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					Prevalence of Substance Abuse in
 Accurate assessment is difficult to achieve
  because of the sensitive and personal nature
  of the problem.
 High profile athletes struggle with drugs:
 High profile athletes and banned
Prevalence of Substance Abuse in
   Most studies have focused on alcohol and
    steroid use:
     Alcohol   use: 55% of high school athletes, over
      80% of college athletes.
     Performance-enhancing drugs: up to 5% of
      high school and college athletes report using
      them (higher % among elite athletes, especially
      in past).
Why Athletes and Exercisers Take
   Physical reasons include wanting to:
     enhance   performance
     treat injury
     look better
     control appetite and lose weight
Why Athletes and Exercisers Take
   Psychological reasons include wanting to:
     escape from unpleasant emotions or stress
     build confidence or enhance self-esteem
     get buzzed/wasted or seek fun/ excitement

   Social Reasons include:
     emulating athletic heroes
     peer pressure
Ergogenic Aids - Definition

 Any substance or treatment that
 either directly improves
 physiological variables associated
 with exercise performance or
 removes subjective restraints that
 may limit physiologic capacity
Ergogenic Aids

 Types
Doping Definition (USOC)
   “…..the administration of or use by a
    competing athlete of any substance foreign
    to the body or of any physiological
    substance taken in abnormal quantity or
    taken by an abnormal route of entry into the
    body, with the sole intention of increasing
    in an artificial manner his/her performance
    in competition is regarded as doping..”
Psychological Phenomena

 Hypnosis
 Music
 Performance Enhancement
  Techniques (PST)
 “Placebo Effect” / Superstitions
Mechanical Factors
 Clothing
 Equipment
 Heat and Cold Application
 Improved Body Mechanics
 Environment (Playing Conditions and
Pharmacological Agents
   Over the Counter Drugs:
     Caffeine,Nicotine, Amphetamines,
   “Recreational” Drugs:
     Alcohol,   Marijuana, Cocaine…….etc;
   Prescription Drugs:
     AnabolicSteroids, Benzodiazepines, Beta-
      Adrenergic Agents…….etc;
Caffeine’s Proposed
Ergogenic Effect
   Increased mental alertness/concentration
     central   nervous system stimulant
 Elevated mood
 Decreased fatigue
 Enhanced catecholamine release
 Improved muscular strength
Caffeine (Con’t)
   Effect Depends on:
      Individual caffeine status
      Individual variability
      Caffeine dosage and administration
   Illegal (>12ug/ml)
      approx.. 5-6 cups of strong coffee or 4 vivarin for a
        150 pound person consumed 2-3 hours before
   Problems:
      caffeine is a diuretic; impairs heat tolerance;
      stomach upsets; nervousness
Alcohol as an Ergogenic Aid
 source of energy (?); one beer appr. 150
  calories, 13 grams of carbohyd. and 13
  grams of alcohol
 “uneconomical” - more oxygen needed to
  metabolize a gram of alcohol than a gram of
  carbohydrates or fat
 psychological effect: reduced anxiety, less
  muscle tremor (archery, not supported by
  research); greater self-confidence
Alcohol continued
   negative effects on performance;
     increased  heart rate and oxygen
     increased blood pressure and blood lactate
     increased reaction time
     impaired hand-eye coordination and visual
     currently not banned by IOC except for
      shooting competitions
Anabolic Steroids
 Testosterone (must be injected or it will be
  destroyed by digestive enzymes)
 Anabolic Androgenic Steroids (AAS)
     synthetic  drugs designed to mimic the
      effects of testosterone; taken orally or
   Human Growth Hormone (anabolic)
     used   like steroids to increase muscle mass
   Beta Adrenergic Agents (Clenbuterol)
Ergogenic Effect and Side
Effects of AAS
 Increase muscle mass; decrease body fat;
  improve strength even without training
 Side Effects (AAS):
     acne; hair loss; male secondary sex
      characteristics like deepening of the voice;
     increased aggression, depression, hostility,
      suicide attempts, tendency to commit violent acts;
     cardiovascular disease (elevated cholesterol,
      blood pressure)
     severe liver damage;tumors (Alzado)….. etc
Effects and Side Effects of
Growth Hormone
 hormone secreted by pituitary gland;
  stimulates bone and muscle growth; effects
  protein, carbohydrate and fat metabolism
 currently no data showing ergogenic effects
  beyond the effect generated by strength
 may lead to diabetes; thickening of soft
  tissue in face, hands and feet; enlargement
  of organs such as liver
Effects and Side Effects of
Clenbuterol (asthma; illegal in
 increase lean muscle mass and strength;
  decrease body fat
 less potent than anabolic steroids
 side effects:
     tachycardia
     muscletension
     headaches and dizziness
Physiological Agents
 Bicarbonate Loading
 Blood Doping
 Erythropoietin (EPO)
 Altitude Training
 Glycerol
 Phosphate Loading
Erythropoietin - EPO
 Hormone produced by kidneys to stimulate
  the bone marrow to produce red blood cells
 Has same effect as “blood doping” and
  altitude training (more efficient use of O2)
 Illegal
 Dangers: increased blood viscosity, clotting
  potential, increased risk for stroke and heart
  failure, or pulmonary edema
Nutritional Agents / Supplements

 Amino Acid Supplementation
 Bee Pollen
 Carbohydrate Loading
 Carnitine
 Coenzyme Q-10
 Creatine Phosphate
 Water or Special Beverages
Ergogenic Effect Supported
by Research
 Legal
  Creatine Phosphate
  Caffeine
  Altitude training (equivocal)
Vitamins as Ergogenic Aids
   Bee Pollen:
     mixture   of vitamins, minerals, amino acids
      and other nutrients thought to improve
   Coenzyme Q10 (ubiquinon):
     facilitates aerobic metabolism as part of
      the electron transport chain (classified as a
   Ergogenic Effect not supported by Research
   “There is still no sphere of
   nutrition in which faddism,
misconceptions, ignorance, and
quackery are more obvious than
           in athletics..”

 (M.H. Williams in Nutrition for Fitness and
            Sport, 4th ed., 1995)

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