Facilitator for Success

                  Prof. Rushen Chahal
                  Cool Rooms

              US Air Force
Source:, Tuscon, AZ,
                      Prof. Rushen Chahal
                   Cool Rooms

                          IBM Corp.
Source:, Tuscon, AZ,

                       Prof. Rushen Chahal
                 Cool Rooms

      Murraysville School District Bus

Source:, Tuscon, AZ,

                       Prof. Rushen Chahal
Prof. Rushen Chahal
Prof. Rushen Chahal
     Few Organizations
    Use Decision Rooms

   High Cost
   Need for a Trained Facilitator
   Software Support for Cooperative Tasks,
    NOT Conflict Issues
   Infrequent Use
   Different Place / Different Time Needs
   May Need More Than One

              Prof. Rushen Chahal
          Other Technologies
   Multiple Use Facility
       Cheaper
       Still need a facilitator
   Web-based
       Cheaper: no extra hardware needed
       Still need facilitator

                      Prof. Rushen Chahal
   From, Tucson, AZ

   Comprehensive groupware
   Windows & Web versions
   Leading software

               Prof. Rushen Chahal
    GroupSystems Activities
   Agenda
   Electronic Brainstorming
   Group Outliner
   Topic Commenter
   Categorizer
   Vote


                  Prof. Rushen Chahal
      GSS Meeting Process
   Idea generation
   Idea organization
   Prioritizing
   Idea generation

    Iterate until solution is reached

                 Prof. Rushen Chahal
                  Why GSS?
   Successful
   Need
       Organizational commitment
       Executive sponsor
       Operating sponsor
       User-seductive interface
       Dedicated well-trained facilitator
       Good planning

                     Prof. Rushen Chahal
     Distance Learning (DL)
   Nontraditional classroom
   CSCW / GSS / Groupware
   Requires technology
   Not new
   Effective
   Growing fast
   Corporate, too
                Prof. Rushen Chahal
           DL Advantages
   Just as effective or more
   Flexible time
   Student can keep job
   Student can travel in job
   Access anywhere / anytime
   Can present new technology cheaply
   Can focus on specific skills
   Can cost less
   Expand classroom size easily
                 Prof. Rushen Chahal
       More DL Advantages
   Add breadth and depth to course
   More one-on-one interaction with instructor
   Student/faculty contact time increases
   For continuous learners
   Attendance is flexible (Careful!)
   Discussion technologies
   Student attitudes evolve and improve
   Impacts (scores) are higher
                   Prof. Rushen Chahal
         DL Disadvantages
   Fewer social interactions
   Less or no on-campus interaction
   Communications problems
   Students MUST be highly motivated
   Students MUST be highly disciplined
   Students MUST have effective time
    management skills
   Students MUST be extremely dedicated

                  Prof. Rushen Chahal
    More DL Disadvantages
   Takes more faculty and staff time
   Learner must be more responsible
   Students MUST work hard!

   Others …

                 Prof. Rushen Chahal
        Distance Learning
   Lotus Notes
   Microsoft NetMeeting
   Novell GroupWise

   Learning Space (Lotus Notes)
   WebCT
   LearnLinc Virtual Classroom

               Prof. Rushen Chahal
        Creativity and Idea

   Creativity: Generally a human trait
   Creativity and innovation

    Can create tremendous impacts in

                  Prof. Rushen Chahal
          Idea Generation
   Electronic Brainstorming
   Can be simulated
   Can adjust methods

   Create more ideas (information overload)

   Cognitive maps - useful

                  Prof. Rushen Chahal
     Software that exhibits creativity

   Intelligent agents (softbots)
   Copycat (creates analogies)
   AARON (creates painted art)
   Genjam (writes jazz music)
   Kurzweil’s Cybernetic Poet (writes poems)

                Prof. Rushen Chahal
       Creativity Software
   CoBrain

              Prof. Rushen Chahal
    Software that Facilitates
       Human Creativity
   Project KickStart
   ThoughtPath
   Creative WhackPack
   IdeaFisher

              Prof. Rushen Chahal
    GSS and Collaborative
    Computing Issues and

   GSS/EMS methods
   Web groupware
   Distance learning
   Virtual organization

                Prof. Rushen Chahal
Prof. Rushen Chahal
Prof. Rushen Chahal
GSS Frameworks
DeSanctis & Gallupe, 1987 Framework
Dennis, et al, 1988 Framework

Pinsonneault and Kraemer, 1989 Framework

Nunamaker et al, 1991 Framework

Fjermestad 1998 Framework
                Prof. Rushen Chahal
DeSanctis, G. and Gallupe, R. B., (1987), “A
Foundation for the Study of Group Decision Support
Systems,” Management Science, 33, 3, 589-609

                       Prof. Rushen Chahal
Prof. Rushen Chahal
Prof. Rushen Chahal
Prof. Rushen Chahal
Prof. Rushen Chahal
Prof. Rushen Chahal
Prof. Rushen Chahal
Prof. Rushen Chahal
Prof. Rushen Chahal
GSS Technologies

         Prof. Rushen Chahal
GSS Success Factors (Implementation)

         Organizational commitment
         Executive Sponsor
         Operating sponsor
         Dedicated facility
         Site visits
         Liaisons
         Responsiveness- Use prototyping
         Training
         Cost-benefit analysis
         Software flexibility
         Managing Expectations
                                 Prof. Rushen Chahal

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Description: Prof. Rushen's notes for MBA and BBA students