Joe Foss Field Airport Master Plan - Sioux Falls Regional Airport

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					       Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                         Joe Foss Field

Airport Master Plan

Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority
                    Joe Foss Field
               Sioux Falls, South Dakota

                     AIRPORT MASTER PLAN

                                 Prepared By
                              Coffman Associates
                              Airport Consultants

                                  December 2006

AThe contents of these documents reflect the views of Coffman Associates, Inc., which is
responsible for the parts and accuracy of the data contained herein. The contents do
not necessarily reflect the official views or policy of the FAA. Acceptance of these
documents by the FAA does not in any way constitute a commitment on the part of the
United States to participate in any development depicted herein nor does it indicate
that the proposed development is environmentally acceptable in accordance with
Public Laws 90-495, 91-190, 91-258, 94-343, and/or 100-223.@
Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority

                                         TABLE OF CONTENTS
Sioux Falls, South Dakota

Airport Master Plan Update


Chapter One

REGIONAL SETTING..................................................................................... 1-1
     Infrastructure........................................................................................ 1-2
     Climate .................................................................................................. 1-2
     Utilities .................................................................................................. 1-3
AIRPORT SYSTEM PLANNING ROLE......................................................... 1-4
AIRPORT HISTORY AND ADMINISTRATION............................................ 1-4
COMMERCIAL AIR SERVICE....................................................................... 1-5
CARGO SERVICE ........................................................................................... 1-5
AIRPORT FACILITIES ................................................................................... 1-5
     Airside Facilities ................................................................................... 1-5
     Landside Facilities .............................................................................. 1-11
     Air Cargo Facilities ............................................................................. 1-12
ENROUTE NAVIGATION AND AIRSPACE ............................................... 1-15
     Instrument Approach Procedures ...................................................... 1-16
     Vicinity Airspace ................................................................................. 1-16
     Air Traffic Control............................................................................... 1-18
     Area Airports ....................................................................................... 1-18
Chapter One (Continued)

GENERALIZED LAND USE......................................................................... 1-20
SOCIOECONOMIC CHARACTERISTICS................................................... 1-20
     Population............................................................................................ 1-20
     Employment ........................................................................................ 1-21
     Per Capita Personal Income ............................................................... 1-22
SUMMARY..................................................................................................... 1-23
DOCUMENT SOURCES ............................................................................... 1-23

Chapter Two

NATIONAL AVIATION TRENDS .................................................................. 2-2
     Commercial Aviation............................................................................. 2-2
     Air Cargo ............................................................................................... 2-6
     General Aviation ................................................................................... 2-8
FORECASTING APPROACH ....................................................................... 2-10
AVIATION ACTIVITY FORECASTS ........................................................... 2-11
     Commercial Service............................................................................. 2-11
     Air Cargo Forecasts............................................................................. 2-17
     General Aviation Forecasts ................................................................ 2-19
     Peaking Characteristics ...................................................................... 2-29
     Air Taxi Operations............................................................................. 2-30
     Military Operations............................................................................. 2-31
     Annual Instrument Approaches ......................................................... 2-32
SUMMARY..................................................................................................... 2-32

Chapter Three

AIRFIELD REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................ 3-2
     Airfield Design Standards .................................................................... 3-4
AIRFIELD CAPACITY .................................................................................... 3-6
     Factors Affecting Annual Service Volume ........................................... 3-6
     Calculation of Annual Service Volume................................................. 3-9
AIRSIDE FACILITIES .................................................................................. 3-10
     Runway Orientation............................................................................ 3-10
Taxiways......................................................................................................... 3-14
     Airfield Marking, Lighting, and Signage ........................................... 3-14
     Navigational and Approach Aids........................................................ 3-15
Chapter Three (Continued)

LANDSIDE REQUIREMENTS..................................................................... 3-17
    Gross Terminal Building Area............................................................ 3-18
    Terminal Area Automobile Parking ................................................... 3-18
    Airport Traffic Control Tower Siting Considerations........................ 3-19
GENERAL AVIATION REQUIREMENTS .................................................. 3-20
    Hangars ............................................................................................... 3-20
    Aircraft Parking Apron ....................................................................... 3-21
CARGO REQUIREMENTS ........................................................................... 3-22
SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS....................................................................... 3-23
    Aircraft Rescue and Firefighting........................................................ 3-23
    Airport Maintenance/Storage Facilities ............................................. 3-23
    Fuel Storage ........................................................................................ 3-23
SUMMARY..................................................................................................... 3-24

Chapter Four

BACKGROUND ............................................................................................... 4-2
INITIAL DEVELOPMENT CONSIDERATIONS .......................................... 4-3
 ALTERNATIVES ........................................................................................... 4-4
     No Action Alternative ........................................................................... 4-4
     Transfer of Services to Another Airport ............................................... 4-4
     Development of a New Airport ............................................................. 4-5
AIRFIELD CONSIDERATIONS..................................................................... 4-5
     Runways ................................................................................................ 4-5
     Taxiways................................................................................................ 4-6
     Airport Traffic Control Tower............................................................... 4-6
     Navigational Aids.................................................................................. 4-7
TERMINAL BUILDING ALTERNATIVES.................................................... 4-7
     Ticketing and Bag Make-Up................................................................. 4-9
     Bag Claim and F.I.S............................................................................ 4-10
     Boarding Concourse ............................................................................ 4-10
GENERAL AVIATION ALTERNATIVES .................................................... 4-11
AIR CARGO ALTERNATIVES ..................................................................... 4-13
 AND MAINTENANCE FACILITIES.......................................................... 4-14
SUMMARY..................................................................................................... 4-15
Chapter Five

RECOMMENDED MASTER PLAN CONCEPT ............................................ 5-1
     Airfield Design Standards .................................................................... 5-2
     Airfield Recommendations.................................................................... 5-3
     Terminal Area Recommendations ........................................................ 5-4
     Air Cargo Recommendations ................................................................ 5-5
     General Aviation Recommendations .................................................... 5-5
NOISE EXPOSURE ANALYSIS..................................................................... 5-6
AIRPORT LAYOUT PLAN DRAWINGS ...................................................... 5-12
     Airport Data Sheet .............................................................................. 5-13
     Airport Layout Plan ............................................................................ 5-13
     Landside Facility Drawing ................................................................. 5-13
     Airport Airspace Drawings ................................................................. 5-13
     Inner Approach Surface Drawings ..................................................... 5-14
     Airport Land Use Drawing ................................................................. 5-15
     Property Map....................................................................................... 5-15
SUMMARY..................................................................................................... 5-15

Chapter Six

 COST SUMMARIES ...................................................................................... 6-2
CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS FUNDING....................................................... 6-6
     Federal Grants ...................................................................................... 6-6
     Passenger Facility Charges .................................................................. 6-9
     Local Share Funding ........................................................................... 6-10
IMPLEMENTATION..................................................................................... 6-11


1A       AIRPORT LOCATION/VICINITY MAP ............................ after page 1-2
1B       EXISTING AIRSIDE FACILITIES .................................... after page 1-6
1C       EXISTING LANDSIDE FACILITIES ................................ after page 1-8
1D       TERMINAL BUILDING LAYOUT................................... after page 1-12
1E       REGIONAL AIRSPACE MAP .......................................... after page 1-16
EXHIBITS (Continued)

        REGIONAL/COMMUTER FORECASTS........................... after page 2-4
2B      U.S. AIR CARGO FORECASTS ......................................... after page 2-8
        AIRCRAFT FORECASTS ................................................. after page 2-10
        AND NON-STOP FLIGHTS ............................................. after page 2-12
2E      ENPLANEMENT FORECAST SUMMARY .................... after page 2-16
2F      BASED AIRCRAFT FORECAST SUMMARY ................. after page 2-26
2G      FORECAST SUMMARY ................................................... after page 2-32

3A      AIRPORT REFERENCE CODES....................................... after page 3-4
3B      AIRFIELD CAPACITY FACTORS..................................... after page 3-6
3C      DEMAND VS. CAPACITY................................................ after page 3-10
3D      WINDROSE....................................................................... after page 3-12
3E      PAVEMENT CONDITION OVERVIEW.......................... after page 3-14
         REQUIREMENTS........................................................... after page 3-18

4A      AIRFIELD CONSIDERATIONS ........................................ after page 4-6
4B      TERMINAL AREA ALTERNATIVE .................................................... 4-8
4C      GENERAL AVIATION ALTERNATIVE.......................... after page 4-11
4D      GENERAL AVIATION WEST ALTERNATIVE................................ 4-13
4E      AIR CARGO AREA ALTERNATIVE ................................................. 4-14

5A      MASTER PLAN CONCEPT ............................................... after page 5-2
5B      2005 AIRCRAFT NOISE EXPOSURE ............................. after page 5-12
5C      2025 AIRCRAFT NOISE EXPOSURE ............................. after page 5-12

AIRPORT DATA .......................................................................... after page 5-15
AIRPORT LAYOUT DRAWING ................................................. after page 5-15
LANDSIDE FACILITIES DRAWING......................................... after page 5-15
 RUNWAY 3 APPROACH FAN.................................................. after page 5-15
 PART 77 INNER SURFACES ................................................... after page 5-15
 RUNWAY 21 APPROACH FAN................................................ after page 5-15
SIOUX FALLS REGIONAL AIRPORT (AERIAL 4/22/06) ........ after page 5-15
 APPROACH SURFACES DRAWING....................................... after page 5-15
 APPROACH SURFACES DRAWING....................................... after page 5-15
EXHIBITS (Continued)

 APPROACH SURFACES DRAWING....................................... after page 5-15
 APPROACH SURFACES DRAWING....................................... after page 5-15
 APPROACH SURFACES DRAWING....................................... after page 5-15
 APPROACH SURFACES DRAWING....................................... after page 5-15
AIRPORT LAND USE DRAWING.............................................. after page 5-15
AIRPORT PROPERTY MAP ....................................................... after page 5-15

6A     DEVELOPMENT STAGING .............................................. after page 6-6
        HISTORY........................................................................... after page 6-8

1      LAND USE COMPATIBILITY GUIDELINES..................after page D-2
2      2025 AIRCRAFT NOISE EXPOSURE ...............................after page D-4
        ZONING...........................................................................after page D-10
        FUTURE LAND USE .....................................................after page D-12

Appendix A

Appendix B

Appendix C

Appendix D
Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority

                                                                   Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority

The Airport Master Plan for Sioux Falls            • Expansion of general aviation apron for
Regional Airport was undertaken during               air cargo operations and transient busi-
calendar year 2006 to evaluate the                   ness aircraft, and in conjunction with
airport's capabilities and role, to forecast         future development of storage hangars.
future aviation demand, and to plan for
the timely development of new or                   • Construction of hold aprons for Run-
expanded facilities that may be required             ways 3 and 33, and a new cross-field
to meet that demand. The overall goal of             taxiway between exits A3 and B2 to
the plan is to provide systematic                    improve traffic flow on the airfield.
guidelines for the airport's maintenance,
development, and operation.                        • Construction of partial parallel
                                                     taxiways on the west side of the
The final recommendations of the study               airfield (designated as M and N) to
provide for the following airfield items:            serve future storage hangars and
                                                     aviation-related development.
• Continuing rehabilitation of airfield
  pavements, including portions of                 • Upgrades to airfield lighting and
  Runway 15-33, the terminal apron,                  equipment to provide lower visibility
  and Taxiways A2, A, B, and C.                      minimums for aircraft approaches to
                                                     Runways 3-21 and 15-33.

•    Relocation of perimeter road,           Other improvements recommended in
     fencing, and localizer antenna          the study relate to air cargo, general
     to provide a full 1,000-foot            aviation, airport rescue and fire-
     safety area beyond the end of           fighting, airport maintenance and
     Runway 21.                              snow removal, and access to aviation-
                                             related facilities:
•    A new airport traffic control
     tower to provide improved line-         •     Relocation of snow removal
     of-sight.                                     equipment (SRE) and mainte-
                                                   nance facilities to new facilities
The study recommends a number of                   on the west side of the airfield
improvements to the commercial pas-                (south of the South Dakota
senger terminal:                                   Army National Guard facili-
                                                   ties). These facilities will be ac-
•    In-line bag screening (to be lo-              cessed from an extension of Na-
     cated behind ticketing counters)              tional Guard Drive, and by a
     and relocation of ticketing                   connector to Taxiway A.
     counters to provide improved
     passenger circulation in the            •     Construction of additional air
     lobby.                                        cargo sort building and truck
                                                   court in area vacated by SRE
•    Extension of bag claim lobby                  and airport maintenance facili-
     (relocation of back wall) and                 ties.
     carousels to enlarge the lobby.
                                             •     Construction of additional gen-
•    Relieving congestion at the se-               eral aviation storage hangars on
     curity checkpoint by relocating               the east side, while also extend-
     the glass partition and replac-               ing infrastructure into areas on
     ing moving walkways with tra-                 the west side for aviation-
     ditional escalators.   Creating               related development.
     additional area for screening
     positions by relocating security        •     Expansion of the airport rescue
     company offices.                              and firefighting facility.

•    Adding a jet loading bridge at          In total, the program is estimated to
     Gate 2, expanding hold rooms,           cost $107 million over the 20-year
     and adding restrooms on the             planning period (in constant 2006 dol-
     departure concourse. Also, add-         lars).   A high percentage of this
     ing electronic screens at Gate 3        amount will be eligible for funding
     for multiple airline use.               through the Airport Improvement
                                             Program (AIP).
•    Provision for expansion of pub-
     lic parking, rental car parking,        The Airport Master Plan was a coop-
     and construction of additional          erative effort between the consultant,
     departure concourse if demand           the Sioux Falls Regional Airport Au-
     dictates.                               thority, and a cross-section of commu-
nity, government, and airport tenants           years. However, to maintain the air-
organized as a Planning Advisory                port’s role as a primary commercial
Committee (PAC) for the study. The              service airport, flexibility needs to be
committee met four times during the             built into the plan. Each year, the
course of the study to review draft             Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority
study materials and provide comments            will be required to submit capital im-
to the consultants. These meetings              provement needs to the FAA, based
were held at three-month intervals,             upon current demands. These de-
with materials mailed to committee              mands may change if passengers or
members ten days prior to each meet-            operations increase at varying rates.
ing.   In addition, special meetings
were held during the alternatives               Advice and assistance provided by the
evaluation to solicit ideas on terminal         members of the Planning Advisory
building improvements.                          Committee, Sioux Falls Regional Air-
                                                port Authority, and airport staff were
The primary issues and objectives               invaluable. We gratefully acknowl-
upon which the Airport Master Plan is           edge their input and support through-
based will remain valid for many                out the planning process.

Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority    Chapter One
CHAPTER ONE                                                       Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority

The initial step in the preparation of the         other planning studies, the Federal
airport master plan for Sioux Falls                Aviation Administration (FAA), various
Regional Airport/Joe Foss Field (FSD) is           government agencies, a number of
the collection of information pertaining           Internet sites which presently summarize
to the airport and the area it serves. The         most statistical information and facts
information collected in this chapter will         about the airport, and interviews with
be used in subsequent analyses in this             airport staff, planning associations, and
study.     The inventory of existing               airport tenants. As with any airport
conditions at the airport provides an              planning study, an attempt has been
overview of the airport facilities,                made to utilize existing data or
airspace, and air traffic control.                 information provided in existing
Background information regarding the               planning documents to the maximum
regional area is also collected and                extent possible.
presented. This includes information
regarding the airportís role in regional,
state, and national aviation systems,              REGIONAL SETTING
surface transportation, and a socio-
economic profile.                                  The airport is located in Sioux Falls,
                                                   which is the county seat of Minnehaha
The information was obtained from                  County. The city is named for the Sioux
several sources, including on-site                 tribe of American Indians and the
inspections, airport records, review of            waterfalls of the Big Sioux River, which
                                                   is located a few blocks from the

downtown district.      Pioneers first          provides service nation-wide, with
staked claims on the banks of the Big           over 25,000 miles of track accommo-
Sioux River prior to the Civil War in           dating all types of materials. The
1856. For the next six years, settlers          Ellis and Eastern Railroads provide
claimed land along the river until the          service within the city and connects
Dakota War of 1862 engulfed nearby              with BNSF.
southwestern Minnesota and caused
the evacuation of Sioux Falls.                  Over 50 truck lines serve Sioux Falls,
                                                with many maintaining terminal fa-
Many residents returned in the follow-          cilities locally. Leading national and
ing years, along with a wave of new             regional carriers serving the area are
homesteaders who brought the popu-              capable of handing all types of freight.
lation up to 2,100 by 1880. This made
Sioux Falls the largest city in the Da-         Small package delivery, including
kota Territory. The village of Sioux            overnight air carrier service, is readily
Falls was incorporated in 1876 and              available in Sioux Falls. UPS, FedEx,
became a city in March 1889.                    and DHL have air cargo facilities at
                                                Joe Foss Field and operate jet aircraft
                                                on a daily basis. Sioux Falls also
INFRASTRUCTURE                                  houses a district terminal for UPS,
                                                and a FedEx facility is located in the
The City of Sioux Falls is located at           Sioux Empire Development Park.
the junction of two Interstate High-
ways (I-29 and I-90). I-90, joining             Sioux Falls Transit provides public
Boston and Seattle, is one of the five          transportation throughout the city. A
coast-to-coast east-west freeways. I-29         free trolley service is also available
runs north-south and joins Kansas               year-round for the downtown area and
City with Winnipeg. I-229 joins I-29            travels to Falls Park from May
with I-90 south and east of the city,           through October.
creating an interstate loop to enhance
traffic flow. Minnesota Avenue pro-
vides direct access to the airport.             CLIMATE

Regionally, Sioux Falls is located ap-          Weather conditions are important to
proximately 180 miles north of                  the planning and development of an
Omaha, Nebraska; 246 miles south of             airport. Temperature is an important
Fargo, North Dakota; and 270 miles              factor in determining runway length
southwest of Minneapolis, Minnesota.            requirements, while wind direction
The location of the airport in its re-          and speed are used to determine opti-
gional and national setting is pre-             mum runway orientation. The need
sented on Exhibit 1A.                           for navigational aids and lighting is
                                                determined by the percentage of time
Rail service to and from Sioux Falls is         that visibility is impaired due to cloud
provided by the Burlington Northern             coverage or other conditions. Table
Santa Fe (BNSF) Railroad. BNSF                  1A summarizes monthly climatic data


                   LOCATION MAP


                                                                              W. 60th St. N.                                                                                                                                                                                                                  E. 60th St. N.

                                                                                            SIOUX FALLS
                                             W. Benson Rd.                               REGIONAL AIRPORT                                                                                                                       115
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          E. Benson Rd.

                                                                                          JOE FOSS FIELD

                                                                                                                   N. Westport Ave.
                                                                                                                   N. Westport Ave.
                                                                                                                   N. Westport Ave.

                                                              N. Marion Rd.
                                                              N. Marion Rd.
                                                              N. Marion Rd.

                                                                                                                                                          W. Russell St.

                                            W. Madison St.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       E. 12th St.
                                                                                           W. 12th St.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            S. Minnesota Ave.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            S. Minnesota Ave.
                                                                                                                                                                                                            S. Minnesota Ave.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     S. Cleveland Ave.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 S. Sycamore Ave.
                                                                                                                                                               S. Western Ave.
                                                                                                                                         Kiwanis Ave.

                                                                                                                                                                                      S. Lake Ave.
                                                                                                                                                                                      S. Lake Ave.
                                                                                                                                                                                      S. Lake Ave.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          S. Cliff Ave.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          S. Cliff Ave.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          S. Cliff Ave.

                                          W. 26th St.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      E. 26th St.


                                                                                                                                                                                             W. 41st St.                                                                                                                                                   E. 41st St.
                        S. Sertoma Ave.

                                                              S. Marion Rd.
                                                              S. Marion Rd.
                                                              S. Marion Rd.

                                                                                                 S. Louise Ave.

                                                                                                                             W. 57th St.                                                                                                                                                                                                            E. 57th St.

                                                                                                                                      W. 69th St.                                                                                                                                                                E. 69th St.

                   VICINITY MAP
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Volga                             14
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             Brookings 29

                                                                                                                                                        Fort Thompson
                   14                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Flandreau
                                                                                                                                                                                                       Wessington Springs
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Howard                           Madison
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Dell Rapids
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 90                                          Hartford                         Brandon
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Sioux Falls                                           MINNESOTA
                                                                                                                  Winner                                                                                                        281                       Parkston                                                               T
                                                                                    18                                                                                                                 Platte                                                                  Freeman                                                                    Canton
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         81                    Lennox
                                                                                                                                                               Gregory                                                                                                                                              18
                                                   Rosebud                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          29
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Wagner                                                                                                             Beresford
                                                                                   SOUTH DAKOTA                                                                                                                                                                      Tyndall
                                                                                           NEBRASKA                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Alcester

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Exhibit 1A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          AIRPORT LOCATION/VICINITY MAP
for the City of Sioux Falls, including           viewed in Chapter Three of the master
temperatures and precipitation. Wind             plan.
data for 30-year conditions will be re-

Climate Summary
Sioux Falls, South Dakota
                    Avg. High          Avg. Low           Precipitation   Avg. Snowfall
                  Temperature        Temperature              (inches)      (inches)
January               25°F                 3°F                   0.51          6.8
February              32°F                10°F                   0.51          8.2
March                 44°F                21°F                   1.81          9.4
April                 59°F                33°F                   2.65          2.8
May                   71°F                45°F                   3.39          0.0
June                  81°F                55°F                   3.49          0.0
July                  86°F                60°F                   2.93          0.0
August                83°F                58°F                   3.01          0.0
September             74°F                48°F                   2.58          0.0
October               61°F                35°F                   1.93          0.8
November              42°F                21°F                   1.36          5.8
December              29°F                 8°F                   0.52          7.2
Source: (Averages based on a 30-year period).

UTILITIES                                        sota Avenue, the department also
                                                 owns six elevated water storage tanks,
Five sources of water are available to           five underground storage tanks, and
the City of Sioux Falls. In 2004, the            over 60 wells. Several of these wells
Big Sioux Aquifer provided nearly 50             are located on airport property.
percent of the City’s water. The Big
Sioux River provides approximately 46            Xcel Energy provides electricity to
percent of the water from a pump sta-            over 90 percent of the electrical cus-
tion, while the Middle Skunk Creek               tomers in Sioux Falls. In rural areas
Aquifer produces approximately six               of Minnehaha County, electrical ser-
percent, and the Split Rock Creek Aq-            vice is provided by Sioux Valley En-
uifer produces approximately two per-            ergy.    In rural areas of Lincoln
cent. Residents in rural communities             County, electrical service is provided
throughout Minnehaha and Lincoln                 by Southeastern Electric Cooperative.
Counties are served by local munici-             Natural gas in Sioux Falls is provided
palities, rural water systems, or indi-          by MidAmerican Energy Company.
vidual water sources. The Sioux Falls
Department of Water Reclamation                  Long distance telephone service is
oversees the wastewater treatment for            provided by a number of national ser-
the City. In addition to operating the           vice providers and other independent
purification plant located on Minne-             resellers.

AIRPORT SYSTEM                                    southwest Minnesota, and northwest
PLANNING ROLE                                     Iowa. The airport offers scheduled
                                                  passenger service, overnight cargo,
Airport planning exists on many lev-              complete general aviation services,
els: local, state, and national. Each             and a U.S. Customs Port of Entry.
level has a different emphasis and
purpose. An airport master plan is                The airport was originally established
the primary local airport planning                in 1937 as a civil airport. In 1942, the
document.                                         U.S. Government leased the airport
                                                  from the City of Sioux Falls and estab-
At the national level, the airport is in-         lished the Sioux Falls Army Base. Be-
cluded in the National Plan of Inte-              tween 1942 and 1947, the United
grated Airport Systems (NPIAS). This              States Corp of Engineers developed
plan identifies 3,344 existing airports           the triangular, three runway system
which are significant to national air             that currently exists at the airport.
transportation, as well as airport de-            Following World War II, the govern-
velopment necessary to meet the pre-              ment returned the airport to the city
sent and future requirements in sup-              with a portion of the south side of the
port of civil needs. An airport must be           airport being leased to the newly
included in the NPIAS to be eligible              formed South Dakota Air National
for federal funding assistance. Sioux             Guard (SDANG). South Dakota’s 114th
Falls Regional Airport is classified as           Fighter Group, nicknamed Lobos, is
a non-hub primary commercial service              currently stationed at the airport. The
airport in the NPIAS. Commercial                  airport is named after Brig. General
service airports that enplane less than           Joseph J. Foss, a former governor of
0.05 percent of all commercial passen-            South Dakota, a WWII ace, and foun-
ger enplanements are categorized as               der of the State’s Air National Guard.
non-hub primary airports. There are
247 non-hub primary airports that to-             The overall administration and devel-
gether account for three percent of all           opment responsibility for the airport
enplanements.       These airports are            lies with the Sioux Falls Regional Air-
used heavily by general aviation air-             port Authority. The Sioux Falls Re-
craft, with an average of 99 based air-           gional Airport Authority was created
craft.                                            on May 12, 1986, replacing the Sioux
                                                  Falls Airport Board, which reported to
                                                  the City Council.
AIRPORT HISTORY                                   The present authority board is made
AND ADMINISTRATION                                up of five members appointed by the
                                                  mayor for the City of Sioux Falls.
The Sioux Falls Regional Airport, also            Each member is appointed for a five-
known as Joe Foss Field, is located               year term. The airport board annually
approximately two miles northwest of              elects three of its members to Chair-
the city’s central business district. It          man, Vice-Chairman, and Secretary
is the largest airport in South Dakota            positions. Day-to-day operations and
and serves southeast South Dakota,                administration for the airport are car-
ried out by the Executive Director and           numerous changes in the schedules
the Deputy Director for the airport au-          during the preparation of the airport
thority, selected and employed by the            master plan.

                                                 CARGO SERVICE
                                                 Three all-cargo carriers have facilities
Five airlines currently provide sched-           at Sioux Falls Regional Airport. DHL
uled passenger service to Sioux Falls            operates the DC9-30/40, FedEx oper-
Regional Airport. Allegiant Air oper-            ates the Boeing 727-200, and UPS op-
ates the McDonnell Douglas MD83                  erates a variety of aircraft, including
(161 seats) and the MD87 (130 seats).            the Airbus A300-600, the Boeing 757-
Delta Connection operates the 50-seat            200, the Boeing 767-300, and the
Canadair Regional Jet CRJ and the                McDonnell Douglas DC8-71/73. Addi-
44-seat CR4. Northwest Airlines op-              tional cargo is handled by both the
erates the Airbus A319 (124 seats),              passenger airlines and general avia-
the Airbus A320 (150 seats), the                 tion.
McDonnell Douglas DC9-30/40/50
(110/110/115 seats), the 85-seat Avro
regional jet, and the 33-seat Saab 340           AIRPORT FACILITIES
(SFC) prop jet. United Express oper-
ated the 50-seat CRJ and the 66-seat             Airport facilities can be functionally
CRJ700. America West operated the                classified into two broad categories:
50-seat CRJ, but ceased operations at            airside and landside.      The airside
Sioux Falls Regional Airport on April            category includes those facilities di-
2, 2006.                                         rectly associated with aircraft opera-
                                                 tions. The landside category includes
Together these five airlines offer con-          those facilities necessary to provide a
nections to over 200 domestic cities, as         safe transition from surface to air
well as many international destina-              transportation and to support aircraft
tions. There are 23 daily direct flights         servicing, storage, maintenance, and
to Chicago, Cincinnati, Denver, Las              operational safety.
Vegas, Minneapolis/St. Paul, Orlando,
and Salt Lake City. Las Vegas is the
most popular destination for passen-             AIRSIDE FACILITIES
gers flying out of Sioux Falls, followed
by Denver, and then Chicago. The cur-            Airside facilities include runways,
rent consolidated airline schedule may           taxiways, airfield lighting, and navi-
be accessed at                gational aides. Airside facilities are
Airlines continually adjust equipment            identified on Exhibit 1B. Table 1B
(aircraft and available seats) in mar-           summarizes airside facility data.
kets to meet demand. There were


                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Diversion Channel
                                                                                                                                                                     BNSF Railroad

                                                                                                                                                             Jaycee Ln.
                                                      Minnesota Ave.                          Jo

                                                                                                                                  Hangar St.
                                                                                                         rD                                                                                                                                                                 Sioux Falls
                                                                     .                                                                                                                                                                                                      Water Plant
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                                                                         LS                                                  Aviation Ave.
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                                                                                                                                                                                   A                         ’                                      635’
                                                                                                                                                                                                 x     150
                                                                                                                                                         Tax                                 00’

                                                                                                                                                                                     8,0                         Segmented


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           2’ x 7

                                                                          ILS Glideslope                                                                                      15                                 Circle and
                                                                                                                                                                          y                                      Wind Cone
                                                                                Antenna                 BAK 14                                               wa

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                                                                                    PAPI-4L        A4                                                    Ru                                           Ta                                                         South Dakota
                                                                                                                                                                 nw                    B-2               x
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                                                                                                                 Barrier                                                                               15


                                                                                                                                                                                                                       BAK 14


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                                                                                                                                               Si                                                                                                                           B-1
                                                                                                                                                        Ri                                                       ILS Glideslope                               PAPI-4L
                                                                                                                                                               r                                                       Antenna
                     0          1000                          2000

                            SCALE IN FEET

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Elmwood Municipal Golf Course
                         PHOTO DATE: 4-22-06

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Exhibit 1B
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  EXISTING AIRSIDE FACILITIES
Airside Facility Data
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                                 3-21                   15-33             9-27
Runway Length (feet)                             8,999                 8,000             3,152
Runway Width (feet)                               150                   150                75
Runway Surface Material                        Concrete               Asphalt          Concrete
Surface Treatment                            Wired/Combed              PFC           Wired/Combed
Condition                                        Good                  Good              Good
Pavement Markings                              Precision            Nonprecision         Basic
Runway Load Bearing Strengths (lbs)
 Single Wheel Loading                         200,000                  150,000           30,000
 Double Wheel Loading                         200,000                  175,000              -
 Dual Tandem Wheel Loading                    444,000                  260,000              -
Runway Lighting                                HIRL                     HIRL             MIRL
                                          Centerline Lights
                                      Touchdown Zone Lights (21)
Taxiway Lighting                                                   MITL
Approach Lighting                           MALSR (3-21)           PAPI-4L (15-         None
                                             PAPI-4L (3)               33)
                                            VASI-4L (21)
Instrument Approach Procedures                                  ILS (Runway 3-21)
                                                            RNAV (GPS) (All Runways)
                                                               VOR (Runway 15-33)
Weather or Navigational Aids                     Automated Surface Observation System (ASOS)
                                                                 Segmented Circle
                                                                Lighted Wind Cone
Source: Airport/Facility Directory, North Central U.S., current edition.

  Runways                                             aid in aircraft braking. This runway
                                                      typically serves as the secondary air
  Three runways are available for use at              carrier runway and is capable of sup-
  Sioux Falls Regional Airport. Runway                porting general aviation, as well as
  3-21, which is oriented in a northeast-             commercial passenger airline traffic.
  southwest direction, serves as the                  Runway 9-27 is 3,152 feet long, 75 feet
  primary air carrier runway and is                   wide, and oriented in an east-west di-
  8,999 feet long and 150 feet wide.                  rection. It is constructed of concrete
  Runway 3-21 is constructed of con-                  with a wire combed surface. Designed
  crete with a wire combed surface,                   primarily for general aviation aircraft,
  which yields better water drainage                  Runway 9-27 also serves as a taxiway
  and pavement skid resistance. Run-                  for the primary runway.
  way 15-33 is 8,000 feet long, 150 feet
  wide, and oriented in a southeast-                  Runway blast pads are located on the
  northwest direction. Runway 15-33 is                end of Runways 3, 15, and 33. In ad-
  constructed of asphalt with a porous                dition, the paved overrun on Runway
  friction course surface treatment to                21 also serves as a blast pad. Runway
blast pads provide blast erosion pro-             Taxiways
tection beyond runway ends. A hold-
ing bay is provided on the end of Run-            The existing taxiway system at Sioux
way 15 and Runway 21. Holding bays                Falls Regional Airport, as illustrated
provide a standard space for airplanes            on Exhibit 1B, consists of full-length,
awaiting final air traffic control clear-         parallel, connecting taxiways.
ance and permit those airplanes al-
ready cleared to move to their runway             •   Taxiway A is a full-length parallel
takeoff position.                                     taxiway located on the north side of
                                                      Runway 15-33 and is 75 feet wide.
Runway arresting barriers are in-                     The distance between the Runway
stalled on both ends of Runway 3-21                   15-33 centerline and the Taxiway A
and Runway 15-33. The South Dakota                    centerline is 400 feet. Access to the
Air National Guard uses this system                   air carrier apron, from all points on
in the event of an emergency landing                  the runway and taxiway system, is
with the F-16 fighter jets. The pilot                 made using Taxiway A. Five con-
lowers an aircraft tail hook designed                 necting taxiways (A1 - A5) provide
to catch a cable that is stretched                    for the quick exit of landing air-
across the runway.                                    craft on Runway 15-33.

The load bearing strengths of each                •   Taxiway B is a full-length parallel
runway were also examined. Single                     taxiway for primary Runway 3-21.
wheel loading (SWL) refers to the de-                 It is located along the east side of
sign of certain aircraft landing gear                 Runway 3-21 and is 75 feet wide.
which has a single wheel on each main                 Taxiway B is 660 feet from the
landing gear strut. Dual wheel land-                  Runway 3-21 centerline on the
ing (DWL) refers to the design of cer-                north end and 560 feet on the
tain aircraft landing gear which has                  south end. There are four connect-
two wheels on each main landing gear                  ing taxiways (B1 - B4) between
strut. Dual tandem wheel loading                      Runway 3-21 and Taxiway B.
(DTWL) refers to the aircraft landing                 Taxiways B3 and B4 provide access
gear struts with a tandem set of dual                 to the east air cargo ramp from the
wheels on each main landing gear                      north end of the runway.
strut. The load bearing strengths for
each runway is as follows: Runway 3-              •   Taxiway C serves as the parallel
21: 200,000 pounds SWL, 200,000                       taxiway for Runway 9-27 and lies
pounds DWL, and 444,000 pounds                        along the north side of the South
DTWL; Runway 15-33: 150,000                           Dakota Air National Guard apron.
pounds SWL, 175,000 pounds DWL,                       Two connecting taxiways provide
and 260,000 pounds DTWL; and Run-                     access between Taxiway C and
way 9-27: 30,000 pounds SWL.                          Runways 3-21 and 15-33.

•   Taxiway D is an access taxiway              Helipad
    connecting the south portion of the
    general aviation apron with Taxi-           A 50-foot by 50-foot asphalt helipad
    way A. Taxiway D is 50 feet wide            with perimeter lights is located adja-
    and designed for general aviation           cent to the general aviation apron. Its
    use.                                        location is noted on Exhibit 1C.

•   Taxiway E provides midpoint ac-
    cess from the general aviation              Airfield Lighting
    apron to the intersection of Taxi-
    ways A and B. Taxiway E is 50               Airfield lighting systems extend an
    feet wide and designed for general          airport’s usefulness into periods of
    aviation use.                               darkness and/or poor visibility. A va-
                                                riety of lighting systems are installed
•   Taxiway F connects the north por-           at the airport for this purpose. These
    tion of the general aviation apron          lighting systems, categorized by func-
    with Taxiway B. Taxiway F is 50             tion, are summarized as follows:
    feet wide and designed for general
    aviation use.                               Identification Lighting: The loca-
                                                tion of the airport at night is univer-
•   Taxiway G is an access taxiway              sally identified by a rotating beacon.
    connecting the south end of the             A rotating beacon projects two beams
    east cargo ramp with taxiway B.             of light, one white and one green, 180
                                                degrees apart. The rotating beacon at
•   Taxiway H is an access taxiway              Sioux Falls Regional Airport is located
    that extends from the south end of          near the center of the airfield, east of
    the east cargo ramp to Taxiway B,           Runway 3-21 and north of Runway 9-
    connecting with Taxiway B3.                 27.

•   Taxiway J provides midpoint ac-             Pavement Edge Lighting: Pave-
    cess from the east cargo ramp to            ment edge lighting utilizes light fix-
    Taxiway B.                                  tures placed near the edge of the
                                                pavement to define the lateral limits
•   Taxiway K provides the only ac-             of the pavement. This lighting is es-
    cess to the west ramp, extending            sential for safe operations during
    northwest from the end of Runway            night and/or times of low visibility in
    21.                                         order to maintain safe and efficient
                                                access to and from the runway and
•   Taxiway L is a connecting taxi-             aircraft parking areas. Runways 3-21
    way providing access between                and 15-33 are equipped with high in-
    Taxiway C and the end of Runway             tensity runway lighting (HIRL), while


                                                                                                                                                                        Diversion Channel

                                                                                                                                                   BNSF Railroad

                                                               Minnesota Ave.

                                                                                                                                                                                                      Jaycee Ln.
                                                                                                                               Weather Bureau                               School of
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                                                                                                                                                              7                                                                                         rki

                                                                                                Weather Ln.
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                                                                                                              Airport                           Executive                                   8
                                                                                                              Maintenance                       Hangars                                                                                                                             Terminal
                                                                                                              Buildings                                                                                   T-hangars                                                                 Building
                                                                                                                                                                          Hangars                                                                                                   Complex

                                                            East                                                                                                  5
                                                                                                                         UPS                                                                         Air Freight
                                                              Cargo                                                                     6   T-hangar                                                   Building
                                                                  Ramp                                                                                                Aviation Ave.
                                                                    J                                                                                                         1             2a
                                                                              UPS/U.S. Customs                                                                                         2b                                                             Air Carrier Apron

                                                                                                                                                Aviation                                         Business
                                                                                            G                                                                                                    Aviation
                                                                                                                                         Sioux Valley
                                                                                                                                         Hangar                   General Aviation Apron


                                                                                                                                              Ta                                   E
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                                                                                                          3-2                                                                                                                  0  0’ x
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                         PHOTO DATE: 4-22-06

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Exhibit 1C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        EXISTING LANDSIDE FACILITIES
Runway 9-27 is equipped with me-                The approach ends of Runway 3-21
dium intensity runway lighting                  are equipped with a Medium Intensity
(MIRL). Taxiways at the airport are             Approach Lighting System with Run-
equipped with medium intensity taxi-            way Alignment Indicator Lights
way lighting (MITL).                            (MALSR). A MALSR provides visual
                                                guidance to landing aircraft by radiat-
In-Runway Lighting: Touchdown                   ing light beams in a directional pat-
zone lighting (TDZL) and runway cen-            tern by which the pilot aligns the air-
terline lighting (CL) systems are in-           craft with the extended centerline of
stalled on Runway 21 (TDZL) and                 the runway.
Runway 3-21 (CL). These systems fa-
cilitate landing under adverse weather
conditions. TDZL consists of two rows           Runway End
of transverse light bars placed sym-            Identification Lighting
metrically about the runway center-
line in the runway touchdown zone.              Runway end identifier lights (REILs)
CL consists of a flush mounted system           provide rapid and positive identifica-
of lights (beginning 75 feet beyond the         tion of the approach end of a runway.
runway threshold) extending down the            REILs are typically used on runways
runway at 50-foot intervals. A compo-           without more sophisticated approach
nent of this system is runway remain-           lighting systems. The REIL system
ing lighting, which is installed in the         consists of two synchronized flashing
final 3,000 feet of the runway. Alter-          lights, located laterally on each side of
nate red and white lights are seen              the runway facing the approaching
from the 3,000-foot point to the 1,000-         aircraft. REILs are installed on both
foot point, and red lights are seen for         ends of Runway 3-21.
the last 1,000 feet of runway.
                                                Pilot-Controlled Lighting: All air-
Visual Approach Lighting: A visual              field lighting systems are controlled
approach slope indicator (VASI-4L) is           through a pilot-controlled lighting sys-
installed on the approach end of Run-           tem (PCL). This allows pilots to in-
way 21. A VASI-4L consists of a sys-            crease the intensity of the airfield
tem of lights located at various dis-           lighting systems from the aircraft with
tances from the runway threshold. A             the use of the aircraft’s radio trans-
precision approach path indicator               mitter. At Sioux Falls Regional Air-
(PAPI-4L) is installed on the approach          port, Runways 3-21 and 15-33 are
ends of Runways 3, 15, and 33. A                equipped with PCL. The PCL is en-
PAPI consists of a system of lights lo-         abled only when the control tower is
cated at various distances from the             closed.
runway threshold. When interpreted
by the pilot, these lights give him or
her an indication of being above, be-           Pavement Markings
low, or on the designed descent path to
the runway.                                     Pavement markings aid in the move-
                                                ment of aircraft along airport surfaces

and identify closed or hazardous areas            Weather and Communication Aids
on the airport. The precision mark-
ings on Runway 3-21 identify the                  The airport is equipped with an auto-
runway designation, threshold, center-            mated surface observation system
line, side stripes, aiming point, and             (ASOS). The ASOS provides auto-
touchdown zone. The nonprecision                  mated aviation weather observations
markings on Runway 15-33 identify                 24 hours per day. The system updates
the runway designation, threshold,                weather observations every minute,
centerline, and aiming point. The ba-             continuously reporting significant
sic markings on Runway 9-27 identify              weather changes as they occur. The
the runway designation and center-                ASOS system reports cloud ceiling,
line.                                             visibility, temperature, dew point,
                                                  wind direction, wind speed, altimeter
Taxiway and apron centerline mark-                setting (barometric pressure), and
ings are provided to assist aircraft us-          density altitude (airfield elevation cor-
ing these airport surfaces. Taxiway               rected for temperature). The ASOS is
centerline markings assist pilots in              located at the south end of the airfield,
maintaining proper clearance from                 west of the Runway 3 end. The ASOS
pavement edges and objects near the               also includes a remote wind hy-
taxiway/taxilane edges.      Pavement             grothermometer, which measures both
edge markings also identify aircraft              the temperature and the dew point of
parking and aircraft holding positions.           the air and continuously sends the in-
                                                  formation to a computer for access by
Airfield Signs: Airfield identification           the National Weather Service.
signs assist pilots in identifying their
location on the airfield and directing            An airport surveillance radar (ASR) is
them to their desired location.                   located at about midfield, east of
Lighted signs and runway guard                    Taxiway B2. An ASR provides rela-
lights (RGL) are installed at all taxi-           tively short-range coverage within
way and runway intersections. RGL is              about 40 miles of an airport and as-
used to enhance the visibility of taxi-           sists “approach control” in handling
way holding positions.                            terminal traffic. It also can be used as
                                                  an instrument approach aid.
Runways 3-21 and 15-33 are equipped
with     lighted    runway     distance-          The airport is also equipped with a
remaining signs. Placed in 1,000-foot             Low Level Windshear Alert System
intervals along the runway edge, run-             (LLWAS), which measures wind speed
way distance-remaining signs notify               and direction at remote sensor station
pilots of the amount of usable runway             sites situated around the airport ter-
length left (in thousands of feet).               minal. Each airport may have as few

as six or as many as 32 remote sta-              Passenger Terminal Building
tions. There are eight remote stations
located at Sioux Falls Regional Air-             The passenger terminal building at
port. The remote sensor data received            Sioux Falls Regional Airport is located
is transmitted to a master station,              near midfield, east of Runway 15-33,
which generates warnings when wind-              along Taxiway A. As shown on Ex-
shear or microburst conditions are de-           hibit 1D, the terminal building pro-
tected. Current wind data and warn-              vides areas for ticketing, passenger
ings are displayed for approach con-             screening, baggage screening, baggage
trollers in the Terminal Radar Ap-               claim, airport administration, food/
proach Control Facility (TRACON)                 vending, and restrooms. The existing
and for ground controllers in the air-           terminal building was built in 1970
port traffic control tower (ATCT). The           and totals approximately 97,300
Air Traffic Controllers then relay the           square feet. Several improvements/
LLWAS runway specific alerts to pi-              additions have been made to the ter-
lots via voice radio communication.              minal building since then.

The airport is also equipped with a              An extensive renovation project was
lighted wind cone and segmented cir-             completed in 1990 that not only in-
cle, which provides pilots with infor-           cluded improving the aesthetics of the
mation about wind conditions. A seg-             building, but also included a new gift
mented circle provides traffic pattern           shop, snack and lounge area, a new
information to pilots.    The lighted            public-use conference room, and im-
wind cone and segmented circle are               provements to the electrical, heating,
located southeast of the Taxiway C               and ventilation systems.
and G intersection.
                                                 A 9,200 square-foot addition to the
                                                 terminal building was completed in
LANDSIDE FACILITIES                              2002 and accommodates a new bag-
                                                 gage claim, expanded rental offices,
Landside facilities are the ground-              and a Federal Inspections Services
based facilities that support the air-           (FIS) processing area including facili-
craft and pilot/passenger handling               ties for the United States Customs
functions. These facilities typically            Service (USCS), Immigration and
include the terminal building, aircraft          Naturalization Service (INS), and the
storage/maintenance hangars, aircraft            United States Department of Agricul-
parking aprons, and support facilities           ture (USDA).
such as fuel storage, automobile park-
ing, roadway access, and aircraft res-           In late 2003, a terminal remodeling
cue and firefighting. Landside facili-           was undertaken to provide additional
ties are identified on Exhibit 1C.               space for the Transportation Security


                             TERMINAL BUILDING
                                                                                                                                                             Gate 7

                                                 1st Floor Plan
                                                                                                                                                                             Gate 8
                                                                                                                                                 Gate 5
                                                 2nd Floor Plan                                                                     Giftshop/
                                                                                                                                                                            Gate 6
                                                                                                                                   Gate 3                   Holdroom

                                                                                                                                                        Gate 4

                                                                                                              Gate 1                             Holdroom
                             NORTH                                                        Holdroom                                         Restrooms
                                                                                                                                   Gate 2

                                                                                          Security              Holdroom

                              NOT TO SCALE
                                                                             Upper Waiting
                                                                                                                   TSA Offices

                                                                                        Gate 9
                                                                                                                  Airport Administrative

                    Rental                                                                                             Airline Offices/Baggage Makeup
                     Car                                                             Restaurant

                                                                           Kitchen                                                                               Employee
                                                      Baggage Claim                                               Gift Shop    Ticketing
                                        Car Rental                     Conf. Room                 Restrooms                                                       Parking

                                                                      Metered Parking

                                                                                        Public Parking

                                                                                                                                                               Exhibit 1D
                                                                                                                                              TERMINAL BUILDING LAYOUT
Administration (TSA), a widening of              of Jaycee Lane and Minnesota Ave-
the checkpoint area, and a “meet and             nue, providing an additional 100
greet” area upstairs. Additional seat-           spaces.
ing was also added on the lower level.

The passenger terminal apron encom-              AIR CARGO FACILITIES
passes approximately 91,000 square
yards of pavement adjacent to the                A 13,000-square-foot air freight build-
passenger terminal building.        The          ing is located north of the passenger
apron allows for access, circulation,            terminal building, along Jaycee Lane.
and parking for nine aircraft gate po-           The building is designed so that vehi-
sitions around the terminal concourse.           cles can pass through the center of the
Gates 1, 3, 4, 6, and 7 provide passen-          building for the loading and unloading
ger loading bridges. Gates 2, 5, and 8           of cargo. Secure storage bins are lo-
provide stairways to ground-level                cated on the west side of the building,
boarding. Gate 9 is located on the               while the loading dock and office space
ground floor (in a non-secure area) and          are located on the east side. The air
is not currently in use. International           freight building is accessed from the
flights are handled at the south end of          east corner of the terminal apron.
the terminal ramp, near FIS.
                                                 The air cargo apron encompasses ap-
Avis, Enterprise, Hertz, and Na-                 proximately 52,300 square yards of
tional/Alamo have rental car counters            pavement north of the general avia-
in the terminal building. ABC Rent-              tion apron along Taxiway B. DHL,
als, Budget, and RAPP Chevrolet pro-             FedEx, and UPS each currently utilize
vide off-airport car rental service.             the air cargo apron. UPS cargo sort-
                                                 ing facilities are located in a 9,300-
Short and long-term parking is avail-            square-foot building near the Business
able in the paved public parking lots            Aviation ramp. FedEx and DHL oper-
located northeast of the terminal                ate out of the 40,000-square-foot sort
building. There are 303 spaces for               building located on the east cargo
short-term parking and 1,016 spaces              ramp. A truck court is located adja-
for long-term parking. Short term                cent to the sort building.
parking is 75 cents each one-half hour,
or up to $6.50 per day. Long term
parking is $1.00 per hour, or up to              General Aviation Operators
$4.50 per day, and $24.00 per week.
Airport employee parking is included             As shown on Exhibit 1C, general
as part of the long-term parking area.           aviation facilities at Sioux Falls Re-
                                                 gional Airport are located on the east
There are a total of 350 rental car              side of the airport, north of the pas-
parking spaces located on the airport.           senger terminal building. Access to
This includes 250 ready/return park-             the general aviation facilities is via
ing spaces located south of the pas-             Hangar Street, which intersects with
senger terminal building and a rental            Minnesota Avenue north of the pas-
car overflow lot near the intersection
senger terminal building.       Hangar             In fact, the Port posted its three busi-
Street provides access to aircraft stor-           est customs-clearing months ever in
age hangars and intersects with Avia-              2005. UPS utilizes the Port for its
tion Avenue, providing access to the               daily (Monday – Friday) flight be-
fixed base operator (FBO) facilities.              tween Sioux Falls and Calgary.

Business Aviation Services (BAS) is
the sole fixed based operator at Sioux             South Dakota Air
Falls Regional Airport. As shown on                National Guard (SDANG)
Exhibit 1C, they own or lease several
buildings on the airport. They offer a             South Dakota’s 114th Fighter Group,
full range of services, including fuel             nicknamed the Lobos, is stationed at
sales (100LL and Jet A), aircraft park-            Sioux Falls Regional Airport. The
ing (ramp or tiedown), passenger ter-              SDANG was founded by Medal of
minal and lounge, charters, aircraft               Honor recipient and former Governor
rental, aircraft sales, aircraft mainte-           Joe Foss on September 20, 1946. They
nance, avionics, pilot supplies, and               currently occupy approximately 102
rental cars.                                       acres of Airport Authority land on the
                                                   south side of the airport and 59 acres
BAS also operates an all-cargo airline             of land west of Runway 3-21. In addi-
(Business Aviation Courier). Their fa-             tion to this, a shooting range and ar-
cilities are located adjacent to Aviation          mory are located on the north portion
Avenue. They perform more than 40                  of the airfield, along National Guard
operations per day with a fleet of vary-           Drive. The SDANG supports both
ing aircraft types, including the                  state and federal missions and cur-
                                                   rently operates multiple F-16 aircraft.
Cessna 208, Cessna 310, Cessna 402,
                                                   The SDANG operates under its own
Cessna 404, and the Fairchild Metro-
                                                   master plan, which covers use of prop-
                                                   erty on Airport Authority lease in ad-
                                                   dition to property owned by the
A flight training facility is located on
Hangar Street, near the general avia-
tion entrance at Minnesota Avenue.
                                                   Aircraft Storage Facilities
The airport is also a Port of Entry for
South Dakota where international ar-
                                                   As depicted on Exhibit 1C, aircraft
rivals can clear customs. The Port,                storage facilities at Sioux Falls Re-
which opened in 1996, serves more                  gional Airport consists of large con-
than 50 area companies. A typical                  ventional hangars, smaller executive
shipment cleared in Sioux Falls ar-                hangars, and T-hangars.
rives initially in Minneapolis or Chi-
cago by air and is trucked to the Port.            Conventional hangars provide a large
The number of shipments cleared at                 open space free from roof support
the Port has steadily risen from 60                structures, have the capability to ac-
shipments in its first year of operation           commodate several aircraft simulta-
to more than 1,100 shipments in 2005.              neously, and are typically 10,000

square feet or greater in size. Conven-           Fuel Storage Facilities
tional hangar space at Sioux Falls Re-
gional Airport includes all of the BAS            Aircraft fuel storage facilities are lo-
hangars. These hangars, which are                 cated on the north side of Weather
identified on Exhibit 1C, total ap-               Lane, near the intersection of Minne-
proximately 116,800 square feet.                  sota Avenue.       Three separate fuel
(Note: BAS office space adjacent to the           storage facilities provide the capability
conventional hangars is 44,300 square             of storing 214,000 gallons of Jet A fuel
feet.)                                            and 50,000 gallons of 100LL fuel. To-
                                                  tal capacity for diesel/other is 19,000
Executive hangars provide the same                gallons. All fuel storage facilities are
type of aircraft storage as conven-               owned and operated by BAS.
tional hangars, but are normally less
than 10,000 square feet. Executive
hangar space at Sioux Falls Regional              Aircraft Rescue and
Airport is identified on Exhibit 1C               Firefighting (ARFF)
and totals approximately 25,500
square feet.                                      The airport is required to maintain
                                                  aircraft rescue and firefighting (ARFF)
T-hangars provide for separate hangar             capabilities under F.A.R. Part 139,
facilities within a larger contiguous             which governs the operation of air-
facility. As shown on Exhibit 1C, T-              ports with scheduled or unscheduled
hangar facilities at Sioux Falls Re-              passenger service by aircraft with ten
gional Airport are located east of Avia-          or more seats. Sioux Falls Regional
tion Avenue. Five T-hangar buildings              Airport has been classified with Index
are located in this area and total ap-            B requirements, which apply to air-
proximately 57,500 square feet.                   ports servicing aircraft less than 126
                                                  feet. Specifications have been devel-
                                                  oped for the trucks in terms of dry
Maintenance/Storage                               chemicals, water, and foam applica-
                                                  tion agents they are required to carry.
The airport maintenance facilities are            A 12,000 square-foot building located
located on the east side of the airport,          on the southwest portion of the
north of the general aviation area.               SDANG apron houses the ARFF facili-
Access to these facilities is via                 ties. This building was completed in
Weather Lane. Approximately 10,700                the year 2000. ARFF services at the
square feet of space is provided in
                                                  airport are provided by the South Da-
these four buildings, which are used to
                                                  kota Air National Guard.
store equipment and vehicles used in
general maintenance activities at the

ENROUTE NAVIGATION                                 the station. Pilots flying to or from
AND AIRSPACE                                       Sioux Falls Regional Airport can util-
                                                   ize the Rokky NDB. As shown on Ex-
Navigational aids are electronic de-               hibit 1E, the Rokky NDB is located
vices that transmit radio frequencies,             approximately seven miles southwest
which pilots of properly equipped air-             of the airport.
craft translate into point-to-point
guidance and position information.                 GPS is an additional navigational aid
The types of electronic navigational               for pilots enroute to the airport. GPS
aids available for aircraft flying to or           was initially developed by the United
from Sioux Falls Regional Airport in-              States Department of Defense for mili-
clude the very high frequency omnidi-              tary navigation around the world. In-
rectional range (VOR) facility, nondi-             creasingly, GPS has been utilized
rectional beacon (NDB), and global po-             more in civilian aircraft. GPS uses
sitioning system (GPS).                            satellites placed in orbit around the
                                                   globe to transmit electronic signals,
The VOR, in general, provides azi-                 which properly equipped aircraft use
muth readings to pilots of properly                to determine altitude, speed, and posi-
equipped aircraft by transmitting a                tion information. GPS allows pilots to
radio signal at every degree to provide            navigate to any airport in the country,
360 individual navigational courses.               and they are not required to navigate
Frequently,      distance      measuring           using a specific navigational facility.
equipment (DME) is combined with a                 The FAA is proceeding with a program
VOR facility (VOR/DME) to provide                  to gradually replace all traditional en-
distance as well as direction informa-             route navigational aids with GPS over
tion to the pilot. In addition, military           the next 20 years.
tactical air navigation systems (TA-
CANs) and civil VORs are commonly                  In July of 2003, the FAA commis-
combined to form a VORTAC.             A           sioned a wide area augmentation sys-
VORTAC provides distance and direc-                tem (WAAS), which is a GPS-based
tion information to civil and military             navigation and landing system that
pilots. Pilots flying to or from the air-          provides guidance to aircraft at thou-
port can utilize the Sioux Falls                   sands of airports and airstrips where
VORTAC, which is located approxi-                  there is currently no precision landing
mately four nautical miles north of the            capability. Systems such as WAAS
airport. Exhibit 1E, a map of the re-              are known as satellite-based augmen-
gional airspace system, depicts the lo-            tation systems (SBAS). WAAS is de-
cation of the Sioux Falls VORTAC.                  signed to improve the accuracy and
                                                   ensure the integrity of information
The NDB transmits nondirectional ra-               coming from GPS satellites. The FAA
dio signals whereby the pilot of prop-             is using WAAS to provide lateral
erly equipped aircraft can determine               navigation or vertical navigation
the bearing to or from the NDB facility            (LNAV/VNAV) capability.
and then “home” or track to or from


                                                                          Brookings VOR-DME

                         Howard                        Madison
                                                              NDB                     Flandreau

                                                                          V 181
                                        5                                                                          Pipestone NDB


                                             V 120
                                                                                  Sioux Falls
                                                                                                                                           V 170

                                                           SIOUX FALLS
                                                     REGIONAL AIRPORT
                                                         Joe Foss Field                                                                            V 120

                                                                Rokky NDB                                                          Rock Rapids
                                                                     Skie-Lincoln Co



                                                                                                                                   Sioux Center       VOR-DME
                                                                                  V   250
                                                                                              V 15



                                                                                                                             Sioux Center NDB
                                                                                                                                            Orange City

                                                                                                                                                            V 17
                           Gurney Yankton                                                                                                Orange City NDB

                              Airport with other than hard-surfaced runways                          Military Training Routes

                              Airport with hard-surfaced runways                                     Victor Airways
                              1,500' to 8,069' in length
                                                                                                     Class D Airspace                               NORTH
                              Airports with hard-surfaced runways
                              greater than 8,069' or some multiple                                   Class E Airspace
                              runways less than 8,069'
                                                                                                     Class E Airspace with floor               NOT TO SCALE
                              VORTAC                                                                 700' above surface

                              Non-Directional Radiobeacon (NDB)
                                                                                      Source: Omaha Sectional Chart, US Department of
                                                                                              Commerce, National Oceanic and Atmospheric
                              Compass Rose                                                    Administration, August 4, 2005

                                                                                                                                              Exhibit 1E
                                                                                                                                REGIONAL AIRSPACE MAP
INSTRUMENT APPROACH                                landings when the cloud ceiling is 200
PROCEDURES                                         feet above the ground and visibility is
                                                   restricted to one mile for aircraft in
Instrument approach procedures are a               any category. The ILS Runway 3 and
series of predetermined maneuvers                  21 approaches can also be utilized as
established by the FAA using elec-                 localizer only or circling approaches.
tronic navigational aids that assist pi-           When using only the localizer portion
lots in locating and landing at an air-            of the ILS (for course guidance only) or
port during low visibility and cloud               using the ILS approach to land at a
ceiling conditions. At Sioux Falls Re-             different runway end (defined as a cir-
gional Airport, there are ten published            cling approach), the cloud ceilings and
public instrument approaches: ILS                  visibility minimums increase for all
Runway 3, ILS Runway 21, GPS                       aircraft categories. Table 1D pre-
Runway 3, GPS Runway 9, GPS Run-                   sents the published instrument ap-
way 15, GPS Runway 21, GPS Run-                    proaches available at Sioux Falls Re-
way 27, GPS Runway 33, VOR/DME                     gional Airport.
or TACAN Runway 33, and VOR or
TACAN Runway 15. Approaches to                     Runways 3 and 21 are also equipped
Runway 3-21 are precision instrument               with Runway Visual Range (RVR) sys-
approaches, which provide vertical de-             tems. An RVR system determines
scent information, as well as course               runway visibility information and
guidance information.                              transmits the information to the air
                                                   traffic control tower for dissemination.
The capability of an instrument ap-                An RVR system, when used in con-
proach is defined by the visibility and            junction with approach and runway
cloud ceiling minimums associated                  lighting systems can reduce the ceiling
with the approach. Visibility mini-                and visibility minimums for ILS ap-
mums define the horizontal distance                proaches.
that the pilot must be able to see in
order to complete the approach. Cloud
ceilings define the lowest level a cloud           VICINITY AIRSPACE
layer (defined in feet above the
ground) can be situated for the pilot to           To ensure a safe and efficient airspace
complete the approach. If the ob-                  environment for all aspects of avia-
served visibility or cloud ceilings are            tion, the FAA has established an air-
below the minimums prescribed for                  space structure that regulates and es-
the approach, the pilot cannot com-                tablishes procedures for aircraft using
plete the instrument approach. The                 the National Airspace System. The
different minimum requirements for                 U.S. airspace structure provides two
visibility and cloud ceilings are varied,          basic categories of airspace, controlled
dependent on the approach speed of                 and uncontrolled, and identifies them
the aircraft.                                      as Classes A, B, C, D, E, and G.

The Category I ILS instrument ap-
proach for Runways 3 and 21 allow for

Instrument Approach Data
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                        WEATHER MINIMUMS BY AIRCRAFT TYPE
                                 Category A/B        Category C        Category D
                                CH         VIS     CH         VIS     CH        VIS
ILS Runway 3
Straight-In (ILS)                 200           0.5          200         0.5     200      0.5
Straight-In (Localizer)           600           0.5          600         1.0     600     1.25
Circling                          600           1.0          600         1.5     700      2.0
ILS Runway 21
Straight-In (ILS)                 200           0.5          200         0.5     200      0.5
Straight-In (Localizer)           500           0.5          500        0.75     500      1.0
Circling                          600           1.0          600         1.5     700      2.0
RNAV (GPS) Runway 3
LNAV/VNAV DA                      400         0.75           400        0.75     400     0.75
LNAV MDA                          500           0.5          500        0.75     500      1.0
Circling                          600         1.25           600         1.5     700      2.0
RNAV (GPS) Runway 9
LNAV MDA                          500           1.0          N/A        N/A      N/A     N/A
Circling                          600           1.0          N/A        N/A      N/A     N/A
RNAV (GPS) Runway 15
LNAV/VNAV DA                      500           1.5          500         1.5     500      1.5
LNAV MDA                          500           1.0          500        1.25     500      1.5
Circling                          600           4.5          600         1.5     700      2.0
RNAV (GPS) Runway 21
LNAV/VNAV DA                      400         0.75           400        0.75     400     0.75
LNAV MDA                          600           0.5          600         1.0     600      1.0
Circling                          600         1.25           600         1.5     700      2.0
RNAV (GPS) Runway 27
LNAV MDA                          600           1.0          N/A        N/A      N/A     N/A
Circling                          600           1.0          N/A        N/A      N/A     N/A
RNAV (GPS) Runway 33
LNAV/VNAV DA                      500         0.75           500        1.75     500     1.75
LNAV MDA                          500           1.0          500        1.25     500      1.5
Circling                          600         1.75           600        1.75     700      2.0
VOR/DME or TACAN Runway 33
Straight-In                       600           1.0          600         1.5     600     1.75
Circling                          600           1.0          600         1.5     700      2.0
VOR or TACAN Runway 15
Straight-In                       500           1.0          500        1.25     500     1.50
Circling                          600           1.0          600        1.50     700      2.0
Source: FAA Terminal Procedures, North Central U.S., current edition.

Class A airspace is controlled airspace                neapolis-St. Paul International Air-
that includes all airspace from 18,000                 port). Class C airspace is controlled
feet mean sea level (MSL) to Flight                    airspace surrounding lower activity
Level 600 (approximately 60,000 feet                   commercial service airports and some
MSL). Class B airspace is controlled                   military airports. Class D airspace is
airspace surrounding high-capacity                     controlled airspace surrounding air-
commercial service airports (i.e., Min-                ports with an airport traffic control
tower. All aircraft operating within              AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL
Classes A, B, C, and D airspace must
be in contact with the air traffic con-           The airport traffic control tower at
trol facility responsible for that par-           Sioux Falls Regional Airport controls
ticular airspace. Class E airspace is             air traffic within the Class E airspace
controlled airspace that encompasses              surrounding the airport. The airport
all instrument approach procedures                traffic control tower is located north of
and low-altitude federal airways.                 the air carrier apron and operates con-
Only aircraft conducting instrument               tinuously.
flights are required to be in contact
with air traffic control when operating           Aircraft arriving and departing the
in Class E airspace. Aircraft conduct-            Sioux Falls Regional Airport area are
ing visual flights in Class E airspace            controlled by the Minneapolis Air
are not required to be in radio com-              Route     Traffic     Control     Center
munications with air traffic control              (ARTCC). ARTCC controls aircraft in
facilities. Visual flight can only be             a large multi-state area. All aircraft
conducted if minimum visibility and               in radio communication with the
cloud ceilings exist. Class G airspace            ARTCC will be provided with altitude,
is uncontrolled airspace that does not            aircraft separation, and route guid-
require contact with an air traffic con-          ance to and from the airport. The
trol facility.                                    ARTCC directs aircraft until the pilot
                                                  can contact the airport traffic control
Airspace in the vicinity of Sioux Falls           tower on the airport.        The Huron
Regional Airport is depicted on Ex-               Flight Service Station (FSS) provides
hibit 1E. Class D airspace surrounds              additional information to pilots oper-
the airport in a radius of approxi-               ating in the vicinity of the airport.
mately five statute miles, beginning at
the surface and extending up to 2,500
feet MSL.                                         AREA AIRPORTS

For aircraft arriving or departing the            A review of airports within 30 nautical
regional area using VOR facilities, a             miles of Sioux Falls Regional Airport
system of Federal Airways, referred to            has been made to identify and distin-
as Victor Airways, has been estab-                guish the type of air service provided
lished. Victor Airways are corridors of           in the area surrounding the airport.
airspace eight miles wide that extend             Public-use airports within 30 nautical
upward from 1,200 feet above ground               miles (nm) of the airport were previ-
level (AGL) to 18,000 feet MSL and                ously illustrated on Exhibit 1E. In-
extend between VOR navigational fa-               formation pertaining to each airport
cilities. As shown on Exhibit 1E, Vic-            was obtained from FAA airport master
tor Airways in the area emanate from              records.
the Sioux Falls VORTAC.

Marv Skie-Lincoln County Airport                 The airport averages 23 operations per
is located approximately eight nm                day. Services available at the airport
south-southwest of Sioux Falls Re-               include tiedowns and 100LL fuel sales.
gional Airport and is the nearest gen-
eral aviation airport.     Marv Skie-            Rock Rapids Municipal Airport is
Lincoln County Airport is served by a            located approximately 26nm east-
3,650-foot asphalt runway. The air-              southeast of Sioux Falls Regional Air-
port is not equipped with an airport             port. Rock Rapids Municipal Airport
traffic control tower and there are no           is served by a 3,097-foot asphalt run-
published     instrument   approaches            way. The airport is not equipped with
available at the airport. There are 65           an airport traffic control tower, but
based aircraft at Marv Skie-Lincoln              there are two published instrument
County Airport, the majority of which            approaches available. Twelve single-
are single-engine. The airport aver-             engine aircraft are based at Rock Rap-
ages 100 operations per day. Services            ids Municipal Airport. The airport av-
available include aircraft mainte-               erages 21 operations per week. Ser-
nance, tiedowns, and 100LL fuel sales.           vices available at the airport include
                                                 aircraft maintenance, hangars and
Canton Municipal Airport is lo-                  tiedowns, and 100 LL fuel sales.
cated approximately 18 nm south-
southeast of Sioux Falls Regional Air-           Flandreau Municipal Airport is lo-
port. Canton Municipal Airport is                cated approximately 26nm north-
served by a 3,600-foot asphalt runway.           northeast of Sioux Falls Regional Air-
The airport is not equipped with an              port. Flandreau Municipal Airport is
airport traffic control tower and there          served by a 3,100-foot asphalt runway.
are no published instrument ap-                  The airport is not equipped with an
proaches available at the airport.               airport traffic control tower and there
Eight single-engine aircraft are based           are no published instrument ap-
at Canton Municipal Airport. The                 proaches available at the airport. Six
airport averages 86 operations per               single-engine aircraft are based at
week. Services available at the air-             Flandreau Municipal Airport.       The
port include minor aircraft mainte-              airport averages 42 operations per
nance, hangars and tiedowns, and 100             week. Tiedowns are available at the
LL fuel sales.                                   airport.

Quentin Aanenson Field Airport is                Madison Municipal Airport is lo-
located approximately 23nm east of               cated approximately 30nm north-
Sioux Falls Regional Airport. The air-           northwest of Sioux Falls Regional Air-
port is served by a 2,503-foot asphalt           port. The airport is served by a 5,000-
runway. The airport is not equipped              foot asphalt runway. A 2,600-foot turf
with an airport traffic control tower            runway is also available. The airport
and there are no published instrument            is not equipped with an airport traffic
approaches available at the airport.             control tower, but there are two pub-
Six single-engine aircraft are based             lished instrument approaches avail-
aircraft at Quentin Aanenson Field.              able. There are 39 aircraft based at

Madison Municipal Airport, the major-             of the region to sustain a strong eco-
ity of which are single engine. The               nomic base over an extended period of
airport averages 57 operations per                time.
day. Services available at the airport
include aircraft maintenance, hangars
and tiedowns, and 100LL and Jet A                 POPULATION
fuel sales.
                                                  The size and structure of the local
                                                  communities and the service area that
GENERALIZED LAND USE                              the airport supports are important
                                                  factors to consider when planning air-
The environs in which the airport is              port facilities. These factors provide
located are defined by existing land              an understanding of the economic base
uses as well as projected future land             that is needed to determine future
uses. Sioux Falls Regional Airport is             airport requirements. Historical popu-
located three miles northwest of the              lation totals, which were obtained
Sioux Falls central business district on          from the U.S. Census Bureau, are pre-
approximately 1,570 acres. The area               sented in Table 1E.
immediately south of the airport con-
sists primarily of commercial and in-             According to the U.S. Census Bureau,
dustrial uses. In addition, commer-               the State of South Dakota had over
cial-industrial development makes up              754,000 residents in 2000. This is an
a majority of the land to the east and            increase of more than 58,000 residents
west. Further southeast, the area be-             since 1990, which represents an aver-
comes more residential. The Elmwood               age annual increase of 0.8 percent.
Golf Course makes up a portion of the             Historical population for the Sioux
area south of the airport.                        Falls Metropolitan Statistical Area
                                                  (MSA) shows an increase of more than
                                                  33,000 new residents between 1990
SOCIOECONOMIC                                     and 2000. The Sioux Falls MSA in-
                                                  cludes Minnehaha and Lincoln Coun-
                                                  ties. Prior to December 31, 1992, only
                                                  Minnehaha County was included in
For an airport master plan, socioeco-
                                                  the Sioux Falls MSA. Due to the ex-
nomic characteristics are collected and
                                                  pansion of the City of Sioux Falls into
examined to derive an understanding
                                                  Lincoln County, the Sioux Falls MSA
of the dynamics of growth within the
                                                  was revised to include Lincoln County.
study area. This information is essen-
                                                  The MSA population is driven mostly
tial in determining aviation service
                                                  by the City of Sioux Falls, the largest
level requirements, as well as forecast-
                                                  city in the MSA. As shown Table 1E,
ing the number of based aircraft and
                                                  the annual average growth rate for the
aircraft activity at the airport. Avia-
                                                  MSA was 2.2 percent between 1990
tion forecasts are typically related to
                                                  and 2000, nearly identical to the City’s
the     population    base,    economic
                                                  growth rate during this same time.
strength of the region, and the ability

Historical Population
                                                                  Average Annual Growth Rate
          Area               1990                2000                     (1990-2000)
City of Sioux Falls         100,814             123,975                      2.1%
Sioux Falls MSA             139,236             172,412                      2.2%
State of South Dakota       696,004             754,844                      0.8%
Source: U.S. Census Bureau.

Forecast population projections are                    The MSA population is projected to
presented in Table 1F. These projec-                   grow at an average annual rate of 2.0
tions were obtained from the City of                   percent over the next twenty years,
Sioux Falls Planning Department. As                    reaching a total population of 285,400
shown in the table, the department                     by 2025. The State’s population is
projects the City’s population to reach                projected to grow at an average an-
221,000 by the year 2025. This repre-                  nual rate of 0.2 percent, reaching over
sents an annual average growth rate                    800,000 residents by the year 2025.
of 2.3 percent over a 25-year period.

Forecast Population
                                                                             Average Annual Growth Rate
         Area                  2010           2015               2025                (2000-2025)
City of Sioux Falls          159,000         178,000           221,000                  2.3%
Sioux Falls MSA              216,000         240,000           285,400                  2.0%
State of South Dakota        786,400         797,000           801,800                  0.2%
Source: City of Sioux Falls Planning Department (

EMPLOYMENT                                             The Sioux Falls MSA experienced low
                                                       unemployment rates in the past six
Analysis of a community=s employ-                      years, increasing only 1.2 percent
ment base can provide valuable in-                     since 2000. In 2005, the MSA’s unem-
sight to the overall well-being of the                 ployment rate reached 3.3 percent, its
community. In most cases, the com-                     highest rate in the past six years.
munity make-up and health is signifi-                  During this same time, the State’s un-
cantly impacted by the availability of                 employment rate also increased,
jobs, variety of employment opportuni-                 reaching a high of 3.9 percent in 2005.
ties, and types of wages provided by                   Meanwhile, the United States has ex-
local employers. Table 1G presents                     perienced a decline in the unemploy-
the historical unemployment rates for                  ment rate in the past few years, fal-
the Sioux Falls MSA and compares                       ling from 6.0 percent in 2003 to 4.9
this to South Dakota and United                        percent in 2005. However, the unem-
States figures.                                        ployment rates for the MSA and the
                                                       State still remain below that of the
Historical Unemployment Rates
            Area                2000         2001       2002       2003      2004     2005*
Sioux Falls MSA                 2.1%         2.5%       2.8%       3.0%      3.2%     3.3%
State of South Dakota           2.7%         3.1%       3.3%       3.5%      3.5%     3.9%
United States                   4.0%         4.7%       5.8%       6.0%      5.5%     4.9%
Source: South Dakota Labor Market Information.
*As of November.

Employment by economic sector was                      ing for more than 9,000 employees.
also examined. Table 1H presents                       The banking/financial industry is also
the major employers in the City of                     important to the city’s economy, ac-
Sioux Falls. As shown in the table,                    counting for more than 5,800 employ-
health care makes up the largest sec-                  ees.
tor of employment in the city, account-

Major Employers
City of Sioux Falls
               Employer Name                             Industry              # of Employees
Sioux Valley Hospitals & Health System              Hospital/Health Care             5,640
Avera Health                                        Hospital/Health Care             3,732
John Morrell & Company                           Fresh Pork/Processed Meat           3,325
Citigroup                                            Banking/Financial               3,200
Sioux Falls Public Schools                               Education                   3,000
Wells Fargo                                          Banking/Financial               2,641
Hy-Vee Food Stores                                        Grocery                    1,725
Midwest Coast Transport                                  Trucking                    1,260
WalMart/Sam’s Club                                         Retail                    1,195
City of Sioux Falls                                     Government                   1,070
Source: Sioux Falls Community Profile (2005-2006).

PER CAPITA                                             As shown in the table, the City of
PERSONAL INCOME                                        Sioux Falls had a PCPI of $30,500 in
                                                       2000. This was only slightly higher
Table 1J presents historical per cap-                  than the PCPI of the Sioux Falls MSA,
ita personal income (PCPI), adjusted                   which was at $30,000. The PCPI of
for 2005 dollars, for the City of Sioux                the United States was just below this
Falls and compares this to the Sioux                   at $29,800. South Dakota had the
Falls MSA, South Dakota, and the                       lowest PCPI of the areas, at $25,700.
United States PCPI figures. This data                  Projections of PCPI indicate an annual
was obtained from the 2005 Complete                    growth rate of 4.1 percent of the City
Economic and Demographic Data                          over the next twenty years, which
Source (CEDDS), Woods and Poole                        yields $83,100 by 2025. This is well
Economics, Inc.                                        above the PCPI for the MSA and the

U.S., which are both projected to ex-                  both the U.S. The PCPI for the State
perience an average annual growth                      is expected to grow at the same rate as
rate of 3.9 percent through the plan-                  the City (4.1 percent) over the next
ning period. This yields a PCPI of                     twenty years, but will remain well be-
$78,400 for the MSA and $77,400 for                    low all the areas at $70,800.

Per Capita Personal Income (2005$)
                                         Avg. Ann.                                         Avg. Ann.
                                       Growth Rate                                        Growth Rate
      Area           1990      2000     (1990-2000)      2010      2015        2025        (2000-2025
Sioux Falls        $19,400   $30,500       4.6%         $43,800   $53,500     $83,100         4.1%
Sioux Falls MSA    $18,800   $30,000       4.8%         $41,500   $50,600     $78,400         3.9%
South Dakota       $16,200   $25,700       4.7%         $36,500   $44,900     $70,800         4.1%
United States      $19,500   $29,800       4.3%         $40,700   $49,700     $77,400         3.9%
Source: Complete Economic and Demographic Data Source (CEDDS), Woods & Poole, Inc. (2005).

SUMMARY                                                it include airport drawings and photo-
                                                       graphs which were referenced for in-
The information discussed on the pre-                  formation. On-site inventory and in-
vious pages provides a foundation                      terviews with staff tenants also con-
upon which the remaining elements of                   tributed to the inventory effort.
the planning process will be con-
structed. Information on current air-                  1995 Airport Master Plan, Coffman
port facilities and utilization will serve             Associates.
as a basis, with additional analysis
and data collection, for the develop-                  2001 Airport Master Plan Update,
ment of forecasts of aviation activity                 Coffman Associates.
and facility requirement determina-
tions. The inventory of existing condi-                Airport/Facility Directory, North Cen-
tions is the first step in the process of              tral U.S., U.S. Department of Trans-
determining those factors which will                   portation, Federal Aviation Admini-
meet projected aviation demand in the                  stration, National Aeronautical Chart-
community and the region.                              ing Office, December 22, 2005 Edition.

                                                       National Plan of Integrated Airport
DOCUMENT SOURCES                                       Systems (NPIAS), U.S. Department of
                                                       Transportation, Federal Aviation Ad-
As previously mentioned, a variety of                  ministration (2005-2009).
different sources were utilized in the
                                                       U.S. Terminal Procedures, North Cen-
inventory process. The following list-
ing reflects a partial compilation of                  tral U.S., U.S. Department of Trans-
                                                       portation, Federal Aviation Admini-
these sources. This does not include
data provided by the airport manage-                   stration, National Aeronautical Chart-
                                                       ing Office, December 22, 2005 Edition.
ment as part of their records, nor does

Omaha Sectional Aeronautical Chart,              South Dakota Department of Labor:
U.S. Department of Transportation,     
Federal Aviation Administration, Na-
tional Aeronautical Charting Office,             Sioux Falls Regional Airport:
August 4, 2005.                        

A number of Internet sites were also             Sioux Falls Convention and Visitors
used to collect information for the in-          Bureau:
ventory chapter. These include the     
                                                 U.S. Census Bureau:
FAA 5010 Data:                         

SDDOT Bureau of Aeronautics:

Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority    Chapter Two
CHAPTER TWO                                                         Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority

An important factor in facility planning            flexible enough to respond to a range of
is the definition of demand that may                unforeseen developments.
reasonably be expected to occur during
the useful life of its key components. In           The following forecast analysis examines
airport planning, this involves projecting          recent      developments,       historical
potential aviation activity over at least a         information, and current aviation trends
20-year time frame. For primary com-                to provide an updated set of aviation
mercial service airports such as Sioux              demand projections for Sioux Falls
Falls Regional Airport, forecasts of air-           Regional Airport. The intent is to permit
line passengers, air cargo, based aircraft,         the Sioux Falls Regional Airport
and operations (takeoffs and landings)              Authority to make planning adjustments,
serve as the basis for facility planning.           as necessary, to ensure that the facility
                                                    meets projected demands in an efficient
Aviation activity can be affected by many           and cost-effective manner.
influences on the local, regional, and
national levels, making it virtually                This is the first planning forecast to be
impossible to predict year-to-year                  prepared for Sioux Falls Regional Airport
fluctuations of activity over 20 years              subsequent to the events of September
with any certainty into the future.                 11, 2001. Immediately following the
Therefore, it is important to remember              terrorist attacks, the national airspace
that forecasts are to serve only as                 system was closed and all civilian
guidelines and planning must remain                 flights were grounded.           Follow-

ing the resumption of flights, commer-           In the seven years prior to 2001, the
cial airline traffic declined, which led         U.S. civil aviation industry experi-
to schedule reductions and layoffs by            enced unprecedented growth in de-
many of the commercial airlines to re-           mand and profits. The impacts to the
duce operating losses.                           economy and aviation industry from
                                                 the events of 9/11 were immediate and
The federal government provided bil-             significant. The economic climate and
lions of dollars in financial assistance         aviation industry, however, have been
to the commercial airlines, along with           on the recovery. U.S. airline passen-
loan guarantees. Similar assistance              gers (combined domestic and interna-
was not provided for the general avia-           tional) are expected to recover to pre-
tion industry until early 2004. The              9/11 levels in 2005, and then grow at
cumulative impacts of 9/11 may only              an average of 3.6 percent annually
be determined over time. Prior to up-            through 2016. Mainline air carriers
dating the airport=s forecasts, the fol-         will grow at 3.1 percent annually,
lowing section discusses the trends in           while the regional/commuter airlines
aviation at the national level.                  are expected to grow at a pace of 5.5
                                                 percent annually.      U.S. airline air
                                                 cargo revenue ton miles (RTMs) are
NATIONAL                                         projected to grow at 5.1 percent annu-
AVIATION TRENDS                                  ally. The number of active general
                                                 aviation aircraft is expected to grow at
Each year, the FAA updates and pub-              1.1 percent annually.
lishes a national aviation forecast. In-
cluded in this publication are forecasts
for the large air carriers, re-                  COMMERCIAL AVIATION
gional/commuter air carriers, general
aviation, and FAA workload measures.             Commercial aviation has emerged into
The forecasts are prepared to meet the           three basic groupings of air carriers:
budget and planning needs of the con-
stituent units of the FAA and to pro-            Legacy Network Carriers - This
vide information that can be used by             group includes the airlines established
state and local authorities, the avia-           prior to deregulation in 1978 (e.g.,
tion industry, and the general public.           Alaska Airlines, American Airlines,
The current edition when this chapter            Continental Airlines, Delta Airlines,
was prepared was FAA Aerospace                   Northwest Airlines, United Airlines,
Forecasts-Fiscal Years 2005-2016, pub-           US Airways). The legacy airlines were
lished in March 2005. The forecasts              the most impacted by 9/11, and now
use the economic performance of the              are undergoing restructuring efforts to
United States as an indicator of future          redefine themselves in the new operat-
aviation industry growth.        Similar         ing environment of the industry.
economic analyses are applied to the             These airlines operate primarily in
outlook for aviation growth in interna-          hub-and-spoke networks and generally
tional markets.                                  have higher operating costs. The leg-

acy airlines have been downsizing and             system-wide domestic enplanements
cost-cutting to become competitive                were up 7.2 percent in 2004.
with the low-cost carriers. The string
of negative external events, out of the           System capacity is measured in avail-
control of the airlines, has made if dif-         able seat miles (ASM). System capac-
ficult for most of the legacy carriers to         ity declined 20 percent immediately
achieve profitability.                            following 9/11. While some recovery
                                                  took place in 2002 and 2003, system
Low-Cost Carriers - This group is                 capacity remained below the pre-9/11
comprised of established low-cost car-            levels until 2004. Domestic ASMs
riers, new entrants, and a few restruc-           grew an average of 7.0 percent in
tured legacy carriers (American Trans             2004.
Air, America West Airlines, AirTran,
Frontier Airlines, JetBlue Airways,               Between 1994 and 2000, the U.S. air
Southwest Airlines, and Spirit Air-               carriers saw revenue passenger miles
lines). These carriers typically oper-            (RPMs) grow at an annual average
ate point-to-point and have lower op-             rate of 5.1 percent, while enplaned
erating costs than their legacy coun-             passengers grew at a 4.3 percent an-
terparts. Their post-9/11 strategy has            nual rate. Both measures of demand
been growth in airports and city-pairs            declined in 2001 and 2002. RPMs and
served, aircraft fleet, and longer-haul           enplanements were down a combined
flights.                                          9.1 and 10.3 percent, respectively, over
                                                  the two-year period. RPMs grew 2.6
Regionals/Commuters - This group-                 percent in 2003 and 10.6 percent in
ing includes 79 airlines that operate             2004. Domestic enplanements grew
turboprop and jet aircraft with 90                by 2.5 percent in 2003 and 7.2 in 2004.
seats or less. Their operating strategy           Load factors raised by 2.4 points in
focuses around providing feeder traffic           2004, to 75.2 percent, an all-time high.
through a code-sharing arrangement
with a legacy airline. Some have be-              Overall, the FAA projects the U.S.
gun point-to-point service in competi-            commercial aviation industry to grow
tion with the larger carriers. Since              its ASMs at an annual average rate of
9/11, the regional commuters have                 3.8 percent through 2016. Enplane-
benefited from the route restructuring            ments are projected to grow at an av-
and cost-cutting of the legacy network,           erage annual rate of 3.4 percent, and
taking over service to thinner me-                RPMs are projected to grow at 3.9 per-
dium-haul and long-haul markets.                  cent annually through 2016.

Since 2000, legacy air carrier en-
planements are down over 20 percent.              Mainline Airlines
Their market share has declined from
70 percent in 2000 to 57 percent in               Driven by an expanding economy and
2004. Despite the continued declines              stronger passenger demand, ASMs for
in the legacy air carrier enplanements,           the mainline carriers (legacy and low-

cost carriers operating aircraft with            cent in 2004, which is an all-time high.
greater than 90 seats) are projected to          This is expected to jump to 75.5 per-
increase by 4.9 percent in 2005. Leg-            cent in 2005, and then increase more
acy air carrier reductions in the winter         gradually to 76.1 percent by 2016.
of 2004-05 are expected to keep ASM
growth to just 0.6 percent in 2005.              The main factor behind the major air-
Growth in 2006 is projected to re-               line restructuring is the decline in
bound by 4.8 percent, then average 3.5           domestic passenger yields brought on
percent annually through 2016.                   by competition from successful low-
                                                 cost carriers.    Domestic passenger
Domestic enplanements are projected              yields were down 2.2 percent in 2004.
to increase just 0.7 percent in 2005,            The yields are expected to decline an
3.7 percent in 2006, and then average            additional 3.1 percent in 2005, then
2.9 percent per year through 2016.               increase 0.4 percent in 2006. After
Most of this growth is expected to               2006, domestic passenger yields aver-
come from the low-cost carriers. Full            age 1.2 percent annual growth over
recovery to pre-9/11 large air carrier           the remaining 10 years.       Nominal
enplanements is not expected until               yields are not expected to even reach
2009. The national enplanement his-              the pre-9/11 yields during the 12-year
tory and projections are depicted on             planning period.
Exhibit 2A.
                                                 In inflation-adjusted terms, domestic
The FAA also provides forecasts of to-           passenger yields were down 4.2 per-
tal international passenger demand               cent in 2004. The FAA projects infla-
(the sum of U.S. and foreign flag car-           tion-adjusted yields to decline 5.7 per-
riers) for travel between the United             cent in 2005, and then decline an av-
States and three world travel areas:             erage of 1.7 percent through 2016.
Atlantic, Latin America (including               These trends can be attributed to the
Mexico and the Caribbean), and                   ongoing pressure to hold down fares
Asia/Pacific, as well as for the                 due to competition from the low-cost
U.S./Canadian transborder traffic.               carriers. This will further pressure
Over the entire forecast period, pas-            the legacy air carriers to carefully
senger demand is expected to be the              maintain capacity and control costs.
strongest in Asia/Pacific and Latin
America markets, growing at annual               Mainline carrier operations, which
rates of 5.5 and 5.1 percent, respec-            have declined by 14.7 percent since
tively. U.S. mainline carrier interna-           2000, were up 0.8 percent in 2004.
tional enplanements are expected to              They are projected to decline 0.3 per-
grow 6.3 percent in 2006, and 4.4 per-           cent in 2005 before growing by 3.4
cent annually over the final 10 years            percent in 2006. Beyond that, the an-
of the forecast period, reaching 103.0           nual rate is projected to average 2.5
million by 2016.                                 percent. Mainline carrier operations
                                                 are not expected to reach pre-9/11 lev-
Load factors for the mainline carriers           els until 2012.
reached an all-time high of 75.9 per-


                                                      U.S. MAINLINE AIR CARRIER PASSENGER ENPLANEMENTS
                                                            HISTORICAL                              FORECAST

                     PASSENGERS (in millions)







                                                       '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11 '12 '13 '14 '15 '16

                    Source: FAA Aerospace Forecasts, FY 2005-2016                        Domestic          International

                                                            HISTORICAL                              FORECAST

                     PASSENGERS (in millions)








                                                       '99 '00 '01 '02 '03 '04 '05 '06 '07 '08 '09 '10 '11 '12 '13 '14 '15 '16

                    Source: FAA Aerospace Forecasts, FY 2005-2016

                                                                                                                              Exhibit 2A
                                                                                                            U.S. LARGE AIR CARRIER AND
                                                                                                       REGIONAL/COMMUTER FORECASTS
The slower growth in operations re-               Regional/commuter traffic continued
flects primarily on the efficiencies ex-          to grow in 2004 to 128.9 million pas-
pected from the industry restructur-              sengers. This is up 18.7 percent from
ing. The higher load factor discussed             108.6 million passengers in 2003.
earlier is one of the reasons. A second           Since 2000, regional/commuter en-
is that average aircraft seating capac-           planements are up 55.7 percent. De-
ity is projected to increase by 0.4 seats         spite the events of 9/11, many re-
annually over the forecast period.                gional/commuters were able to main-
This will occur as the major airlines             tain their previous flight schedules. In
shift more of their thin routes to their          fact, most have even increased their
regional affiliates.                              flight schedules in response to the
                                                  transfer of additional routes from their
The mainline carriers are also shifting           larger code-sharing partners.
many of their shorter distance routes
to the regional airlines. This is result-         Driven by the rapid introduction of
ing in increased passenger trip                   new regional jets, regional airline ca-
lengths. The average passenger trip               pacity (ASMs) was up an additional 25
length on the mainline carriers has               percent in 2004. The average passen-
increased by 87.1 miles per passenger             ger trip length increased 39.3 miles in
since 2001. As demand recovers, how-              2004. This reflects the fact that the
ever, the larger air carriers are ex-             routes being transferred from the lar-
pected to resume some of the medium-              ger network partners are the medium-
haul routes. Nonetheless, the average             haul, non-traditional regional markets
trip length is projected to increase an           which can be more efficiently flown
average of 7.2 miles per year through             with the regional jet.         The re-
2016, as the regional/commuter air-               gional/commuters also achieved an all-
lines continue to expand the number               time-high load factor of 67.9 percent in
of markets they serve.                            2004, an increase of 3.2 percent over
                                                  the previous year.

Regional/Commuter Airlines                        Industry growth is expected to con-
                                                  tinue to outpace that of the larger
There are several important trends for            commercial air carriers. The introduc-
the regional/commuters that were                  tion of new state-of-the-art aircraft,
brought about by the changes in the               especially high-speed turboprops and
major airline industry and introduc-              regional jets with ranges well over
tion of the regional jet. These include:          1,000 miles, is expected to open up
increased capacity, increased passen-             new opportunities for growth in non-
ger trip length, growing load factors,            traditional markets. The regional air-
and increased passengers. The re-                 line industry will also continue to
gional/commuters enplanement his-                 benefit from integration with the lar-
tory and projections are depicted on              ger air carriers. As the legacy air car-
Exhibit 2A.                                       riers reduce costs and fleet size, they

will continue to transfer smaller, mar-          lion in 2004, to 245.5 million in 2016.
ginally profitable routes to the re-             By 2016, regional/commuters are ex-
gional air carriers. Between 2000 and            pected to carry 23.4 percent of all pas-
2003, over 1,060 regional jets have              sengers, up from 18.7 percent in 2004.
been put in service.                             Regional/commuter operations are ex-
                                                 pected to increase at 13.6 percent over
Likewise, the increased use of regional          the next two years. Thereafter, opera-
jets will continue the trend of the re-          tions are forecast to grow at 2.5 per-
gional/commuters serving many of the             cent annually.
lower-density routes of their major
network partner. Regional jet aircraft           The average trip length is projected to
can serve these markets with the                 grow from 411.6 miles to 494.5 miles
speed and comfort of a larger jet, while         by 2016. Most of this growth is pro-
at the same time providing greater               jected to occur between 2004 and 2007
service frequency that is not economi-           when trip lengths will increase by a
cally feasible with larger jets. This is         combined 57.5 miles, or 14.5 miles per
expected to contribute to strong                 year.    The large increase between
growth during the early portion of the           2004 and 2007 is the result of the con-
planning period, although this phe-              tinued integration of regional jets and
nomenon is expected to diminish dur-             transfer of longer stage-length flights
ing the mid-to-latter portion of the             from the network partners.        After
planning period.                                 2007, passenger trip lengths will in-
                                                 crease by 4.4 miles per year.
The     FAA      forecasts    the   re-
gional/commuter capacity to increase
by 20.7 percent in 2005 and 11.9 per-            AIR CARGO
cent in 2006. These large increases
result from the projected delivery of            Air cargo traffic is comprised of
nearly 439 regional jets in this two-            freight/express and mail. Air cargo is
year period. With 1,630 regional jets            moved either in the bellies of passen-
in service in 2004, the FAA projects             ger aircraft or in dedicated all-cargo
this will increase by nearly 50 percent          aircraft. FAA data and forecasts are
to 2,960 by 2016. Capacity growth                presented in revenue ton miles
will slow to 4.9 percent annually after          (RTMs).
2005. An expected increase in the use
of larger 70- and 90-passsenger re-              Air cargo activity has historically had
gional jets will increase the average            a high correlation to Gross Domestic
seating capacity from 46.3 seats in              Product (GDP). Other factors that af-
2004 to 54.9 seats by 2016.                      fect air cargo growth are real yields,
                                                 improved productivity, and globaliza-
Enplanements are expected to grow                tion. Ongoing trends that could im-
15.4 percent in 2005 and 9.9 percent             prove the air cargo market include the
in 2006. Between 2004 and 2016, en-              opportunities from open skies agree-
planements will grow an average of               ments, decreasing costs from global
5.5 percent annually, from 128.9 mil-            airline alliances, and increasing busi-

ness volumes from e-commerce. At                      over the last two decades. This is
the same time, trends that could limit                the majority of domestic air cargo
air cargo growth include increased use                activity.
of e-mail, decreased costs of sending
documents by facsimile, and increased             •   Modal shift – Improved service
airline costs due to environmental and                and economics from the use of al-
security restrictions.                                ternative modes of cargo transport
                                                      by the integrated cargo carriers
Before 2001, air cargo was the fastest                (e.g., FedEx, UPS, and DHL) has
growing sector of the aviation indus-                 matured.
try. From 1994 through 2000, total
tons and RTMs grew at annual aver-                •   Increased USPS use of all-
age rates of 8.0 and 8.6 percent. An                  cargo carriers – This initially re-
economic slowdown in the U.S., com-                   sulted from the U.S. Postal Ser-
bined with the collapse of the high-                  vice’s (USPS) need to improve con-
tech industry and a slowing of im-                    trol over delivery. The trend has
ports, resulted in declines of 5.0 per-               continued due to security regula-
cent in tons and 3.9 percent in RTMs.                 tions.
Traffic began to recover in 2002 and
2003, showing increases, albeit not as            •   Increased use of mail substi-
strong as in the past decade.                         tutes – Substitutes such as e-mail
                                                      affect mail volume. The residual
The FAA notes there are several                       fear of mail because of terrorism
structural changes that are occurring                 has also been a factor.
within the air cargo industry. Among
them are the following:                           FAA’s forecasts of air cargo RTMs are
                                                  predicated on several assumptions:
•   Security regulations – Security
    regulations put in place shortly af-          1) security restrictions concerning air
    ter 9/11 shifted cargo from the pas-             cargo transportation will stay in
    senger airlines to the all-cargo air-            place;
    lines. Additional regulations have
    been put in place since. These in-            2) there will be no additional terrorist
    clude requiring the carriers to con-             attacks in the U.S.;
    duct random inspections, codifying
    and strengthening the “known                  3) there will be continued domestic
    shipper” program, and establishing               and international economic growth;
    a security program specifically to
    all-cargo operations by aircraft              4) most of the modal shift from air to
    over 20,000 pounds.                              ground has occurred; and

•   Market maturation – The ex-                   5) in the long term, cargo activity will
    press market in the United States                be tied to economic growth.
    has matured after dramatic growth

The number of RTMs flown by U.S.                  to 38.6 percent by 2016. Wide-body
carriers grew by 4.8 percent in 2004 to           aircraft will increase proportionally.
35.1 billion. Total RTMs are forecast
to increase 5.5 percent in 2005 and 5.2
percent in 2006. Over the following 10            GENERAL AVIATION
years, total RTMs are projected to in-
crease at an annual average rate of 5.1           Following more than a decade of de-
percent. Exhibit 2B depicts the FAA               cline, the general aviation industry
forecasts for air cargo RTMs.                     was revitalized with the passage of the
                                                  General Aviation Revitalization Act in
Domestic cargo RTMs increased by 3.8              1994 that limits the liability on gen-
percent in 2004 to 15.5 billion, primar-          eral aviation aircraft to 18 years from
ily due to U.S. economic growth. Do-              the date of manufacture. This legisla-
mestic RTMs are projected to increase             tion sparked an interest to renew the
3.9 percent in 2005 and 3.5 percent in            manufacturing of general aviation air-
2006.    From 2007 through 2016,                  craft due to the reduction in product
growth is expected to average 3.2 per-            liability, as well as renewed optimism
cent annually, based upon projected               for the industry. The high cost of
U.S. GDP growth.                                  product liability insurance had been a
                                                  major factor in the decision by many
Between 1996 and 2004, the all-cargo              U.S. aircraft manufacturers to slow or
carrier percentage of U.S. domestic               discontinue the production of general
RTMs grew from 64.6 percent to 75.9               aviation aircraft.
percent. By 2016, this share is pro-
jected to increase to 80 percent based            The sustained growth in the general
upon the advantages provided by the               aviation industry slowed considerably
integrated carriers.                              in 2001, negatively impacted by the
                                                  events of September 11. Thousands of
International RTMs flown by U.S. car-             general     aviation   aircraft    were
riers grew to 19.6 billion in 2004, a 5.5         grounded for weeks due to no-fly zone
percent increase over the previous                restrictions imposed on operations of
year. The FAA forecasts a 6.7 percent             aircraft in security-sensitive areas.
increase in 2005 and a 6.5 percent in-            General aviation aircraft remain re-
crease in 2006, followed by an average            stricted at Washington National Air-
annual increase of 6.3 percent through            port. This, in addition to the economic
2016. The all-cargo carriers’ percent-            recession that began in early 2001,
age of the international market is pro-           has had a negative impact on the gen-
jected to increase from 59.7 percent in           eral aviation industry. General avia-
2004 to 63.6 percent by 2016.                     tion shipments by U.S. manufacturers
                                                  declined for three straight years from
The all-cargo large jet aircraft fleet is         2001 through 2003.
expected to grow from 947 in 2004, to
1,312 by 2016. Narrow-body aircraft               Stimulated by an expanding U.S.
in the fleet are projected to decline             economy, as well as accelerated depre-
from 54.2 percent of the fleet in 2004,           ciation allowances for operators of new


                                           INTERNATIONAL AIR CARGO REVENUE TON-MILES (RTM's)
                                                       U.S. COMMERCIAL CARRIER
                                     42               HISTORICAL                                               FORECASTS
                     BILLION RTM's

                                             '99   '00   '01   '02   '03   '04   '05   '06   '07   '08   '09    '10   '11   '12   '13    '14   '15   '16

                                          All-Cargo Carrier           Passenger Carrier                          Source: FAA Aerospace Forecasts, FY 2005-2016

                                                DOMESTIC AIR CARGO REVENUE TON-MILES (RTM's)
                                                          U.S. COMMERCIAL CARRIER
                                                      HISTORICAL                                               FORECASTS
                     BILLION RTM's


                                             '99   '00   '01   '02   '03   '04   '05   '06   '07   '08   '09    '10   '11   '12   '13    '14   '15   '16

                                          All-Cargo Carrier           Passenger Carrier

                    Source: FAA Aerospace Forecasts, FY 2005-2016

                                                                                                                                               Exhibit 2B
                                                                                                                              U.S. AIR CARGO FORECASTS
aircraft, general aviation staged a              In 2003, there were an estimated
relatively strong recovery in 2004.              210,600 active general aviation air-
U.S. general aviation aircraft manu-             craft in the U.S. Exhibit 2C depicts
facturer shipments increased by 10.2             the FAA forecast for active general
percent over the previous year. Pis-             aviation aircraft. The FAA projects an
tons (10.6 percent), turboprops (19.0            average annual increase of 1.1 percent
percent), and jets (4.6 percent) all had         through 2016, resulting in 240,070 ac-
increased shipments.                             tive aircraft. Piston-powered aircraft
                                                 are expected to grow at an average
Resilience being demonstrated in the             annual rate of 0.2 percent. This is
piston aircraft market offers hope that          due, in part, to declining numbers of
the new aircraft models are attracting           multi-engine piston aircraft, and the
interest in the low-end market of gen-           attrition of approximately 1,500 older
eral aviation. The introduction of new           single-engine aircraft annually. In
light sport aircraft could provide fur-          addition, it is expected that the new,
ther stimulation in the coming years.            light sport aircraft and the relatively
                                                 inexpensive microjets will dilute or
Despite a slower growth rate in ship-            weaken the replacement market for
ments than pistons and turboprops in             piston aircraft.
2004, new models of business jets are
also stimulating interest for the high-          Owners of ultralight aircraft could be-
end of the market. The FAA still ex-             gin registering their aircraft as “light
pects the business segment to expand             sport” aircraft in 2005. The FAA es-
at a faster rate than personal/sport             timates there will be a registration of
flying.    Safety concerns, combined             10,000 aircraft in 2005-06. After that,
with increased processing time at                the forecast expects 300 to 500 new
commercial terminals, make busi-                 aircraft will enter the active fleet on
ness/corporate flying an attractive al-          an annual basis.
                                                 Turbine-powered aircraft (turboprop
Another contributing factor to busi-             and jet) are expected to grow at an av-
ness/corporate aviation growth has               erage annual rate of 3.2 percent over
been the increasing popularity of frac-          the forecast period. Even more sig-
tional ownership in aircraft.        Ap-         nificant, the jet portion of this fleet is
proximately 14 percent of the business           expected to grow at an average annual
jet deliveries in 2004 went to frac-             growth rate of 5.4 percent. The total
tional companies. The total number               number of jets in the general aviation
of airplanes in fractional programs has          fleet is projected to grow from 8,425 in
increased by 65.6 percent since 2000.            2004, to 15,900 by 2016.
By the end of 2004, there were 4,765
individuals and companies in the U.S.            The Business Aviation Panel has sug-
that owned a share in a fractional air-          gested that the market for the new
craft. Still, the FAA believes that only         Eclipse jet aircraft could add 5,000
a small percentage of this market has            more aircraft to the fleet by 2010.
been developed.                                  This twin-engine business jet is ex-


                                                                 U.S. ACTIVE GENERAL AVIATION AIRCRAFT
                                                                                    ACTUAL                                              FORECAST
                     AIRCRAFT (in thousands)






                                                     1980           1985           1990             1995         2000          2005          2010           2015

                                                U.S. ACTIVE GENERAL AVIATION AIRCRAFT (in thousands)
                                                                         FIXED WING
                                                                  PISTON                 TURBINE             ROTORCRAFT
                                                            Single     Multi-                                                          Sport
                                           Year             Engine     Engine   Turboprop   Turbojet   Piston    Turbine Experimental Aircraft      Other   Total

                                           2004             144.0      17.7        7.3        8.4          2.2     4.7         20.8       N/A       6.2     211.3
                                               2008         145.5      17.5        7.7       10.5          2.4     4.9         21.3       10.8      6.1     227.7
                                               2012         147.0      17.4        8.1       13.3          2.5    5.1.         21.4       13.2      5.9     233.9
                                               2016         148.0      17.2        8.4       15.9          2.6     5.3         21.4       15.4      5..8    240.1

                    Source: FAA Aerospace Forecasts, Fiscal Years 2005-2016.

                    Notes:                           An active aircraft is one that has a current registration and was flown
                                                     at least one hour during the calendar year.

                                                                                                                                                          Exhibit 2C
                                                                                                                                      U.S. ACTIVE GENERAL AVIATION
                                                                                                                                               AIRCRAFT FORECASTS
pected to be priced between $1 million            As broad as this assumption may be,
and $2 million, and is believed to have           the trend line projection does serve as
the potential to redefine business jet            a reliable benchmark for comparing
flying with the capability to support a           other projections.
true on-demand air taxi business ser-
vice. The FAA forecast assumes that               Correlation analysis provides a meas-
microjets will begin to enter the active          ure of direct relationship between two
fleet in 2006 with 100 new aircraft,              separate sets of historic data. Should
and then grow by 400 to 500 aircraft              there be a reasonable correlation be-
per year, contributing a total of 4,500           tween the data sets, further evalua-
aircraft to the jet forecast by 2016.             tion using regression analysis may be

FORECASTING APPROACH                              Regression analysis measures statisti-
                                                  cal relationships between dependent
The development of aviation forecasts             and independent variables, yielding a
proceeds through both analytical and              “correlation coefficient.” The correla-
judgmental processes.      A series of            tion coefficient (Pearson’s “r”) meas-
mathematical relationships is tested              ures association between the changes
to establish statistical logic and ra-            in the dependent variable and the in-
tionale for projected growth. However,            dependent variable(s).      If the “r-
the judgment of the forecast analyst,             squared” value (coefficient determina-
based upon professional experience,               tion) is greater than 0.95, it indicates
knowledge of the aviation industry,               good predictive reliability. A value
and assessment of the local situation,            less than 0.95 may be used, but with
is important in the final determination           the understanding that the predictive
of the preferred forecast. The most               reliability is lower.
reliable approach to estimating avia-
tion demand is through the utilization            Market share analysis involves a his-
of more than one analytical technique.            torical review of the airport activity as
Methodologies frequently considered               a percentage, or share, of a larger re-
include trend line/time-series projec-            gional, state, or national aviation
tions, correlation/regression analysis,           market. A historical market share
and market share analysis.                        trend is determined, providing an ex-
                                                  pected market share for the future.
Trend line/time-series projections are            These shares are then multiplied by
probably the simplest and most famil-             the forecasts of the larger geographical
iar of the forecasting techniques. By             area to produce a market share projec-
fitting growth curves to historical               tion. This method has the same limi-
data, then extending them into the fu-            tations as trend line projections, but
ture, a basic trend line projection is            can provide a useful check on the va-
produced. A basic assumption of this              lidity of other forecasting techniques.
technique is that outside factors will
continue to affect aviation demand in             It is important to note that one should
much the same manner as in the past.              not assume a high level of confidence

in forecasts that extend beyond five              •   COMMERCIAL SERVICE
years. Facility and financial planning                • Annual Enplaned Passengers
usually require at least a 10-year pre-               • Operations and Fleet Mix
view, since it often takes more than                  • Peak Activity
five years to complete a major facility               • Annual Instrument Approaches
development program. However, it is
important to use forecasts which do               •   AIR FREIGHT AND AIR MAIL
not overestimate revenue-generating                   • Enplaned Pounds
capabilities or understate demand for
facilities needed to meet public (user)           •   GENERAL AVIATION
needs. Facility and financial planning                • Based Aircraft
usually require at least a 10-year pre-               • Based Aircraft Fleet Mix
view, since it often takes more than                  • Local and Itinerant Operations
five years to complete a major facility               • Peak Activity
development program. However, it is                   • Annual Instrument Approaches
important to use forecasts which do
not overestimate revenue-generating               •   AIR TAXI AND MILITARY
capabilities or understate demand for                 • Local and Itinerant Operations
facilities needed to meet public (user)
                                                  COMMERCIAL SERVICE

AVIATION ACTIVITY                                 To determine the types and sizes of
FORECASTS                                         facilities necessary to properly ac-
                                                  commodate present and future airline
The following forecast analysis exam-             activity at any airport, two basic ele-
ines each of the aviation demand cate-            ments must be forecast: annual en-
gories expected at Sioux Falls Re-                planed passengers and annual aircraft
gional Airport over the next 20 years.            operations. The number of annual en-
Each segment will be examined indi-               planed passengers is the most basic
vidually, and then collectively, to pro-          indicator of demand for commercial
vide an understanding of the overall              service activity. From a forecast of
aviation activity at the airport                  annual enplanements, operations and
through 2025.                                     other activity descriptors can be pro-
                                                  jected based upon behavioral factors
The need for airport facilities at Sioux          characteristic of Sioux Falls Regional
Falls Regional Airport can best be de-            Airport or the airline industry as a
termined by accounting for forecasts of           whole.
future aviation demand. Therefore,
the remainder of this chapter presents            The term “enplanement” refers to a
the forecasts for airport users, and in-          passenger boarding an airline flight.
cludes the following:                             Enplaning passengers are then de-
                                                  scribed in terms of “originating” or

“transfer.” Originating passengers are           Exhibit 2D depicts the top 10 domes-
those who board and depart in a com-             tic destination markets for air travel-
mercial service aircraft from an air-            ers in the Sioux Falls catchment area
port. Transfer passengers are all oth-           and current non-stop flights by desti-
ers, including those who have de-                nation.
parted from another location and are
aboard aircraft using the airport as an          TABLE 2A
intermediate stop.                               Annual Enplanements
                                                 Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                                    Year      Enplanements    % Change
                                                    1975           236,988           N/A
Passenger Enplanements                              1976           241,699          2.0%
                                                    1977           239,367         -1.0%
Table 2A provides a history of pas-                 1978           280,389         17.1%
senger enplanements at Sioux Falls                  1979           282,001          0.6%
                                                    1980           233,985        -17.0%
Regional Airport since 1975. This in-
                                                    1981           172,690        -26.2%
formation was obtained from airport                 1982           201,956         16.9%
records. Over the past 31 years, the                1983           216,819          7.4%
airport has seen its passenger activity             1984           200,661         -7.5%
fluctuate. The airport recorded a re-               1985           238,813         19.0%
                                                    1986           264,213         10.6%
cord number of passengers in 2000,
                                                    1987           268,827          1.7%
with 362,000 enplanements. A decline                1988           235,831        -12.3%
in passengers would soon follow, with               1989           230,053         -2.5%
annual enplanements falling 17 per-                 1990           233,257          1.4%
cent between 2000 and 2003, which is                1991           228,881         -1.9%
                                                    1992           281,389         22.9%
a loss of more than 61,000 passengers.
                                                    1993           267,470         -4.9%
A number of reasons contributed to                  1994           283,491          6.0%
this decline including: the loss in air             1995           286,707          1.1%
service described above; the events of              1996           336,694         17.4%
9/11, which precipitated a decline in               1997           354,527          5.3%
                                                    1998           344,854         -2.7%
demand and air service; and the eco-
                                                    1999           359,158          4.1%
nomic recession, which impacted air                 2000           362,000          0.8%
travel demand.                                      2001           335,502         -7.3%
                                                    2002           303,897         -9.4%
With the introduction of new air ser-               2003           300,958         -1.1%
                                                    2004           335,076         11.5%
vice in the past couple of years, en-
                                                    2005           358,450          7.0%
planements at Sioux Falls Regional
                                                 Source: Airport Records.
Airport have once again begun to in-
crease. A total of 358,450 enplane-
ments were reported in 2005, which is
an increase of more than 19 percent              The first method used to project en-
                                                 planements at Sioux Falls Regional
since 2003. This total was only 3,500
passengers less than the record high             Airport involved time-series and re-
                                                 gression analyses.     However, these
set in 2000 and is the highest total
since 9/11.                                      analyses each yielded a correlation co-
                                                 efficient of less than 0.95. As previ-


                                                               FSD                                           JFK

                                                                                  OR      CVG
                                   SLC                                                                    IAD


                                   PHX                                                        ATL
                    Sioux Falls Regional Airport (FSD)
                    Top Ten Destination
                    Non-Stop Flight by Destination

                             1.    Las Vegas, NV (LAS)                 6.   Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN (MSP)
                             2.    Denver, CO (DEN)                    7.   Orlando, FL (SFB)
                             3.    Chicago, IL (ORD)                   8.   New York, NY (JFK)
                             4.    Phoenix, AZ (PHX)                   9.   Dallas/Ft. Worth, TX (DFW)
                             5.    Washington D.C. (IAD)              10.   Atlanta, GA (ATL)

                            Minneapolis-St. Paul, MN (MSP)            Las Vegas, NV (LAS)
                            Chicago, IL (ORD)                         Phoenix, AZ (PHX)1
                            Denver, CO (DEN)                          Orlando, FL (SFB)
                            Cincinnati, OH (CVG)                      Salt Lake City (SLC)2

                        Ceased operations on April 2, 2006.
                        Started service in June 2006.

                                                                                                             Exhibit 2D
                                                                                                TOP TEN DESTINATIONS
                                                                                                AND NON-STOP FLIGHTS
ously mentioned, an “r” value of less                  Table 2B examines scheduled en-
than 0.95 does not indicate good pre-                  planements at Sioux Falls Regional
dictive reliability and is considered too              Airport as a percentage of domestic
low to be used in developing accurate                  U.S. regional airline enplanements
forecasts.                                             since 1995. The average market share
                                                       between 1995 and 2005 was 0.056 per-
Additional forecasting methods were                    cent and was at 0.055 percent in 2005.
also used to project future enplane-                   An enplanement projection based
ments at Sioux Falls Regional Airport.                 upon a continuation of the 2005 share
One method examined the airport’s                      is presented in Table 2B. This fore-
historic market share of U.S. domestic                 cast projects the airport’s enplane-
enplanements. National forecasts of                    ments to grow at an average annual
U.S. domestic enplanements are com-                    rate of 3.3 percent through 2025.
piled each year by the FAA and con-
sider the state of the economy, fuel                   A second market share examines the
prices, and prior year developments.                   airport recapturing a greater share of
According to the most recent publica-                  the market and growing at a faster
tion, FAA Aerospace Forecasts, Fiscal                  rate than national domestic airline
Years 2005-2016, domestic passenger                    enplanements. As shown in Table
enplanements are forecast to increase                  2B, this increasing share projection
at an average annual rate of 2.8 per-                  yields an average annual growth rate
cent over the 12-year forecast period.                 of 4.1 percent and 805,200 enplane-
                                                       ments in 2025.

 Market Share of U.S. Domestic Passenger Enplanements
 Sioux Falls Regional Airport (FSD)
                          FSD                        U.S. Domestic             FSD Market Share
   Year              Enplanements                    Enplanements               of Enplanements
    1995                286,707                        531,100,000                     0.054%
    1996                336,694                        558,100,000                     0.060%
    1997                354,527                        578,300,000                     0.061%
    1998                344,854                        589,300,000                     0.059%
    1999                359,158                        610,900,000                     0.059%
    2000                362,000                        641,200,000                     0.056%
    2001                335,502                        626,800,000                     0.054%
    2002                303,897                        574,500,000                     0.053%
    2003                300,598                        587,900,000                     0.051%
    2004                335,076                        627,200,000                     0.053%
    2005                358,450                        649,600,000                     0.055%
 Constant Market Share
    2010                427,800                        777,800,000                     0.055%
    2015                499,300                        907,800,000                     0.055%
    2025                681,300                       1,238,800,000                    0.055%
 Increasing Market Share
    2010                443,300                        777,800,000                     0.057%
    2015                544,700                        907,800,000                     0.060%
    2025                805,200                       1,238,800,000                    0.065%
 Source: Historical and Forecast U.S. Domestic Enplanements – FAA Aerospace Forecasts (2005-2016); FSD
 Historical Enplanements – Airport Records.
  Extrapolated by Coffman Associates.

The next forecast examined the travel              Based on historical trends, two projec-
propensity factor (TPF) between the                tions of TPF were developed. The first
population of the Sioux Falls MSA,                 projection assumes the TPF will re-
which includes Minnehaha and Lin-                  main static at 1.86, resulting in
coln counties, and the number of re-               530,100 annual enplanements by the
ported enplanements. As shown in                   year 2025. A second forecast assumes
Table 2C, the TPF was 1.85 in 1995.                the TPF will continue to increase, as
Although this number has fluctuated                has been the trend at the airport since
over the past 10 years, it returned to             2003.     This increasing TPF yields
nearly the same number in 2005,                    642,200 annual enplanements by the
when a TPF of 1.86 was reported.                   end of the planning period. These
                                                   forecasts are presented in Table 2C.

Travel Propensity (Sioux Falls MSA)
Sioux Falls Regional Airport (FSD)
                       FSD                      Sioux Falls MSA          Travel Propensity
  Year           Enplanements                      Population                  Factor
  1995               286,707                         154,940                     1.85
  1996               336,694                         158,290                     2.13
  1997               354,527                         161,700                     2.19
  1998               344,854                         165,200                     2.09
  1999               359,158                         168,770                     2.13
  2000               362,000                         172,412                     2.10
  2001               335,502                         176,340                     1.90
  2002               303,897                         180,360                     1.68
  2003               300,598                         184,470                     1.63
  2004               335,076                         188,680                     1.78
  2005               358,450                         192,980                     1.86
Constant TPF
  2010               401,200                         216,000                     1.86
  2015               445,800                         240,000                     1.86
  2025               530,100                         285,400                     1.86
Increasing TPF
  2010               421,200                         216,000                     1.95
  2015               492,000                         240,000                     2.05
  2025               642,200                         285,400                     2.25
Source: FSD Historical Enplanements – Airport Records; Historical Population – U.S. Census Bu-
reau; Forecast Population – City of Sioux Falls Planning Department.

The FAA Terminal Area Forecast                     at Sioux Falls Regional Airport, with
(TAF), released in January 2005, is                an estimated 292,800 enplaned pas-
considered for comparative purposes.               sengers. The FAA projects the air-
The FAA TAF is aligned with the fed-               port’s enplanements to reach 426,200
eral fiscal year which begins on Octo-             by 2015. It is important to note that
ber 1. The FAA TAF used Fiscal Year                the FAA TAF does not reflect the pas-
2003 as its base year for enplanements             senger growth over the past two years.
Forecasts included in the 2001 Airport              economy. For planning purposes, a
Master Plan Update were also exam-                  mid-range forecast is generally chosen
ined. The plan used 2000 as the base                if it provides a reasonable growth rate.
year, when 362,000 enplanements                     The preferred planning forecast is an
were reported. Forecasts in this plan               average of the forecasts developed by
project 580,000 annual enplanements                 Coffman Associates and is as follows:
by the year 2015. The forecasts in the              420,000 annual enplanements by
2001 Plan were prepared prior to the                2010; 486,000 annual enplanements
events of September 11, 2001 and,                   by 2015; and 645,000 annual en-
therefore, do not reflect the decline in            planements by the year 2025. This
enplanements that resulted in the af-               represents a 3.0 percent annual
termath.                                            growth rate over the next 20 years.
                                                    This is slightly higher than the his-
The spread within the high and low                  torical growth rate over the past 10
forecasts is a reasonable window                    years (2.3%) and is consistent with na-
within which actual enplanements                    tional trends. Table 2D and Exhibit
may fall in the future, based upon sev-             2E summarize the passenger en-
eral factors: number of local airlines,             planement forecasts developed for
frequency of flights, equipment, fares,             Sioux Falls Regional Airport, as well
non-stop destinations, and the local                as the preferred planning forecast.

Summary of Passenger Enplanement Forecasts
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                                     2005       2010       2015      2025
Market Share of U.S. Domestic Enplanements
  Constant Market Share                                         427,800   499,300    681,300
  Increasing Market Share                                       443,300   544,700    805,200
Travel Propensity Factor (Sioux Falls MSA)
  Constant TPF                                                 401,200    445,800    530,100
  Increasing TPF                                               421,200    492,000    642,200
FAA Terminal Area Forecast                                     375,100    426,700      -
2001 Airport Master Plan Update                                510,000    580,000      -
Preferred Planning Forecast                          358,450   420,000    486,000    645,000

Changes in the flight schedule at                   nix with regional jet service since De-
Sioux Falls Regional Airport can be                 cember 2004, will be terminating ser-
expected in the future. America West                vice on April 2, 2006. Efforts continue
Express, which has served the Sioux                 to solicit air service to new markets.
Falls market from their hub in Phoe-



                                         HISTORICAL                                                 FORECAST


                                                   Market Share of U.S. Domestic Enplanements

                    E 700,000                      Constant Market Share
                                                   Increasing Market Share
                                                   Travel Propensity Factor (Sioux Falls MSA)

                    N                              Constant TPF
                                                   Increasing TPF
                                                   2.3% Historical Growth Rate (1995-2005)
                    P 600,000                      FAA Terminal Area Forecasts
                                                   2001 Airport Master Plan Update

                    L                              Preferred Planning Forecast

                    A 500,000
                    E 400,000
                    E 300,000


                                  1995      2000                  2005                       2010      2015        2020        2025

                                                                                                                           Exhibit 2E
                                                                                                     ENPLANEMENT FORECAST SUMMARY
Fleet Mix and                                    airport, accounting for approximately
Operations Forecast                              40 percent of the fleet mix. Aircraft
                                                 with a weighted average of 126 seats
The fleet mix defines a number of key            account for approximately 37 percent
parameters in airport planning, in-              of the fleet mix.       Aircraft with a
cluding critical aircraft, stage length          weighted average of 152 seats account
capabilities, and terminal gate con-             for approximately 15 percent of the
figurations. Changes in equipment,               fleet mix and aircraft with less than
airframes, and engines have always               50 seats account for the remaining
had a significant impact on airlines             eight percent of the fleet mix.
and airport planning. There are many
ongoing programs by the manufactur-              Aircraft in the higher seating range
ers to improve performance character-            capacity (80-130 seats) are expected to
istics. These programs are focusing on           increase over the forecast period, ac-
improvements in fuel efficiency, noise           counting for approximately 44 percent
suppression, and the reduction of air            of the fleet mix by 2025. Aircraft in
emissions. A fleet mix projection for            the highest seating range capacity
Sioux Falls Regional Airport has been            (131+ seats) are also expected to in-
developed by reviewing the aircraft              crease over the forecast period, ac-
historically used by airlines serving            counting for approximately 17 percent
the airport.                                     of the fleet mix by the end of the plan-
                                                 ning period.     Aircraft in the mid-
As previously mentioned, five airlines           seating range category (50-70 seats)
currently provide scheduled passenger            and aircraft in the low seating range
service to Sioux Falls Regional Air-             capacity (< 50 seats) are expected to
port.    Allegiant Air operates the              decrease slightly over the planning pe-
McDonnell Douglas MD83 (155 seats)               riod, accounting for approximately 36
and the MD87 (130 seats). Delta Con-             percent and three percent, respec-
nection operates the 50-seat Canadair            tively, by 2025. This decrease is con-
Regional Jet and the 44-seat Canada              sistent with national trends, which
Regional Jet CR4. Northwest Airlines             show a weakening demand for the 50-
operates the Airbus A319 (124 seats),            seat aircraft as airlines find it less
the Airbus A320 (179 seats), the                 profitable than aircraft with greater
McDonnell Douglas DC9-30/40/50                   seating capacity.
(90/115/125 seats), and the 34-seat
Saab 340 (SFC) prop jet. United Ex-              The fleet mix projections have been
press operates the 50-seat CRJ and               used to calculate the average seats per
the 66-seat CRJ 700. America West                departure, which, after applying a
operates the 50-seat CRJ, but will               boarding load factor, were used to pro-
cease operations at Sioux Falls Re-              ject annual departures. A boarding
gional Airport on April 2, 2006.                 load factor is the percentage of en-
                                                 planements to aircraft seating capac-
As shown in Table 2E, aircraft with a            ity. The boarding load factor is impor-
weighted average of 52 seats make up             tant to an airline because it is the ba-
the majority of the fleet mix at the             sis for measuring the ability to profit

in a given market. When a load factor              rently 48 percent. Similar to the na-
is low, an airline will generally cut              tional trend, the boarding load factor
back the number of seats available by              for the airport is expected to increase
either reducing the size of the aircraft           slightly over the planning period,
serving the market or reducing the                 reaching 50 percent in the long term.
number of flights. Similarly, when the             To compute annual operations, the av-
load factor is high, an airline will be-           erage seats-per-aircraft was first mul-
gin to consider increasing the number              tiplied by the boarding load factor to
of flights or the size of its aircraft.            obtain average enplanements per de-
                                                   parture.    Then, forecast operations
Nationally, the FAA projects the                   were obtained by multiplying the
commuter airline load factor to rise               number of departures by two. Table
slightly from an estimated 64.9 per-               2E summarizes the airline operations
cent currently, to 67.1 by the year                forecasts according to passenger lev-
2015. The boarding load factor at                  els, aircraft mix, and boarding load
Sioux Falls Regional Airport is cur-               factors.

Airline Fleet Mix and Operations Forecast
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
    Fleet Mix Seating Capacity             2005          2010           2015      2025
        < 50 seats (41 average)
            (CR4, Saab 340)                       8%            7%          5%           3%
       50-79 seats (52 average)
          (CRJ 200, CRJ 700)                  40%            39%           38%        36%
      80-130 seats (126 average)
        (A319, DC9-50, MD 83)                 38%            40%           42%        44%
       131+ seats (172 average)
             (A320, MD 83)                    13%            14%           15%        17%
Totals                                       100%           100%          100%       100%
Average Seats Per Departure                     92             95            97        101
Boarding Load Factor                          48%            48%           49%        50%
Enplanements Per Departure                      44             45            48         51
Annual Enplanements                        358,450        420,000       486,000    645,000
Annual Departures                            8,450          9,300        10,200     12,800
Annual Operations                           16,900         18,600        20,400     25,600
Source: Coffman Associates analysis.

AIR CARGO FORECASTS                                there are three all-cargo carriers oper-
                                                   ating at the airport: DHL, FedEx, and
Air cargo is an encompassing term to               UPS. These carriers use Sioux Falls
describe the combined activities of air            as a regional hub with smaller propel-
mail and air freight/air express. Air              ler aircraft and trucks playing an im-
cargo is handled by passenger airlines,            portant role in the distribution net-
general aviation, and all-cargo air-               work. Historical enplaned air cargo
lines. At Sioux Falls Regional Airport,            (including air mail and air freight) is
presented in Table 2F. As shown in                   most of the growth in the all-cargo
the table, enplaned air cargo totals at              sector. This has been the trend for
Sioux Falls Regional Airport have                    several years, but is expected to be
fluctuated over the past 10 years,                   stronger due to the more stringent re-
ranging from a low of 29.3 million                   strictions on what can be carried on
pounds in 1998 to a high of 37.8 mil-                passenger planes. With strong growth
lion pounds in 2004. There were more                 in the all-cargo area continuing do-
than 36.5 million pounds of enplaned                 mestically, it is anticipated that the
air cargo at the airport in 2005. Be-                level of activity at Sioux Falls Re-
cause of the airport’s fluctuations in               gional Airport will continue to grow
enplaned air cargo over the past 10                  throughout the planning period.
years, a time-series analysis would not              Based on this, a forecast of enplaned
provide good predictive reliability in               air cargo was developed using an av-
developing accurate forecasts.                       erage annual growth rate of 3.2 per-
                                                     cent, which is consistent with national
An alternative method for developing                 trends. Applying this growth rate
a forecast of enplaned air cargo exam-               yields 68.6 million pounds of enplaned
ined the growth nationally. At the na-               air cargo (54.4 million pounds of air
tional level, the FAA forecasts air                  freight/14.2 million pounds of air mail)
cargo traffic to continue to grow at a               by 2025.
faster rate than passenger traffic, with

Historical Enplaned Air Cargo
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
             Enplaned Air           Enplaned Air            Total Enplaned          Annual %
  Year       Freight (lbs.)            Mail (lbs.)          Air Cargo (lbs.)         Change
   1995        27,662,407              5,123,078               32,785,485                 -
   1996        27,338,160              5,669,396               33,007,556               0.7%
   1997        31,299,240              4,839,595               36,138,835               9.5%
   1998        27,212,938              2,166,174               29,379,112             -18.7%
   1999        28,641,907              4,079,821               32,721,728              11.4%
   2000        28,481,551              4,295,333               32,776,884               0.2%
   2001        24,676,280              5,031,576               29,707,856              -9.4%
   2002        25,631,640              4,561,482               30,193,122               1.6%
   2003        30,773,738              6,207,108               36,980,846              22.5%
   2004        30,494,242              7,315,089               37,809,331               2.2%
   2005        28,994,674              7,561,287               36,555,961              -3.3%
3.2% Annual Growth Rate
   2010        33,900,000              8,900,000               42,800,000               3.2%
   2015        39,700,000              10,400,000              50,100,000               3.2%
   2025        54,400,000              14,200,000              68,600,000               3.2%
Source: Historical enplaned air cargo – Airport records; Forecasts – Based on national growth rate
of 3.2% annually.

Historical deplaned air cargo at Sioux               deplaned air cargo was developed us-
Falls Regional Airport was also exam-                ing the same 3.2 percent growth rate
ined. Historical data was available                  projected for enplaned air cargo totals.
back to 2001 and is presented in Ta-                 Applying this growth rate yields 76.6
ble 2G. There were more than 40.8                    million pounds of deplaned air cargo
million pounds of enplaned air cargo                 (61.8 million pounds of air freight/14.8
at the airport in 2005. Forecasts of                 million pounds of air mail) by 2025.

Historical Deplaned Air Cargo
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
             Deplaned Air           Deplaned Air            Total Deplaned          Annual %
  Year       Freight (lbs.)            Mail (lbs.)          Air Cargo (lbs.)         Change
   2001        26,075,330              6,073,173               32,148,503                -
   2002        28,556,132              5,349,761               33,905,893              5.5%
   2003        30,542,050              6,918,782               37,460,832              10.5%
   2004        32,524,600              8,223,725               40,748,325              8.8%
   2005        32,925,009              7,895,539               40,820,548              0.2%
3.2% Annual Growth Rate
   2010        38,500,000              9,200,000               47,700,000              3.2%
   2015        45,100,000              10,800,000              55,900,000              3.2%
   2025        61,800,000              14,800,000              76,600,000              3.2%
Source: Historical deplaned air cargo – Airport records; Forecasts – Based on national growth rate
of 3.2% annually.

Total operations and the fleet mix of                TABLE 2H
all-cargo carriers operating at Sioux                All-Cargo Operations
Falls Regional Airport were also ex-                 Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                                          Year           All-Cargo Operations
amined. Currently, DHL operates the
                                                          2005                   3,250
DC9-30/40; FedEx operates the B727-                  FORECAST
200; and UPS operates the A300-600,                       2010                   3,800
the B757-200/300, and the DC8-71/73.                      2015                   4,500
                                                          2025                   6,100
The reported number of total all-cargo               Source: Airport IQ Data
operations in 2005 was obtained from
Airport IQ Data and estimated at
3,250. A 3.2 percent annual growth                   GENERAL AVIATION
rate was applied to the forecast years.              FORECASTS
This percentage is consistent with the
projected annual growth rate of en-                  General aviation is defined as that
planed air cargo and yields 6,100 all-               portion of civil aviation which encom-
cargo operations by the year 2025.                   passes all portions of aviation, except
The forecast of all-cargo operations are             commercial operations. To determine
presented in Table 2H.                               the types and sizes of facilities that

should be planned to accommodate                   Registered Aircraft Forecasts
general aviation activity, certain ele-
ments of this activity must be forecast.           Data was collected on the history of
These indicators of general aviation               aircraft ownership in Minnehaha and
demand include: based aircraft, air-               Lincoln counties since 1995. This in-
craft fleet mix, and annual operations.            formation is presented in Table 2J.
                                                   Aircraft registrations in the bi-county
The number of based aircraft is the                area have generally increased since
most basic indicator of general avia-              1995, growing by 17 aircraft and at an
tion demand. By first developing a                 average annual growth rate of 0.7 per-
forecast of based aircraft, the growth             cent. This is below the national aver-
of aviation activities at the airport can          age of 1.6 percent growth for U.S. ac-
be projected. Aircraft basing at the               tive general aviation aircraft during
airport is somewhat dependent upon                 this same period. It is important to
the nature and degree of aircraft own-             note that hot air balloons are regis-
ership in the local service area. As a             tered in the counties; however, only
result, aircraft registrations in the              fixed-wing aircraft are included as
area were reviewed and forecast first.             part of the historical and forecast
                                                   count of registered aircraft.

 Historical Registered Aircraft – Fixed-Wing
                Minnehaha Co.            Lincoln County             Bi-County Total
   Year      Registered Aircraft        Registered Aircraft       Registered Aircraft
   1995              221                        22                        243
   1996              223                        23                        246
   1997              220                        27                        247
   1998              216                        26                        242
   1999              217                        27                        244
   2000              225                        28                        253
   2001              225                        29                        254
   2002              225                        31                        256
   2003              226                        42                        268
   2004              219                        39                        258
   2005              219                        42                        261
 Source: Aviation Goldmine CD (1996-2000); Avantex Aircraft & Airmen CD (2001-2004); FAA

Because of the fluctuations in regis-              The first method used to forecast reg-
tered aircraft in the bi-county region             istered aircraft examined the bi-
over the past 10 years, time-series and            county’s market share of U.S. active
regression analyses were not per-                  general aviation aircraft, which is pre-
formed, as they would not provide use-             sented in Table 2K. The bi-county’s
ful projections of registered aircraft             market share has remained rather
numbers.      Instead, other methods               consistent over the past 10 years and
were used to forecast registered air-              was at 0.12 percent in 2005. There-
craft in the bi-county region.
fore, only a constant market share was             303 registered aircraft in the bi-county
applied to projections of U.S. active              region by 2025.
general aviation aircraft and yields

Registered Aircraft Market Share of U.S. Active General Aviation (GA) Aircraft
Bi-County Region (Minnehaha & Lincoln Counties)
                    Bi-County                     U.S. Active                % of U.S.
  Year        Registered Aircraft                 GA Aircraft           Active GA Aircraft
  1995                 243                          188,100                    0.13%
  1996                 246                          191,100                    0.13%
  1997                 247                          192,400                    0.13%
  1998                 242                          204,700                    0.12%
  1999                 244                          219,500                    0.11%
  2000                 253                          217,500                    0.12%
  2001                 254                          211,500                    0.12%
  2002                 256                          211,200                    0.12%
  2003                 268                          210,600                    0.13%
  2004                 258                          211,300                    0.12%
  2005                 260                          219,800                    0.12%
Constant Market Share
  2010                 272                          230,300                    0.12%
  2015                 282                          238,600                    0.12%
  2025                 303                         256,200                     0.12%
Source: Historical Registered Aircraft - Aviation Goldmine CD (1996-2000); Avantex Aircraft &
Airmen CD (2001-2004); FAA (2005); Historical & Forecast U.S. Active GA Aircraft – FAA Aero-
space Forecasts, 2005-2016.

The population of the Sioux Falls MSA              A constant ratio projection of 1.35 reg-
has also been used as a comparison                 istered aircraft per 1,000 residents
with registered aircraft in the bi-                was first developed and yields 384 reg-
county region. The forecast examined               istered aircraft by 2025. A decreasing
the historical registered aircraft as a            share projection was also completed to
ratio of 1,000 residents in the Sioux              represent the historical trend at the
Falls MSA. As shown in Table 2L,                   airport.    This decreasing forecast
the 2005 estimated population for the              yields 327 registered aircraft by 2025.
MSA was 192,980, which equals 1.35                 These two market share projections
registered aircraft per 1,000 residents.           are shown in Table 2L.
This is a decrease from 1995, when the
airport had 1.57 registered aircraft per
residents in the bi-county region.

Registered Aircraft Per 1,000 Residents (Sioux Falls MSA)
Bi-County Region (Minnehaha & Lincoln Count)
                     Bi-County                  Sioux Falls MSA         Registered Aircraft
  Year           Registered Aircraft               Population           Per 1,000 Residents
   1995                  243                         154,940                    1.57
   1996                  246                         158,290                    1.56
   1997                  247                         161,700                    1.53
   1998                  242                         165,200                    1.47
   1999                  244                         168,770                    1.45
   2000                  253                         172,412                    1.47
   2001                  254                         176,340                    1.44
   2002                  256                         180,360                    1.42
   2003                  268                         184,480                    1.45
   2004                  258                         188,680                    1.37
   2005                  260                         192,980                    1.35
Constant Market Share
   2010                  290                        216,000                     1.35
   2015                  322                        240,000                     1.35
   2025                  384                        285,400                     1.35
Decreasing Market Share
   2010                  280                        216,000                     1.30
   2015                  299                        240,000                     1.25
   2025                  327                        285,400                     1.15
Source: Historical Registered Aircraft - Aviation Goldmine CD (1996-2000); Avantex Aircraft &
Airmen CD (2001-2004); FAA (2005); Historical Population – U.S. Census Bureau; Forecast Popu-
lation – City of Sioux Falls Planning Department.

The preferred planning forecast for                represents a 1.4 percent average an-
registered aircraft in the bi-county re-           nual growth rate. Table 2M summa-
gion is a mid-range of all the forecasts           rizes the registered aircraft forecasts
calculated by Coffman Associates and               developed for the bi-county region, as
yields 280 registered aircraft by 2010;            well as the preferred planning fore-
300 registered aircraft by 2015; and               cast.
340 registered aircraft by 2025. This

Registered Aircraft Forecast Summary
Bi-County Region (Minnehaha & Lincoln Counties)
                                               2005           2010        2015        2025
Market Share of U.S. Active GA Aircraft
  Constant Market Share                                           272         282        303
Registered Aircraft Per 1,000 Residents (Sioux
Falls MSA)
  Constant Ratio Projection                                       290         322        384
  Decreasing Ratio Projection                                     280         299        327
Preferred Planning Forecast                       260             280         300        340

Based Aircraft Forecasts                            formed. Instead, other methods were
                                                    used to forecast based aircraft at the
Having forecast the registered aircraft             airport.
in the bi-county region, based aircraft
at Sioux Falls Regional Airport was                 The first method examined the air-
reviewed to examine the potential                   port’s market share of registered air-
change in market share. The based                   craft in the bi-county region (Minne-
aircraft figures were obtained from the             haha and Lincoln counties), which is
FAA 5010 Form, which reflects a                     presented in Table 2N. In 2005, 37
based aircraft level of 95 in 2005. This            percent of aircraft registered in the
is an increase of 10 aircraft since 1995            two counties were based at Sioux Falls
and represents an average annual                    Regional Airport. This is a two per-
growth rate of 1.1 percent. The Sioux               cent increase over the airport’s market
Falls National Guard has approxi-                   share in 1995. A constant market
mately 18 military aircraft (F-16 jets)             share was applied to the projections of
based at the airport. For the purpose               registered aircraft and yields 124
of these forecasts, only the civilian air-          based aircraft by 2025. An increasing
craft are included in the based aircraft            market share was also developed to
count.                                              represent the historical trend. This
                                                    increasing market share projection
Because only limited counts of based                yields 139 based aircraft by the year
aircraft at the airport over the past 10            2025. These two market share projec-
years were available, time-series and               tions are presented in Table 2N.
regression analyses could not be per-

 Based Aircraft Market Share of Registered Aircraft (Minnehaha & Lincoln Counties)
 Sioux Falls Regional Airport (FSD)
                                                   Bi-County               Market Share of
   Year        FSD Based Aircraft             Registered Aircraft        Registered Aircraft
   1995                  85                            243                       35%
   2005                  95                            260                       37%
 Constant Market Share
   2010                 102                            280                       37%
   2015                 110                            300                       37%
   2025                 124                            340                       37%
 Increasing Market Share
   2010                 106                            280                       38%
   2015                 117                            300                       39%
   2025                 139                            340                       41%
 Source: Historical Registered Aircraft - Aviation Goldmine CD (1996-2000); Avantex Aircraft &
 Airmen CD (2001-2004); FAA (2005); Based Aircraft – 2001 Airport Master Plan Update, AirNav.

Projections of based aircraft were also             based at Sioux Falls Regional Airport.
made in comparison to the percentage                In 1995, based aircraft at the airport
of U.S. active general aviation aircraft            represented 0.045 percent of U.S. ac-

tive general aviation aircraft. This               aircraft by 2025. A decreasing market
percentage fell to 0.043 percent in                share forecast was also developed to
2005. Table 2P depicts a projection of             represent the historical trend at the
future based aircraft demand assum-                airport. This decreasing market share
ing the airport maintains a constant               forecast results in 105 based aircraft
market share. As shown in the table,               by 2025.
this projection results in 111 based

Based Aircraft Market Share of U.S. Active General Aviation (GA) Aircraft
Sioux Falls Regional Airport (FSD)
                                               U.S. Active              Market Share of
  Year        FSD Based Aircraft               GA Aircraft          U.S. Active GA Aircraft
  1995                 85                        188,100                     0.045%
  2005                 95                        219,800                     0.043%
Constant Market Share
  2010                100                        230,300                     0.043%
  2015                103                        238,600                     0.043%
  2025                111                        256,200                     0.043%
Decreasing Market Share
  2010                 99                        230,300                     0.043%
  2015                100                        238,600                     0.042%
  2025                105                        256,200                     0.051%
Source: Historical Registered Aircraft - Aviation Goldmine CD (1996-2000); Avantex Aircraft &
Airmen CD (2001-2004); FAA (2005); Based Aircraft – 2001 Airport Master Plan Update, AirNav.

The population of the Sioux Falls                  year 2000 and yields 140 based air-
MSA, which includes Minnehaha and                  craft by 2025. A decreasing share pro-
Lincoln counties, has also been used               jection was also completed, assuming
as a comparison with based aircraft.               the historical trend at the airport con-
The forecast examined the airport’s                tinues. This decreasing forecast yields
historical based aircraft as a ratio of            120 based aircraft by 2025. These two
1,000 residents in the two counties.               market share projections are shown in
As shown in Table 2P, the 2005 esti-               Table 2Q.
mated population of the bi-county re-
gion was 192,980, which equals 0.49                Two previous forecasts were also ex-
based aircraft per 1,000 residents.                amined. The forecast included in the
This is a decline from 1995, when                  FAA Terminal Area Forecast (TAF)
there were 0.55 based aircraft per                 used a base year of 2003 (116 based
1,000 residents in the bi-county re-               aircraft) and projects 153 based air-
gion.                                              craft at Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                                   by the year 2020. It is important to
A constant ratio of 0.49 based aircraft            note that the based aircraft forecasts
per 1,000 residents was first com-                 presented in the FAA TAF include
pleted to reflect the ratio since the              both civilian and military aircraft.

The forecast included in the 2001 Air-              and projected 139 based aircraft by
port Master Plan Update used a base                 the year 2020.
number of 97 based aircraft that year

Based Aircraft Per 1,000 Residents (Sioux Falls MSA)
Sioux Falls Regional Airport (FSD)
                                            Sioux Falls MSA           Based Aircraft Per
  Year       FSD Based Aircraft                Population               1,000 Residents
  1995                 85                        154,940                      0.55
  2005                 95                        192,980                      0.49
Constant Market Share
  2010                110                        216,000                      0.49
  2015                120                        240,000                      0.49
  2025                140                        285,400                      0.49
Decreasing Market Share
  2010                100                        216,000                      0.47
  2015                110                        240,000                      0.45
  2025                120                        285,400                      0.41
Source: Historical Registered Aircraft - Aviation Goldmine CD (1996-2000); Avantex Aircraft &
Airmen CD (2001-2004); FAA (2005); Based Aircraft – 2001 Airport Master Plan Update, AirNav.

The preferred planning forecast for                 represent an average annual growth
Sioux Falls Regional Airport is a mid-              rate of 1.6 percent. Table 2R and
range of all the new forecasts calcu-               Exhibit 2F summarize the based air-
lated by Coffman Associates and                     craft forecasts developed for Sioux
yields 105 based aircraft by 2010; 110              Falls Regional Airport, as well as the
based aircraft by 2015; and 125 based               preferred planning forecast.
aircraft by 2025. These projections

 Based Aircraft Forecast Summary
 Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                                    2005        2010      2015        2025
 Market Share of Registered Aircraft
  (Minnehaha & Lincoln Counties)
    Constant Market Share                                          102        110        124
    Increasing Market Share                                        106        117        139
 Market Share of U.S. Active GA Aircraft
    Constant Market Share                                          100        103        111
    Decreasing Market Share                                         99        100        105
 Registered Aircraft Per 1,000 Residents (Sioux
 Falls MSA)
    Constant Ratio Projection                                      110        120        140
    Decreasing Ratio Projection                                    100        110        120
 2001 Airport Master Plan Update                                   115       126         N/A
 FAA Terminal Area Forecast                                        130        140        N/A
 Preferred Planning Forecast                               95      105       110         125


                                     HISTO ICAL
                                     HISTORICAL                                              FORECAST


                    B 120
                    E 100

                    I                LEGEND
                    R                           Market Share of Registered Aircraft
                                                (Minnehaha & Lincoln County)
                    C                           Constant Market Share
                                                Increasing Market Share
                    R   60                      Market Share of U.S. Active General
                                                Aviation Aircraft
                    A                           Constant Market Share
                                                Decreasing Market Share
                    F                           Ratio per 1,000 Residents
                                                (Sioux Falls MSA)
                    T                           Constant Ratio Projection
                                                Increasing Ratio Projection
                                                2001 Airport Master Plan Update
                                                FAA Terminal Area Forecasts
                                                Preferred Planning Forecast


                              1995       2000                       2005              2010     2015          2020         2025

                                                                                                                      Exhibit 2F
                                                                                             BASED AIRCRAFT FORECAST SUMMARY
Based Aircraft Fleet Mix                                     forecast U.S. general aviation fleet
                                                             trends to the current based aircraft
According to airport records, the cur-                       fleet mix. The trend in general avia-
rent fleet mix consists of the following:                    tion is toward a greater percentage of
55 single-engine aircraft, 36 multi-                         larger, more sophisticated aircraft as
engine aircraft, and four jets. While                        part of the national fleet mix. This is
the number of general aviation air-                          reflected in an increasing percentage
craft based at Sioux Falls Regional                          of jets and multi-engine aircraft in the
Airport is projected to increase, it is                      mix at Sioux Falls Regional Airport.
important to know the fleet mix of the                       The number of single-engine aircraft
aircraft expected to use the airport.                        is expected to increase, but will de-
This will ensure the placement of                            crease as a percentage of total aircraft.
proper facilities in the future.                             The general aviation fleet mix projec-
                                                             tions for the airport are presented in
The forecast mix of based aircraft was                       Table 2S.
determined by comparing existing and

 General Aviation Fleet Mix Forecast
 Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                       EXISTING                                      FORECAST
      Type           2004         %            2010      %         2015      %        2025      %
 Single-Engine        55        57.9%           58       55.0%      59       54.0%     61       49.0%
 Multi-Engine         36        37.9%           41       39.0%      44       40.0%     55       44.0%
 Jets                  4         4.2%            6        6.0%       7        6.0%      9        7.0%
 Total                95        100.0%         105      100.0%      110     100.0%    125      100.0%

 *Multi-engine category includes turboprops.

General Aviation Operations                                  use, since business aircraft are oper-
                                                             ated on a high frequency.
General aviation operations are classi-
fied as either local or itinerant. A lo-                     Previous forecasts were first examined
cal operation is a take-off or landing                       including the FAA Terminal Area
performed by an aircraft that operates                       Forecast (TAF) and the 2001 Airport
within sight of the airport, or which                        Master Plan Update. Forecasts in-
executes simulated approaches or                             cluded in the FAA TAF used 2003 as
touch-and-go operations at the airport.                      the base year for its projections, with
Itinerant operations are those per-                          an estimated 50,468 operations that
formed by aircraft with a specific ori-                      year. Forecasts included in the FAA
gin or destination away from the air-                        TAF were provided through the year
port. Generally, local operations are                        2020. Extrapolation of the FAA TAF
characterized by training operations.                        yields 63,200 annual general aviation
Typically, itinerant operations in-                          operations by the year 2025.
crease with business and commercial

Forecasts included in the 2001 plan                A constant market share forecast of
used 2000 (54,539 operations) as a                 0.13 percent was first developed and
base year for its projections through              yields 60,800 annual general aviation
the year 2020. Extrapolation of this               operations by the year 2025. An in-
plan yields 91,700 annual general                  creasing market share forecast was
aviation operations by the year 2025.              also developed, assuming the airport’s
                                                   market share begins a return to its
In order to develop an updated fore-               previous level. This increasing mar-
cast, the FAA’s projections for annual             ket share forecast yields 78,300 an-
general aviation operations at towered             nual general aviation operations by
airports were examined, along with                 the year 2025. Historically, itinerant
Sioux Falls’ annual general aviation               operations at Sioux Falls Regional
operations and market share. Accord-               Airport are accounting for approxi-
ing to airport records, there were                 mately 60 percent of total operations,
46,785 general aviation operations for             while local operations are accounting
the year 2005. As shown in Table 2T,               for approximately 40 percent. These
this represents 0.13 percent of general            percentages were applied to the fore-
aviation operations at towered air-                cast years.
ports. This is a slight decrease from
1995, when the airport’s market share
was 0.14 percent.

General Aviation Operations Market Share of Towered Operations
Sioux Falls Regional Airport (FSD)
              FSD           FSD              FSD            GA Operations
           Itinerant        Local            Total        (U.S.) at Towered     FSD Market
  Year    Operations     Operations      Operations            Airports           Share %
  1995       35,436        15,907           51,343            35,926,600            0.14%
  1996       37,918        20,168           58,086            35,298,300            0.16%
  1997       37,695        14,473           52,168            36,833,300            0.14%
  1998       37,483        19,155           56,638            38,046,500            0.15%
  1999       38,286        23,340           61,626            39,999,600            0.15%
  2000       34,944        19,595           54,539            39,878,500            0.14%
  2001       35,991        19,380           55,370            37,627,000            0.15%
  2002       38,562        20,764           59,326            37,653,200            0.16%
  2003       32,043        17,254           49,297            35,524,000            0.14%
  2004       32,471        17,484           49,955            34,938,200            0.14%
  2005       28,419        18,366           46,785            35,563,100            0.13%
Constant Market Share Projection
  2010       30,120        20,080           50,200            38,030,400            0.13%
  2015       32,100        21,400           53,500            40,540,500            0.13%
  2025       36,480        24,320           60,800            46,070,100            0.13%
Increasing Market Share Projection
  2010       31,920        21,280           53,200            38,030,400            0.14%
  2015       36,480        24,320           60,800            40,540,500            0.15%
  2025       46,980        31,320           78,300            46,070,100            0.17%
Source: GA Operations at Sioux Falls Regional Airport – Airport Records; GA Operations at Tow-
ered Airports – FAA Aerospace Forecasts, Fiscal Years 2005-2016
 Extrapolated by Coffman Associates.
The ratio of general aviation opera-               since then this number has fallen and
tions to based aircraft was also exam-             was at 494 in 2005. Both a constant
ined. Historical data for in-between               share projection and an increasing
years were not shown due to a lack of              share projection were developed and
based aircraft records. In 1995, there             yield 61,900 and 75,000 annual opera-
were 604 operations per based aircraft             tions, respectively. These forecasts
at Sioux Falls Regional Airport, but               are presented in Table 2V.

General Aviation Operations Per Based Aircraft
Sioux Falls Regional Airport (FSD)
             FSD               FSD             FSD                             Operations
          Itinerant           Local            Total              FSD         Per Based Air-
 Year    Operations        Operations      Operations       Based Aircraft        craft
 1995       35,436            15,907          51,343                85             604
 2005       28,419            18,366          46,785                95             495
Constant Market Share Projection
 2010       31,200            20,800          52,000               105                 495
 2015       32,700            21,800          54,500               110                 495
 2025       37,140            24,760          61,900               125                 495
Increasing Market Share Projection
 2010       32,760            21,840          54,600               105                 520
 2015       35,640            23,760          59,400               110                 540
 2025       45,000            30,000          75,000               125                 600
Source: Historical Operations and Based Aircraft – Airport records.

A summary of the general aviation op-              The preferred planning forecast for
erations projections at Sioux Falls Re-            the airport is an average of the new
gional Airport is presented in Table               forecasts developed by Coffman Asso-
2W. As previously mentioned, a mid-                ciates.
range forecast is generally chosen.

Summary of General Aviation Operations Forecasts
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                             2005               2010         2015            2025
Market Share of GA Ops at Towered Airports
  Constant Market Share                                          50,200      53,500          60,800
  Increasing Market Share                                        53,200      60,800          78,300
Ratio of Operations Per Based Aircraft
  Constant Ratio Projection                                      52,000      54,500          61,900
  Increasing Ratio Projection                                    54,600      59,400          75,000
                                                                                   1               2
2001 Airport Master Plan Update                                  69,000      75,900          91,700
FAA Terminal Area Forecast                                       53,900      56,800          63,200
Preferred Planning Forecast                   46,785             52,000      57,000          70,000

The preferred planning forecast yields            in the month. However, commercial
70,000 annual general aviation opera-             activity is often heavier on weekdays,
tions by 2025 and is consistent with              which may require an adjustment to
increasing utilization assumptions by             reflect peak weekday activity.
the FAA. Itinerant operations are es-
timated to account for approximately
60 percent of total operations, while             Airline Peaking
local operations were estimated to ac-            Characteristics
count for approximately 40 percent.
These percentages are expected to con-            At Sioux Falls Regional Airport, the
tinue through the planning period.                peak months for passenger enplane-
                                                  ments typically occur during the
                                                  summer months of June, July, and
PEAKING CHARACTERISTICS                           August. For planning purposes, it was
                                                  estimated that 10.0 percent of total
Most facility planning relates to levels          annual enplanements occurred during
of peak activity. The following plan-             the peak month. This percentage can
ning definitions apply to the peak pe-            be expected to continue throughout
riods:                                            the planning period and has been ap-
                                                  plied to the forecasts of design hour
•   Peak Month – The calendar month               operations at the airport. The design
    when peak aircraft operations oc-             day was calculated by dividing peak
    cur.                                          month figures by 30.

•   Design Day – The average day in               Ideally, hourly enplanements should
    the peak month.                               be used to examine changes in peak
                                                  hour passengers as a percentage of de-
•   Busy Day – The busy day of a typi-            sign day activity. The “design hour”
    cal week in the peak month.                   passengers were estimated based on
                                                  current airline schedules. A consoli-
•   Design Hour – The peak hour                   dated departure schedule for the air-
    within the design day.                        port indicated that the busiest activity
                                                  period consisted of four departures.
It is important to note that only the             Using typical seats available on these
peak month is an absolute peak within             flights, the peak hour represents 17
a given year. All other peak periods              percent of the typical daily total of
will be exceeded at various times dur-            seats available. Future design hour
ing the year. However, they do repre-             enplanements were calculated using
sent reasonable planning standards                this percentage. Air carrier passenger
that can be applied without overbuild-            peaking characteristics are summa-
ing or being too restrictive.                     rized in Table 2X.

The design day is normally derived by             Monthly airline operations at Sioux
dividing the peak month operations or             Falls Regional Airport for 2005 were
enplanements by the number of days                estimated at 10.0 percent, consistent

with peak monthly enplanements.                    erations in 2005 was September (5,223
Based upon airline schedules at the                operations), which represents ap-
airport, the busiest operational period            proximately 11.0 percent of total gen-
includes seven flights, of which four              eral aviation operations for the year.
were arriving flights and three were               Forecasts of peak activity have been
departing flights. This peak hourly                developed by applying this percentage
operational period equates to 28 per-              to the forecasts of annual operations.
cent of design day activity. Future de-            As previously mentioned, design day
sign hour operations were calculated               operations were calculated by dividing
using this percentage. Peaking char-               the total number of operations in the
acteristics of airline operations are              peak month by the number of days in
summarized in Table 2X.                            the month. The design hour was es-
                                                   timated at 20 percent of the design
                                                   day operations. Busy day operations
General Aviation                                   were calculated as 1.25 times the de-
Peak Periods                                       sign day activity. The general avia-
                                                   tion peak activity forecasts are sum-
According to FAA tower records, the                marized in Table 2X.
peak month for general aviation op-

Peak Period Forecasts
Sioux Falls Regional Airport

                                    2005               2010         2015         2025
Airline Enplanements
Annual                                358,450           420,000      486,000      645,000
Peak Month (10.0%)                     35,800            42,000       48,600       64,500
Design Day                              1,200             1,400        1,600        2,200
Design Hour (17.0%)                       200               240          270          370
Airline Operations
Annual                                    16,900         18,600       20,400       25,600
Peak Month (11.0%)                         1,700          1,900        2,000        2,600
Design Day                                    56             62           68           85
Design Hour (28.0%)                           16             17           19           24
General Aviation Operations
Annual                                    46,956         52,000       57,000       70,000
Peak Month (10.0%)                         4,700          5,200        5,700        7,000
Design Day                                   157            173          190          233
Busy Day                                     196            217          238          292
Design Hour (20.0%)                           39             43           48           58

AIR TAXI OPERATIONS                                tower (ATCT). Locally, the majority of
                                                   air taxi operations recorded at the
Air taxi activity is independently re-             tower are performed by the commer-
corded by the airport traffic control              cial airlines (turboprop operations by

passenger and air cargo). However,                  this chapter, the remaining portion of
this category also includes operations              the air taxi category has been calcu-
by other general aviation operators,                lated by subtracting out other catego-
and may include operations by Part                  ries from the ATCT count. This cate-
135 operators and Part 121 operators                gory is expected to grow at the same
(less than 60 seats).                               rate as general aviation itinerant traf-
                                                    fic (two percent). Table 2Y presents
Since the commercial (turboprop pas-                historical and forecast air taxi opera-
senger and jet cargo) operations have               tions at Sioux Falls Regional Airport.
been handled in previous sections of

Air Taxi Operations
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
              Year                                       Air Taxi Operations
              2005                                               15,710
              2010                                               17,300
              2015                                               19,100
              2025                                               23,300
  Source: ATCT count, less recorded commercial operations in category.

                                                    TABLE 2Z
Historical military operations at Sioux             Military Operations
Falls Regional Airport were obtained                Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                                                 Military      Annual Growth
from airport records and are presented
                                                      Year     Operations           Rate
in Table 2Z. Military activity at the                 1995          10,671              ---
airport has declined slightly from the                1996          12,419            16.4%
levels of 10 years ago, but has been                  1997           7,096           -42.9%
rather consistent since 1997, with an                 1998           7,585             6.9%
average of 7,600 annual operations.                   1999           6,760           -10.9%
                                                      2000           7,730            14.4%
There are no known changes that                       2001           8,520            10.2%
would significantly alter the type of                 2002           8,610             1.1%
military operations at the airport.                   2003           7,480           -13.1%
Therefore, for planning purposes, mili-               2004           6,710           -10.3%
tary operations are forecast at 7,600                 2005           7,102             6.1%
annual operations through the plan-
                                                      2010           7,600                -
ning period. Historically, military op-               2015           7,600                -
erations have typically been split 50-                2025           7,600                -
50 between local and transient activ-               Source: Historical Operations - Airport re-
ity. This trend is expected to continue             cords.
through the planning period.

ANNUAL INSTRUMENT                                For 2005, there were an estimated
APPROACHES                                       3,100 AIAs, which account for 5.4 per-
                                                 cent of total itinerant operations.
Forecasts of annual instrument ap-               While AIAs can be partially attributed
proaches (AIAs) provide guidance in              to weather, they may be expected to
determining an airport’s requirements            increase as transient operations and
for navigational aid facilities. An in-          operations by more sophisticated air-
strument approach is defined by the              craft increase throughout the planning
FAA as “an approach to an airport                period. Therefore, AIAs as a percent-
with the intent to land by an aircraft           age of itinerant operations are ex-
in accordance with an instrument                 pected to remain constant throughout
flight rule (IFR) plan, when visibility          the planning period. The projections
is less than three miles and/or when             of AIAs for Sioux Falls Regional Air-
the ceiling is at or below the minimum           port are summarized in Table 2AA.
initial approach altitude.”

Annual Instrument Approaches (AIAs)
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                  Annual Instrument               Itinerant          AIAs % of Itinerant
    Year              Approaches                 Operations             Operations
    2005                  3,100                     57,083                  5.4%
    2010                  3,400                    63,700                    5.4%
    2015                  3,800                    69,900                    5.4%
    2025                  4,500                    83,200                    5.4%
Source: Historical AIAs – FAA TAF

SUMMARY                                          tions, and annual enplaned passen-
                                                 gers throughout the planning period.
This chapter has provided forecasts for          The next step in this study is to assess
each sector of aviation demand antici-           the capacity of the existing facilities to
pated over the planning period. Ex-              accommodate forecast demand and de-
                                                 termine what types of facilities will be
hibit 2G presents a summary of the
                                                 needed to meet these demands. This
aviation forecasts developed for Sioux
                                                 is considered a preliminary draft until
Falls Regional Airport. The airport is
                                                 submitted and approved by the FAA.
expected to experience an increase in
total based aircraft, annual opera-


                                                                                           HISTORICAL                                                               FORECAST
                             CATEGORY                                                         2005                                             2010                   2015                   2025
                     ENPLANED PASSENGERS
                                                                                               358,450                                          420,000               486,000                645,000
                     AIR CARGO
                                    Enplaned                                               36,555,961                                   42,800,000                  50,100,000        68,600,000
                                    Deplaned                                               40,820,548                                   47,700,000                  55,900,000        76,600,000
                                                                                                  3,100                                             3,400                3,800                 4,500
                     ANNUAL OPERATIONS
                         Air Carrier                                                           16,900                                              18,600              20,400             25,600
                         Air Cargo (jet)                                                        3,250                                               3,800               4,500              6,100
                         General Aviation                                                      28,419                                              31,200              34,200             42,000
                         Air Taxi                                                              15,710                                              17,300              19,100             23,300
                         Military                                                               3,473                                               3,800               3,800              3,800
                       Total Itinerant                                                         67,752                                              74,700              82,000            100,800
                         General Aviation                                                      18,366                                              20,800              22,800             28,000
                         Military                                                               3,629                                               3,800               3,800              3,800
                       Total Local                                                             21,995                                              24,600              26,600             31,800
                       Total Operations                                                        89,747                                              99,300             108,600            132,600
                     BASED AIRCRAFT
                       Single-Engine                                                                  55                                                58                 59                    61
                       Multi-Engine                                                                   36                                                41                 44                    55
                       Jets                                                                            4                                                 6                  7                     9
                       Total Based Aircraft                                                           95                                               105                110                   125

                                                  ENPLANEMENTS FORECAST                                                                                        AIR CARGO FORECAST
                                    800,000                                                                                     80,000,000
                                                                                                          AIR CARGO (in tons)

                                    700,000                                                                                     70,000,000
                                    600,000                                                                                     60,000,000

                                    500,000                                                                                     50,000,000
                                    400,000                                                                                     40,000,000

                                    300,000                                                                                     30,000,000
                                           2005         2010          2015          2020           2025                                   2005               2010        2015         2020          2025

                                                       OPERATIONS FORECAST                                                                             BASED AIRCRAFT FORECAST
                                    140,000                                                                                                  150
                                    130,000                                                                                                  140


                                     80,000                                                                                                  100

                                     70,000                                                                                                   90
                                           2005         2010          2015          2020           2025                                         2005         2010        2015         2020          2025

                                          Note: Historical (2005) based upon actual airline landing reports and total operations reported by the FAA.

                                                                                                                                                                                          Exhibit 2G
                                                                                                                                                                                FORECAST SUMMARY
Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority               Chapter Three
                                         FACILITY REQUIREMENTS
CHAPTER THREE                                                        Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority

Facility Requirements
To properly plan for the future of Sioux
Falls Regional Airport, it is necessary to
translate forecast aviation demand into
the specific types and quantities of
facilities that can adequately serve this
identified demand. This chapter uses the
results of the forecasts conducted in
Chapter Two, as well as established                  the most cost-effective and efficient
planning criteria, to determine the                  means for implementation.
airfield (i.e., runways, taxiways,
navigational aids, marking and lighting)             The cost-effective, efficient, and orderly
and landside (i.e., hangars, terminal                development of an airport should rely
building, cargo buildings, aircraft                  more upon actual demand at an airport
parking apron) facility requirements.                than on a time-based forecast figure.
                                                     In order to develop a master plan
The objective of this effort is to identify,         that is demand-based rather than
in general terms, the adequacy of the                time-based, a series of planning horizon
existing airport facilities, outline what            milestones have been established
new facilities may be needed, and when               for Sioux Falls Regional Airport that take
these may be needed to accommodate                   into consideration the reasonable
forecast demands. Having established                 range of aviation demand projections
these facility requirements, alternatives            prepared in Chapter Two. It is impor-
for providing these facilities will be               tant to consider that the actual
evaluated in Chapter Four, to determine              activity at the airport may be higher or
                                                     lower than projected activity levels.

By planning according to activity mile-           provides flexibility in development, as
stones, the resultant plan can accom-             development schedules can be slowed
modate unexpected shifts or changes               or expedited according to actual de-
in the area’s aviation demand.                    mand at any given time over the plan-
                                                  ning period. The resultant plan pro-
The most important reason for utiliz-             vides airport officials with a finan-
ing milestones is that they allow the             cially responsible and needs-based
airport to develop facilities according           program.     Table 3A presents the
to need generated by actual demand                planning horizon milestones for each
levels. The demand-based schedule                 activity demand category.

Planning Horizon Activity Levels
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                     Current         Short       Intermediate      Long
                                      Levels         Term            Term          Term
Passenger Enplanements                 358,450        420,000          486,000     645,000
Annual Operations                       89,747         99,300          108,600     132,600
Based Aircraft                              95            105              110         125

AIRFIELD REQUIREMENTS                             standards must be determined now,
                                                  since the relocation of these facilities
Airfield requirements include the need            will likely be extremely expensive at a
for those facilities related to the arri-         later date.
val and departure of aircraft. These
facilities are comprised of the follow-           The FAA has established a coding sys-
ing items:                                        tem to relate airport design criteria to
                                                  the operational and physical charac-
!     Runways (including safety                   teristics of aircraft expected to use the
       areas)                                     airport. This code, the airport refer-
!     Taxiways                                    ence code (ARC), has two components:
!     Navigational Aids                           the first component, depicted by a let-
!     Airfield Lighting and Marking               ter, is the aircraft approach speed (op-
                                                  erational characteristic); the second
The selection of appropriate Federal              component, depicted by a Roman nu-
Aviation Administration (FAA) design              meral, is the airplane design group
standards for the development and lo-             and relates to aircraft wingspan
cation of airport facilities is based             (physical characteristic). Generally,
primarily upon the characteristics of             aircraft approach speed applies to run-
the aircraft which are currently using            ways and runway-related facilities,
or are expected to use the airport.               while aircraft wingspan primarily re-
Planning for future aircraft use is of            lates to separation criteria involving
particular importance since design                taxiways, taxilanes, and landside fa-
standards are used to plan separation             cilities.
distances between facilities. These
According to FAA Advisory Circular              In order to determine facility require-
(AC) 150/5300-13, Airport Design, an            ments, an ARC should first be deter-
aircraft’s approach category is based           mined, and then appropriate airport
upon 1.3 times its stall speed in land-         design criteria can be applied. This
ing configuration at that aircraft’s            begins with a review of the type of air-
maximum certificated weight. The                craft using and expected to use Sioux
five approach categories used in air-           Falls Regional Airport. Exhibit 3A
port planning are as follows:                   provides a listing of typical aircraft
                                                and their associated ARC.
Category A: Speed less than 91 knots.
                                                The FAA recommends designing air-
Category B: Speed 91 knots or more,             port functional elements to meet the
but less than 121 knots.                        requirements of the most demanding
                                                ARC for that airport. Sioux Falls Re-
Category C: Speed 121 knots or more,            gional Airport currently accommo-
but less than 141 knots.                        dates a wide variety of civilian air-
                                                craft. Business and personal aircraft
Category D: Speed 141 knots or more,            using the airport include small single
but less than 166 knots.                        and multi-engine propeller aircraft
                                                (which fall within approach categories
Category E: Speed greater than 166              A and B and airplane design group I)
knots.                                          and turboprop and jet aircraft (which
                                                fall within approach categories B, C,
The airplane design group (ADG) is              and D and airplane design groups I
based upon the aircraft’s wingspan.             and II).
The six ADGs used in airport planning
are as follows:                                 The airport is also used by jet and
                                                prop-jet aircraft for transporting pas-
Group I: Up to but not including 49             sengers in scheduled service by Alle-
feet.                                           giant Air, Delta Connection, North-
                                                west Airlines, and United Express.
Group II: 49 feet up to but not includ-         Allegiant Air operates the McDonnell
ing 79 feet.                                    Douglas MD83 (155 seats) and the
                                                MD87 (130 seats). Delta Connection
Group III: 79 feet up to but not in-            operates the 50-seat Canadair Re-
cluding 118 feet.                               gional Jet and the 44-seat Canada Re-
                                                gional Jet CR4. Northwest Airlines
Group IV: 118 feet up to but not in-            operates the Airbus A319 (124 seats),
cluding 171 feet.                               the Airbus A320 (179 seats), the
                                                McDonnell Douglas DC9-30/40/50 se-
Group V: 171 feet up to but not in-             ries (90/115/125 seats), the 85-seat
cluding 214 feet.                               Avro regional jet, and the 34-seat
                                                Saab 340 (SFC) prop jet. United Ex-
Group VI: 214 feet or greater.                  press operates the 50-seat CRJ and
                                                the 66-seat CRJ 700. America West


                                                    • Beech Baron 55
                    A-I                             • Beech Bonanza             C-I, D-I
                                                    • Cessna 150
                                                    • Cessna 172
                                                    • Cessna Citation                              • Beech 400
                                                      Mustang                                      • Lear 25, 31, 35, 45,
                                                    • Eclipse 500                                    55, 60
                                                    • Piper Archer                                 • Israeli Westwind
                                                    • Piper Seneca                                 • HS 125-400, 700

                                                                                                   • Cessna Citation III,
                    B-I     less than 12,500 lbs.
                                                    • Beech Baron 58            C-II, D-II           VI, VIII, X
                                                    • Beech King Air 100                           • Gulfstream II, III, IV
                                                    • Cessna 402                                   • Canadair 600
                                                    • Cessna 421                                   • ERJ-135, 140, 145
                                                    • Piper Navajo                                 • CRJ-200, 700, 900
                                                    • Piper Cheyenne                               • Embraer Regional Jet
                                                    • Swearingen Metroliner                        • Lockheed JetStar
                                                    • Cessna Citation I                            • Super King Air 350

                                                                                                   • ERJ-170, 190
                    B-II less than 12,500 lbs.                                  C-III, D-III       • Boeing Business Jet
                                                                                                   • B 727-200
                                                                                                   • B 737-300 Series
                                                                                                   • MD-80, DC-9
                                                                                                   • Fokker 70, 100
                                                    • Super King Air 200                           • A319, A320
                                                    • Cessna 441                                   • Gulfstream V
                                                    • DHC Twin Otter                               • Global Express

                    B-I, II over 12,500 lbs.        • Super King Air 300        C-IV, D-IV
                                                    • Beech 1900
                                                    • Jetstream 31                                 • B-757
                                                    • Falcon 10, 20, 50                            • B-767
                                                    • Falcon 200, 900                              • DC-8-70
                                                    • Citation II, III, IV, V                      • DC-10
                                                    • Saab 340                                     • MD-11
                                                    • Embraer 120                                  • L1011

                    A-III, B-III                                                D-V
                                                    • DHC Dash 7
                                                    • DHC Dash 8
                                                    • DC-3
                                                    • Convair 580
                                                                                                   • B-747 Series
                                                    • Fairchild F-27
                                                                                                   • B-777
                                                    • ATR 72
                                                    • ATP

                    Note: Aircraft pictured is identified in bold type.

                                                                                                               Exhibit 3A
                                                                                               AIRPORT REFERENCE CODES
operated the 50-seat CRJ, but ceased             from obstructions that could affect the
operations at Sioux Falls Regional               safe operation of aircraft. These in-
Airport on April 2, 2006.                        clude the runway safety area (RSA),
                                                 object free area (OFA), obstacle free
As determined by the fleet mix fore-             zone (OFZ), and runway protection
cast in Chapter Two, aircraft in the             zone (RPZ).
higher-seating range capacity (80-130
seats) are expected to increase over             The RSA is “a defined surface sur-
the forecast period, accounting for ap-          rounding the runway prepared or
proximately 44 percent of the fleet mix          suitable for reducing the risk of dam-
by 2025.     Aircraft in the highest-            age to airplanes in the event of an un-
seating range capacity (131+ seats)              dershoot, overshoot, or an excursion
are also expected to increase over the           from the runway.” Standards to the
forecast period, accounting for ap-              RSA have recently been changed to
proximately 17 percent of the fleet mix          reflect a shorter dimension required
by the end of the planning period.               prior to the runway threshold, and to
Aircraft in the mid-seating range                allow for the provision of an Engi-
category (50-70 seats) and aircraft in           neered Materials Arresting System
the low-seating range capacity (< 50             (EMAS) or other approved arresting
seats) are expected to decrease slightly         system in lieu of a portion of the tradi-
over the planning period, accounting             tional RSA as overrun protection.
for approximately 36 percent and
three percent, respectively, by 2025.            An OFA is an area on the ground cen-
                                                 tered on the runway, taxiway, or cen-
Cargo aircraft currently operating at            terline, provided to enhance the safety
Sioux Falls Regional Airport define              of aircraft operations, except for ob-
the critical airplane design group,              jects that need to be located in the
while business jets and military air-            OFA for air navigation or aircraft
craft define the critical approach               ground maneuvering purposes.
speed. Therefore, Runways 3-21 and
15-33 should ultimately consider ARC             An OFZ is a volume of airspace that is
D-IV design requirements. It should              required to be clear of objects, except
be noted that it is not necessary to de-         for frangible items required for navi-
sign all of the airfield systems to ARC          gation of aircraft. It is centered along
D-IV design standards. Runway 9-27               the runway and extended runway cen-
serves as a secondary general aviation           terline.
runway and can be designed to lesser
standards.     The existing ARC for              The RPZ is defined as an area off the
Runway 9-27 is B-II.                             runway end to enhance the protection
                                                 of people and property on the ground.
                                                 The RPZ is trapezoidal in shape and
AIRFIELD DESIGN STANDARDS                        centered about the extended runway
                                                 centerline. The dimensions of an RPZ
The FAA has established several                  are a function of the runway ARC and
imaginary surfaces to protect aircraft           approach visibility minimums.
operational areas and keep them free
Tables 3B and 3C summarize the de-                        on Runway 21 (southwest). The local-
sign requirements of these safety ar-                     izer antenna is located 777 feet beyond
eas by airport reference code for all                     the runway end. The OFAs on Run-
three runways.     The FAA expects                        ways 21 and 15 are limited by airport
these areas to be free from obstruc-                      property/perimeter fences. Runway 9-
tions. Currently, the 1,000-foot RSA                      27 meets all safety area standards.
(beyond runway end) is not fully met

Airfield Safety Area Dimensional Standards (feet)
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                                             ARC D-IV                     ARC D-IV
                                             Runway          Standards   Runway           Standards
                                              3-21             CAT I      15-33            1 mi. vis.
Runway Safety Area (RSA)
 Width                                          500             500         500                500
 Length Prior to Landing Threshold              600             600         600                600
 Length Beyond Runway End                    1,000 (3);        1,000       1,000              1,000
                                              777 (21)
Runway Object Free Area (OFA)
 Width                                          800             800         800                800
 Length Beyond Runway End                    1,000 (3);        1,000      604 (15);           1,000
                                              622 (21)                   1,000 (33)
Runway Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ)
 Width                                         400              400         400               400
 Length Beyond Runway End                      200              200         200               200
Runway Protection Zone (RPZ)
 Inner Width                                  1,000            1,000        500                500
 Outer Width                                  1,750            1,750       1,010              1,010
 Length                                       2,500            2,500       1,700              1,700
Source: FAA Airport Design Computer Program, Version 4.2D.

Airfield Safety Area Dimensional Standards (feet)
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                                                                     ARC B-II
                                                          Runway                    Standards
                                                           9-27                    > 1 mile vis.
Runway Safety Area (RSA)
 Width                                                     150                         150
 Length Prior to Landing Threshold                         300                         300
 Length Beyond Runway End                                  300                         300
Runway Object Free Area (OFA)
 Width                                                     500                         500
 Length Beyond Runway End                                  300                         300
Runway Obstacle Free Zone (OFZ)
 Width                                                     250                         250
 Length Beyond Runway End                                  200                         200
Runway Protection Zone (RPZ)
 Inner Width                                               500                         500
 Outer Width                                               700                         700
 Length                                                   1,000                       1,000
Source: FAA Airport Design Computer Program, Version 4.2D.

AIRFIELD CAPACITY                                craft that may operate on the runway
                                                 and if operations can occur during
An airport’s airfield capacity is ex-            poor weather conditions.
pressed in terms of its annual service
volume (ASV). Annual service volume
is a reasonable estimate of the maxi-            •    RUNWAY CONFIGURATION
mum number of operations that can be
accommodated in a year. Annual ser-              The existing runway configuration at
vice volume accounts for annual dif-             Sioux Falls Regional Airport consists
ferences in runway use, aircraft mix,            of three intersecting runways in a tri-
and weather conditions. The airport’s            angular pattern: Runway 3-21 serves
annual service volume was examined               as the primary runway and is 8,999
utilizing FAA Advisory Circular (AC)             feet long and 150 feet wide. Primary
150/5060-5, Airport Capacity and De-             Runway 15-33 is 8,000 feet long and
lay.                                             150 feet wide. Runway 9-27 is 3,152
                                                 feet long and 75 feet wide. Designed
                                                 primarily for general aviation aircraft,
FACTORS AFFECTING                                Runway 9-27 also serves as a taxiway
ANNUAL SERVICE VOLUME                            for the primary runways.

Exhibit 3B graphically represents the
various factors included in the calcula-         •     RUNWAY USE
tion of an airport’s annual service vol-
ume. These include: airfield charac-             Runway use is normally dictated by
teristics, meteorological conditions,            wind conditions.     The direction of
aircraft mix, and demand characteris-            takeoffs and landings is generally de-
tics (aircraft operations). These fac-           termined by the speed and direction of
tors are described below.                        wind. It is generally safest for aircraft
                                                 to take off and land into the wind,
                                                 avoiding a crosswind (wind that is
Airfield Characteristics                         blowing perpendicular to the travel of
                                                 the aircraft) or tailwind components
The layout of the runways and taxi-              during these operations.
ways directly affects an airfield’s ca-
pacity (as does radar coverage). This
not only includes the location and ori-          •     EXIT TAXIWAYS
entation of the runways, but the per-
centage of time that a particular run-           Exit taxiways have a significant im-
way or combination of runways is in              pact on airfield capacity since the
use. Additional airfield characteristics         number and location of exits directly
include the length, width, load bearing          determines the occupancy time of an
strength, and instrument approach                aircraft on the runway. The airfield
capability of each runway at the air-            capacity analysis gives credit to exits
port, which determine the type of air-           located within a prescribed range


                    AIRFIELD LAYOUT
                      Runway Configuration                    Runway Use                    Number of Exits

                    WEATHER CONDITIONS
                                   VMC                               IMC                               PVC

                    AIRCRAFT MIX

                      A&B               Single Piston
                                                        C   Business Jet     Commuter

                      Small Turboprop

                                        Twin Piston
                                                            Regional Jet   Commerical Jet
                                                                                            D         Wide Body Jet

                       Arrivals and                                             Total Annual    7

                        Departures                                                Operations    3

                                                                                                    J F M A M J J A S O N D

                                                                                                                 Exhibit 3B
                                                                                               AIRFIELD CAPACITY FACTORS
(3,000 to 5,500 feet) from a runway’s             level and/or visibility is less than three
threshold. This range is based upon               statute miles. Under IFR conditions,
the mix index of the aircraft that use            pilots must rely on instruments for
the runway. The exits must be at                  navigation and guidance to the run-
least 750 feet apart to count as sepa-            way. Safe separations between air-
rate exits. Under these criteria, Run-            craft must be assured by following air
ways 3, 21, 15, and 33 are each cred-             traffic control rules and procedures.
ited with one exit taxiway. Runway 9-             This leads to increased distances be-
27 is not credited with any exit taxi-            tween aircraft, which diminishes air-
ways.                                             field capacity. The third category,
                                                  poor visibility conditions (PVC), exists
                                                  when cloud ceilings are less than 500
Meteorological Conditions                         feet above ground level and visibility
                                                  is less than one mile.
Weather conditions have a significant
affect on airfield capacity. Airfield ca-         According to recent wind data, VFR
pacity is usually highest in clear                conditions have occurred approxi-
weather, when flight visibility is at its         mately 89.6 percent of the time,
best. Airfield capacity is diminished             whereas IFR conditions have occurred
as weather conditions deteriorate and             approximately 9.0 percent of the time.
cloud ceilings and visibility are re-             PVC conditions have occurred ap-
duced. As weather conditions deterio-             proximately 1.4 percent of the time
rate, the spacing of aircraft must in-            and have been included as part of IFR
crease to provide allowable margins of            weather conditions in determining air-
safety. The increased distance be-                field capacity for Sioux Falls Regional
tween aircraft reduces the number of              Airport.
aircraft which can operate at the air-
port during any given period. Conse-
quently, this reduces overall airfield            Aircraft Mix
                                                  Aircraft mix refers to the speed, size,
There are three categories of meteoro-            and flight characteristics of aircraft
logical conditions, each defined by the           operating at the airport. As the mix of
reported cloud ceiling and flight visi-           aircraft operating at an airport in-
bility. Visual flight rule (VFR) condi-           creases to include larger aircraft, air-
tions exist whenever the cloud ceiling            field capacity begins to diminish. This
is greater than 1,000 feet above                  is due to larger separation distances
ground level and visibility is greater            that must be maintained between air-
than three statute miles. VFR flight              craft of different speeds and sizes.
conditions permit pilots to approach,
land, or takeoff by visual reference              Aircraft mix for the capacity analysis
and to see and avoid other aircraft.              is defined in terms of four aircraft
                                                  classes. Classes A and B consist of
Instrument flight rule (IFR) conditions           single and multi-engine aircraft
exist when the reported cloud ceiling             weighing less than 12,500 pounds.
is less than 1,000 feet above ground              Aircraft within these classifications
are primarily associated with general              these classes include the larger and
aviation operations, but this classifica-          faster aircraft in the operational mix.
tion also includes some air taxi and               The existing and projected operational
regional airline aircraft (i.e., Cessna            fleet mix for the airport is summarized
Caravan used for air cargo service).               in Table 3D. Consistent with projec-
Class C consists of multi-engine air-              tions prepared in the previous chapter,
craft weighing between 12,500 pounds               the operational fleet mix at the airport
and 300,000 pounds. This broad clas-               is expected to increase its percentage
sification includes turboprops, busi-              of Class C aircraft as regional airline
ness jets, and large commercial airline            operations increase and the business
aircraft.   All aircraft over 300,000              and corporate use of general aviation
pounds are in Class D, including wide-             aircraft increases at the airport. The
body and jumbo jets. All scheduled                 percentage of Class C aircraft is
airline and cargo aircraft currently               higher during IFR conditions as some
operating at Sioux Falls Regional Air-             general aviation operations are sus-
port are included within Classes C and             pended during poor weather condi-
D.                                                 tions. The percentage of Class D air-
                                                   craft operating at Sioux Falls Regional
For the capacity analysis, the percent-            Airport is also projected to increase as
age of Classes C and D aircraft operat-            some of the cargo operators transition
ing at the airport is critical in deter-           to larger transport aircraft.
mining the annual service volume, as

Aircraft Operational Mix
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
   Weather             Year                       A&B              C                D
VFR (Visual)   Base (2005)                        70.9%          28.2%            1.0%
               Short Term                         69.0%          29.9%            0.8%
               Intermediate Term                  67.3%          31.5%            0.7%
               Long Term                          64.5%          34.1%            0.6%
IFR            Base (2005)                         2.4%          94.3%            3.3%
(Instrument)   Short Term                          2.0%          94.6%            3.4%
               Intermediate Term                   1.6%          95.0%            3.4%
               Long Term                           1.0%          95.5%            3.5%

Demand Characteristics                             erations that can be conducted at the
Operations, not only the total number
of annual operations, but the manner
in which they are conducted, have an               •      PEAK PERIOD OPERATIONS
important effect on airfield capacity.
Peak operational periods, touch-and-               For the airfield capacity analysis, av-
go operations, and the percent of arri-            erage daily operations during the peak
vals impact the number of annual op-               month is calculated based upon data
recorded by the airport traffic control          •     PERCENT OF ARRIVALS
tower. These peak operational levels
were calculated in Chapter Two for               The percentage of arrivals as they re-
existing and forecast levels of opera-           late to the total number of operations
tions. Typical operational activity is           in the design hour is important in de-
important in the calculation of an air-          termining airfield capacity. Under
port’s annual service level, as “peak            most circumstances, the lower the per-
demand” levels occur sporadically.               centage of arrivals, the higher the
The peak periods used in the capacity            hourly capacity. Except in unique cir-
analysis are representative of normal            cumstances, the aircraft arrival-
operational activity and can be ex-              departure split is typically 50-50. At
ceeded at various times through the              Sioux Falls Regional Airport, traffic
year.                                            information indicated no major devia-
                                                 tions from this pattern, and arrivals
                                                 were estimated to account for 50 per-
•     TOUCH-AND-GO                               cent of design period operations.

A touch-and-go operation involves an             CALCULATION OF
aircraft making a landing and an im-             ANNUAL SERVICE VOLUME
mediate takeoff without coming to a
full stop or exiting the runway. These           The preceding information was used
operations are normally associated               in conjunction with the airfield capac-
with general aviation training opera-            ity methodology developed by the FAA
tions and are included in local opera-           to determine airfield capacity for
tions data recorded by the airport traf-         Sioux Falls Regional Airport.
fic control tower.

Touch-and-go activity is counted as              Hourly Runway Capacity
two operations as there is an arrival
and a departure involved. A high per-            The first step in determining annual
centage of touch-and-go traffic nor-             service volume involves the hourly ca-
mally results in a higher operational            pacity of each runway configuration in
capacity because one landing and one             use. The percentage use of each run-
takeoff occurs within a shorter time             way configuration in VFR and IFR
than individual operations. Touch-               weather, the amount of touch-and-go
and-go operations are recorded by the            training activity, and the number and
airport traffic control tower and cur-           locations of runway exits become im-
rently estimated to account for ap-              portant factors in determining the
proximately 30 percent of annual op-             hourly capacity of each runway con-
erations.                                        figuration.

Considering the existing and forecast            long term. Exhibit 3C summarizes
mix and the additional factors dis-              the airport’s ASV and projected an-
cussed above, the hourly capacity of             nual operations over the planning ho-
each runway configuration was com-               rizons. FAA Order 5090.3B, Field
puted. The use of both primary run-              Formulation of the National Plan of
ways during VFR weather conditions               Integrated Airport Systems (NPIAS),
results in the highest hourly capacity           indicates that improvements for air-
of the airfield, which is estimated at           field capacity purposes should only be
84 operations per hour.                          considered when operations exceed 60
                                                 percent of the annual service volume
As the mix of aircraft operating at an           during the planning period.
airport changes to include an increas-
ing percentage of Classes C and D air-           Local general aviation operations ac-
craft, the hourly capacity of the run-           count for approximately 18,366 annual
way system is also reduced. This is              operations, a level which does not
because larger aircraft require longer           greatly affect capacity on the runway
utilization of the runway for takeoffs           system at peak periods.
and landings, and because the greater
approach speeds of the aircraft require
increased separation. This contributes           AIRSIDE FACILITIES
to a slight reduction in the hourly ca-
pacity of the runway system over the             Airside facilities include those facili-
planning period.                                 ties that are related to the arrival, de-
                                                 parture, and ground movement of air-
                                                 craft. These components include:
Annual Service Volume
                                                 •     Runways
Once the weighted hourly capacity is
                                                 •     Taxiways
known, the annual service volume can
                                                 •     Navigational Approach Aids
be determined. Annual service vol-
                                                        and Instrument Approaches
ume is calculated by the following
                                                 •     Airfield Lighting, Marking,
                                                        and Signage
  Annual Service Volume = C x D x H
C=   Weighted hourly capacity
                                                 RUNWAY ORIENTATION
D=   Ratio of annual demand to average
     daily demand during the peak
     month                                       For the operational safety and effi-
H=   Ratio of average daily demand to            ciency of an airport, it is desirable for
     peak hour demand during the peak            the primary runway of an airport’s
     month                                       runway system to be oriented as close
                                                 as possible to the direction of the pre-
Using the projected number of 132,600            vailing winds. This reduces the im-
annual operations by the year 2025,              pact of wind components perpendicu-
the ASV as a percentage of capacity is           lar to the direction of travel of an air-
projected to reach 59.9 percent in the


                                  180,000   195,000
                                                          193,000          191,000                 190,000

                                                      ANNUAL SERVICE VOLUME








                                                    OPERATIONAL DEMAND FORECAST

                                             BASE         SHORT         INTERMEDIATE              LONG TERM
                                             YEAR         TERM              TERM

                                                                                                     Exhibit 3C
                                                                                         DEMAND VS. CAPACITY
craft that is landing or taking off (de-          daily temperature of the hottest
fined as a crosswind).                            month, runway gradient, critical air-
                                                  craft type expected to use the runway,
FAA design standards specify that ad-             and the stage length of the longest
ditional runway configurations are                non-stop trip destination.
needed when the primary runway con-
figuration provides less than 95 per-             Aircraft performance declines as ele-
cent wind coverage at specific cross-             vation, temperature, and runway gra-
wind components. The 95 percent                   dient factors increase. For calculating
wind coverage is computed on the ba-              runway length requirements at Sioux
sis of crosswinds not exceeding 10.5              Falls Regional Airport, elevation is
knots for small aircraft weighing less            1,429 feet above mean sea level (MSL);
than 12,500 pounds and from 13 to 20              the mean maximum daily temperature
knots for aircraft weighing over 12,500           of the hottest month is 86.2 degrees
pounds. Exhibit 3D depicts the wind               Fahrenheit (F). Runway end eleva-
rose for Sioux Falls Regional Airport             tions vary by six feet (Runway 3-21),
and summarizes wind coverage for the              seven feet (Runway 15-33), and less
airport.                                          than one foot (Runway 9-27) across
                                                  the airfield.
As shown in the table on the exhibit,
the combined wind coverage exceeds                The FAA’s design software was used
95 percent for all crosswind compo-               to verify general aircraft runway
nents. The combined wind coverage                 length requirements for general avia-
actually exceeds 95 percent without               tion aircraft, which are summarized in
Runway 9-27. Therefore, based on                  Table 3E. The appropriate FAA run-
this analysis, the runway system at               way length planning category for
the airport is properly oriented to pre-          Runways 3-21 and 15-33 is “75 percent
vailing wind flows and aircraft opera-            of large airplanes 60,000 pounds or
tional safety is maximized. No new                less at 90 percent useful load.” As
runway orientations are needed at the             shown in the table, the FAA recom-
airport, and Runway 9-27 does not                 mends a minimum runway length of
need to be upgraded beyond its cur-               7,000 feet for this runway length cate-
rent design standard.                             gory.

                                                  In examining runway length require-
Runway Length                                     ments at the airport, the primary
                                                  runway should be designed to accom-
Runway length is the most important               modate the most demanding aircraft
consideration when evaluating the                 currently serving the airport. This in-
airside facility requirements for future          cludes the aircraft operated by the all-
aircraft serving Sioux Falls Regional             cargo operators. Aircraft expected to
Airport. Runway length requirements               serve the airport in the future should
are based upon five primary elements:             also be considered.
airport elevation, the mean maximum

Runway Length Requirements
Sioux Falls Regional Airport

                                      AIRPORT AND RUNWAY DATA

Airport elevation ................................................................................................... 1,429 feet
Mean daily maximum temperature of the hottest month........................................ 86.2° F
Maximum difference in runway centerline elevation.................................................. 7 feet
Length of haul for airplanes of more than 60,000 pounds .................................1,000 miles


Small airplanes with less than 10 passenger seats
   75 percent of these small airplanes ................................................................ 3,000 feet
   95 percent of these small airplanes ................................................................ 3,500 feet
  100 percent of these small airplanes ................................................................ 4,200 feet
Small airplanes with 10 or more passengers seats .............................................. 4,500 feet

Large airplanes of 60,000 pounds or less
    75 percent of large airplanes at 60 percent useful load ................................ 5,500 feet
    75 percent of large airplanes at 90 percent useful load ................................ 7,000 feet
  100 percent of large airplanes at 60 percent useful load................................. 5,800 feet
  100 percent of large airplanes at 90 percent useful load ................................. 8,600 feet

Airplanes of more than 60,000 pounds ................................................................. 6,600 feet
Reference: FAA’s airport design computer software utilizing Chapter Two of AC 150/5325-4A,
Runway Length Requirements for Airport Design, no changes included.

As previously mentioned, the current                                   at the airport are those flown by the
mix of aircraft operating at Sioux                                     scheduled passenger airlines and the
Falls Regional Airport includes a wide                                 cargo operators.
range of transient business jets.
These include aircraft within the                                      The required take-off and landing
Cessna Citation family of business                                     lengths (feet) for the aircraft flown by
jets, Gulfstream business jets, Bom-                                   the scheduled passenger airlines and
bardier/Learjet, and Raytheon jet air-                                 cargo operators, as well as several
craft, as well as several others. Based                                business jets are shown in Table 3F.
upon data available from the FAA,                                      With the primary runway at 9,000
there were an estimated 3,000 opera-                                   feet, Sioux Falls Regional Airport is
tions by business jet aircraft over a                                  able to support all commercial aircraft
one-year period (May 1, 2004 – April                                   operated by the airlines and cargo op-
30, 2005).                                                             erators, and all business jets flying
                                                                       into the airport, although some cargo
While there were nearly 3,000 opera-                                   aircraft (in particular, the DC-8-73
tions by business jets at Sioux Falls                                  freighter) are limited by the current
Regional Airport in a one-year period,                                 length.
the most demanding aircraft operating

Runway Length Requirements – Individual Aircraft Performance
                                       Required Take-off             Required Landing
        Aircraft Type                     Length (feet)                 Length (feet)
Airbus 320-200                                5,100                         7,050
Airbus 300-600                                6,8001                        7,200
Boeing B727-200                               7,2001                        7,350
Boeing B757-200                               6,600                         7,490
Bombardier CRJ 200                            7,760                         7,130
Bombardier CRJ 700                            6,905                         7,480
Bombardier CRJ 900                            7,800                         7,690
Canadair Challenger 600/610                   7,810                         4,080
Cessna Citation V                             5,910                         8,110
Cessna Citation VI                            4,940                         4,070
Cessna Citation X                             7,645                         5,610
DC8-73F                                       9,2001                        8,200
DC9 Series 30                                 5,600                         5,980
DC9 Series 40                                 5,6001                        6,055
DC9 Series 50                                 6,0001                        6,215
Falcon 2000                                   7,300                         3,760
Falcon 50                                     6,600                         3,320
Gulfstream IV                                 7,100                         4,700
Gulfstream V                                  8,160                         4,055
Hawker 800XP                                  6,780                         3,445
IAI Astra 1125                                7,240                         4,290
Lear 31A                                      4,095                         3,630
Lear 35A                                      4,280                         3,280
Lear 45                                       5,980                         3,910
Lear 60                                       7,310                         5,025
MD 83                                         6,1001                        8,520
MD 87                                         5,500                         7,460
Saab 340                                      5,240                         4,790
Sources: Individual aircraft performance characteristics with distances adjusted for tem-
perature and elevation, maximum load and range.
  Required takeoff length is limited to actual stage lengths for current schedules. Landing
lengths assume wet runway conditions.

Runway Width                                      FAA and should satisfy future needs
                                                  with normal maintenance.
Runway width is primarily deter-
mined by the planning ARC for the
particular runway. FAA design stan-               Pavement Strength
dards specify a minimum width of 150
feet for Runways 3-21 and 15-33’s de-             The most important feature of airfield
sign group (IV) and a minimum width               pavement is its ability to withstand
of 75 feet for Runway 9-27’s design               repeated use by aircraft of significant
group (II). Each runway currently                 weight. The current strength rating
meets the standard established by the             on Runway 3-21 is 200,000 pounds
single wheel loading (SWL), 200,000                ways are based upon the wingspan of
pounds dual wheel loading (DWL),                   the critical aircraft using the runway.
and 444,000 pounds dual tandem                     Since this varies between the three
wheel loading (DTWL). Runway 15-33                 runways, different standards apply.
has a current strength rating of                   Runway 3-21 is served by full-length
150,000 pounds SWL, 175,000 pounds                 parallel Taxiway B. The Taxiway B
DWL, and 260,000 pounds DTWL.                      centerline is 660 feet from the runway
Runway 9-27 has a current strength                 centerline on the north end and 560
rating of 30,000 pounds SWL. The                   feet from the runway centerline on the
current strength rating on all three               south end. These exceed the 400-foot
runways is sufficient for the fleet of             separation standard required for ARC
aircraft currently serving, and ex-                D-IV. Runway 15-33 is served by full-
pected to serve, the airport in the fu-            length parallel Taxiway A. The Taxi-
ture.                                              way A centerline is 400 feet from the
                                                   runway centerline, which meets the
A pavement study contracted by the                 400-foot separation standard for ARC
State of South Dakota was completed                D-IV. Taxiways A and B are both 150
in 2005 and indicated the majority of              feet in width, which meets the stan-
runway, taxiway, and apron pavement                dards required for ARC D-IV. The de-
on the airfield were in good, very good,           sign standard for Runway 9-27 (B-II)
or excellent condition. The only areas             was also examined. The current width
that were in poor or very poor condi-              of parallel Taxiway C meets the 35-
tion were a few access taxiways pro-               foot standard for ARC B-II and the
viding access to the general aviation              635-foot runway/taxiway separation
facilities, as well as a small apron area          exceeds the 240-foot standard. All
adjacent to one of the T-hangars. The              other taxiways at Sioux Falls Regional
pavement sections and pavement con-                Airport are at least 50 feet in width
dition index (PCI) have been depicted              and will be sufficient through the
on Exhibit 3E.                                     planning period.

TAXIWAYS                                           AIRFIELD MARKING,
                                                   LIGHTING, AND SIGNAGE
Taxiways are constructed primarily to
facilitate aircraft movements to and               In order to facilitate the safe move-
from the runway system. Some taxi-                 ment of aircraft about the field, air-
ways are necessary simply to provide               ports use pavement markings, light-
access between the aprons and run-                 ing, and signage to direct pilots to
ways, whereas other taxiways become                their destinations. Runway markings
necessary as activity increases at an              are designed according to the type of
airport to provide safe and efficient              instrument approach available on the
use of the airfield.                               runway.      FAA Advisory Circular
                                                   150/5340-1J, Marking of Paved Areas
Design standards for separation be-                on Airports, provides the guidance
tween the runways and parallel taxi-               necessary to design airport markings.


                     PCI LEGEND
                     86-100 Excellent
                     71-85 Very Good
                     56-70 Good
                                                          0                    1200
                     41-55 Fair                  NORTH
                     26-40 Poor
                                                              SCALE IN FEET
                     11-25 Very Poor
                     0-10   Failed      Source: South Dakota Department of Transportation

                                                                                                  Exhibit 3E
                                                                              PAVEMENT CONDITION OVERVIEW
Runway 3-21 has the necessary mark-               Airfield signage provides another
ings for the ILS approach which serves            means of notifying pilots as to their
the runway. Nonprecision instrument               location on the airport. A system of
markings exist on Runway 15-33,                   signs placed at several airfield inter-
while basic markings exist on Runway              sections on the airport is the best
9-27. The markings on all three run-              method available to provide this guid-
ways will suffice through the planning            ance. Signs and runway guard lights
period.                                           (RGL) located at intersections of taxi-
                                                  ways provide crucial information to
Taxiway and apron areas also require              avoid conflicts between moving air-
marking. Yellow centerline stripes                craft. Directional signage instructs
are currently painted on all taxiway              pilots as to the locations of taxiways
surfaces at the airport to provide this           and terminal aprons. At Sioux Falls
guidance to pilots. The apron areas               Regional Airport, all signs installed at
also have centerline markings to indi-            the taxiway and runway intersections
cate the alignment of taxilanes within            are lit.
these areas. Besides routine mainte-
nance of the taxiway striping, these
markings will be sufficient through               NAVIGATIONAL AND
the planning period.                              APPROACH AIDS

Airport lighting systems provide criti-           Electronic and visual guidance to ar-
cal guidance to pilots during nighttime           riving aircraft enhance the safety and
and low visibility operations. Run-               capacity of the airfield. Such facilities
ways 3-21 and 15-33 are equipped                  are vital to the success of the airport,
with high intensity runway lighting               and provide additional safety to pas-
(HIRL), while Runway 9-27 is                      sengers using the air transportation
equipped with medium intensity run-               system. While instrument approach
way lighting (MIRL). Runway 3-21                  aids are especially helpful during poor
also has centerline lights, while Run-            weather, they are often used by com-
way 21 has touchdown zone lighting.               mercial pilots when visibility is good.
These will be adequate through the                There are currently ten published in-
planning period.                                  strument approaches to Sioux Falls
                                                  Regional Airport.
Effective ground movement of aircraft
at night is enhanced by the availabil-            Instrument approaches are catego-
ity of taxiway lighting. Medium in-               rized as either precision or nonpreci-
tensity taxiway lighting (MITL) is in-            sion. Precision instrument approach
stalled on all taxiways on the airfield,          aids provide an exact alignment and
with the exception of taxiways leading            descent path for an aircraft on final
into T-hangar areas on the east side.             approach to a runway, while nonpreci-
The existing airfield lighting systems,           sion instrument approach aids provide
while adequate in intensity, will re-             only runway alignment information.
quire routine maintenance and up-                 Most existing precision instrument
grades during the planning period.                approaches in the United States are

instrument landing systems (ILS). At                Global Positioning System
Sioux Falls Regional Airport, Runway
3-21 is equipped with a precision in-               The advent of technology has been one
strument approach, while Runway 15-                 of the most important contributing
33 is equipped with a nonprecision in-              factors in the growth of the aviation
strument approach.                                  industry. Much of civil aviation and
                                                    aerospace technology has been derived
With the advent of the Global Posi-                 and enhanced from the initial devel-
tioning System (GPS), stand-alone in-               opment of technological improvements
strument-assisted approaches that                   for military purposes. The use of or-
provide vertical guidance down to                   biting satellites to confirm an air-
visibility minimums currently associ-               craft’s location is the latest military
ated with precision runways, will                   development to be made available to
eventually be established. As a result,             the civil aviation community.
airport design standards that formerly
were associated with a type of instru-              The FAA has already approved the
ment procedure (precision/ nonpreci-                publication of thousands of “overlay”
sion) are now revised, to relate instead            GPS instrument approach procedures.
to the designated or planned approach               Stand-alone GPS approaches using
visibility minimums.                                the Wide Area Augmentation System
                                                    (WAAS) will gradually be phased in to
                                                    provide a Category I approach, while
Existing Instrument Approaches                      Local Area Augmentation Systems
                                                    (LAAS) will provide a Category I/II/III
As previously mentioned, a Category I               approach.     Approach lighting and
ILS instrument approach is available                runway lighting systems in use today
for Runways 3 and 21, which allows                  will continue to be required for the de-
for landings when the cloud ceiling is              sired approaches.
200 feet above the ground and visibil-
ity is restricted to one mile for aircraft
in any category. The ILS Runway 3                   Visual Approach Aids
and 21 approaches can also be utilized
as localizer-only or circling ap-                   In most instances, the landing phase
proaches. When using only the local-                of any flight must be conducted in vis-
izer portion of the ILS (for course guid-           ual conditions. To provide pilots with
ance only) or using the ILS approach                visual guidance information during
to land at a different runway end (de-              landings to the runway, electronic vis-
fined as a circling approach), the cloud            ual approach aids are commonly pro-
ceilings and visibility minimums in-                vided at airports. A four-light visual
crease for all aircraft categories. The             approach slope indicator (VASI-4L) is
projected      instrument     approaches            installed on the approach end of Run-
(Chapter Two) support the eventual                  way 21. A four-light precision ap-
upgrade of the ILS on Runway 3-21 to                proach path indicator (PAPI) is in-
Category II.                                        stalled on the approach ends of Run-

ways 3, 15, and 33. As most airports               located at the south end of the airfield,
are replacing older VASIs with the                 west of the Runway 3 end. The ASOS
PAPI system, consideration should be               also includes a remote wind hy-
given to replacing the existing VASI-4             grothermometer, which measures both
on the approach end of Runway 21                   the temperature and the dew point of
with a PAPI-4, which is less costly to             the air and automatically sends the
maintain and operate.                              information to a computer for access
                                                   by the National Weather Service.
The approach ends of Runways 3 and                 Data are collected constantly.
21 are equipped with a Medium Inten-
sity Approach Lighting System with                 An airport surveillance radar (ASR) is
Runway Alignment Indicator Lights                  located about mid-field, east of Taxi-
(MALSR). A MALSR provides visual                   way B2. An ASR provides relatively
guidance to landing aircraft by radiat-            short-range coverage within approxi-
ing light beams in a directional pat-              mately 40 miles of an airport and as-
tern by which the pilot aligns the air-            sists “approach control” in handling
craft with the extended centerline of              terminal traffic. It also can be used as
the runway.                                        an instrument approach aid. Prelimi-
                                                   nary planning for an updated ASR has
                                                   indicated a preferred site on the west
Runway end identifier lights (REILs)
                                                   side of the airfield.
are flashing lights that facilitate iden-
tification of the runway end. REILs
                                                   The airport is also equipped with a
are installed on both ends of Runway
                                                   Low Level Windshear Alert System
15-33. These existing REILs are suffi-
                                                   (LLWAS), which measures wind speed
cient and should be maintained
                                                   and direction at remote sensor station
throughout the planning period.
                                                   sites situated around the airport ter-
Weather Reporting

The airport is equipped with an auto-
mated surface observation system                   REQUIREMENTS
(ASOS). The ASOS provides auto-
mated aviation weather observations                Landside facilities are those necessary
24 hours per day. The system updates               for handling aircraft, passengers, and
weather observations every minute,                 freight while on the ground. These
continuously reporting significant                 facilities provide the essential inter-
weather changes as they occur. The                 face between the air and ground
ASOS system reports cloud ceiling,                 transportation modes. The capacities
visibility, temperature, dew point,                of the various components of each area
wind direction, wind speed, altimeter              were examined in relation to projected
setting (barometric pressure), and                 demand to identify future landside fa-
density altitude (airfield elevation cor-          cility needs.
rected for temperature). The ASOS is

GROSS TERMINAL                                    building area can be useful in provid-
BUILDING AREA                                     ing a general overview of the existing
                                                  facility’s adequacy to accommodate
The existing terminal building was                demand, although on-going review of
built in 1970 and totaled approxi-                the terminal’s functional areas and
mately 97,300 square feet. Several                their adequacy to meet growing de-
improvements/additions have been                  mand is a more useful yardstick in
made to the terminal building since               long-term planning.
1970. An extensive renovation project
was completed in 1990 that not only               Exhibit 3F summarizes the available
included improving the aesthetics of              functional area within the new termi-
the building, but also included a new             nal building. Gross estimates of ter-
gift shop, snack and lounge area, a               minal building space were developed
new public-use conference room, and               for the planning period based upon the
improvements to the electrical, heat-             forecast enplanement levels and indi-
ing, and ventilation systems. A 9,200             cate that additional terminal area may
square-foot addition was completed in             be required before the end of the plan-
2002 and accommodates a new bag-                  ning period and individual areas
gage claim, expanded rental offices,              within the terminal building may
and a Federal Inspections Services                reach capacity before the end of the
processing area including facilities for          planning period, depending on the
USCS, INS, and USDA. Improve-                     number of airlines serving the airport.
ments in 2003 – 2004 provided addi-
tional space for TSA and passenger
waiting areas (upper and lower levels).
                                                  TERMINAL AREA
The terminal building now totals ap-
                                                  AUTOMOBILE PARKING
proximately 106,500 square feet.
                                                  Vehicle parking for the terminal com-
The main functional areas include
                                                  plex includes public (long-term and
ticketing, airline operations, baggage
                                                  short-term), employee, and rental car
claim, and departure lounges. As pas-
                                                  space. There are 1,646 long-term and
senger enplanements increase and the
                                                  303 short-term spaces located in the
number of passengers in peak periods
                                                  terminal parking lots. Airport em-
increases, each of these areas can be
                                                  ployee parking is provided in a 120-
expected to experience increased de-              space lot behind bag claim. There are
mand. The analysis does not take into             a total of 350 rental car parking
consideration the additional space                spaces located on the airport. This in-
needs for in-line screening. This will            cludes 250 ready/return parking
be examined in more detail during the             spaces located south of the passenger
terminal alternatives evaluation.                 terminal building and a rental car
                                                  overflow lot near the intersection of
There are various methods of deter-               Jaycee Lane and Minnesota Avenue
mining the gross amount of terminal               providing an additional 100 spaces.
building area that is necessary to ac-
commodate specific levels of passenger            As shown in Table 3G, the current
demand. Gross estimates of terminal               ratio of public parking spaces to en-

                                                               CURRENTLY   420,000    486,000       645,000
                     Counter Length (l.f.)                          190       140         160           220
                     Counter Area (s.f.)                          1,900     1,400       1,600         2,200
                     Ticket Lobby (s.f.)                          4,700     3,500       4,100         5,400
                     Airline Operations/Bag Make-up (s.f.)       11,400     7,800       9,200        10,300
                     DEPARTURE FACILITIES
                     Aircraft Apron Positions                         6         6           6             6
                     Holdroom Area (s.f.)                        10,200     6,200       7,100         9,500
                     BAGGAGE CLAIM
                     Claim Display (l.f.)                           120       280         320           430
                     Claim Lobby Area (s.f.)                      5,000     7,600       8,700        11,600
                     TERMINAL SERVICES
                     Rental Car
                       Counter Length (l.f.)                         60       100         110           140
                       Counter Queue Area (s.f)                   1,000     2,000       2,200         2,800
                       Lobby (s.f.)                                 400       600         700           800
                     Food/Gifts (s.f.)                           12,300    10,400      12,100        16,000
                     Restrooms (s.f.)                             3,400     1,900       2,200         2,900

                     PUBLIC LOBBY
                     Greeting Lobby/Seating (s.f.)                7,000     6,800       8,100        10,800
                     Security Queuing Area (s.f.)                 2,600     2,500       2,900         3,900
                     AIRPORT ADMINISTRATION
                     Offices/Conference Room (s.f.)               7,200     5,200       5,900         7,500

                     TOTAL PROGRAMMED TERMINAL AREA              67,100    55,900      64,800        69,300
                     (Excludes circulation, maintenance,
                     storage, misc. areas).

                     AUTO PARKING
                      Short Term/Long Term                        1,949     1,470       1,700         2,260
                     Rental Car                                     350       280         320           430
                     Employee                                       120       210         240           320

                     Source: Coffman Associates Analysis
                     Note: Public parking increased in 2006.

                                                                                                       Exhibit 3F
                                                                                           PASSENGER TERMINAL
                                                                                        BUILDING REQUIREMENTS
planements is approximately 3.7                    public parking space requirements.
spaces per 1,000 enplanements, which               Based upon this method, additional
is slightly greater than the common                public parking will be needed in the
planning standard of 3.5 spaces per                short term. Possible expansions to the
1,000 enplanements. A constant ratio               public parking will be examined in the
of 3.7 was used to project the future              following chapter.

Terminal Area Automobile Parking
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                                       Total              Ratio Per
          Year             Enplanements            Public Parking        Enplanement
Base Year                     358,450                  1,319*                 3.7
Short Term                    420,000                  1,560                   3.7
Intermediate Term             486,000                  1,800                   3.7
Long Term                     645,000                  2,390                   3.7
* Prior to expansion in 2006.

AIRPORT TRAFFIC                                       A) There must be maximum visi-
CONTROL TOWER                                            bility of the airport traffic pat-
SITING CONSIDERATIONS                                    terns.

While the existing control tower pro-                 B) There must be a clear, unob-
vides a central location on the airfield,                structed, and direct view of all
and an unobstructed view to all move-                    approaches to all runways or
ment areas on the airfield, new build-                   landing areas and to all run-
ing elevations on the east side have                     way and taxiway surfaces.
been limited by the existing tower
height. It also needs to be updated to                C) The proposed site must be
meet current control tower standards.                    large enough to accommodate
Therefore, consideration should be                       current and future building
given to a new tower. While siting is                    needs, including employee
traditionally undertaken with an in-                     parking spaces.
dependent FAA tower siting study, the
master plan provides the opportunity                  D) The proposed tower must not
to examine siting considerations, and                    violate FAR Part 77 surfaces
a cursory review of potential reloca-                    unless it is absolutely neces-
tion options. The following are man-                     sary.
datory operational and spatial re-
quirements per FAA Order 6480.4,                      E) The proposed tower must not
Airport Traffic Control Tower Siting                     derogate the signal generated
Criteria, used for locating potential                    by any existing or planned
control tower sites:                                     electronic facility.

For any site analysis, line-of-sight con-           planning purposes, it is necessary to
siderations are paramount. Minimum                  estimate hangar requirements based
eye elevations must be sited in accor-              upon forecast operational activity.
dance with FAA Order 6480.4. Sites                  However, hangar development should
should also take into account local                 be based upon actual demand trends
traffic patterns, flight patterns in rela-          and financial investment conditions.
tionship to sunrise and sunset coordi-              While a majority of aircraft owners
nates, and the locations of building                prefer enclosed aircraft storage, a
masses that may obstruct visibility.                number of based aircraft will still tie-
Additionally, controllers should not be             down outside (due to the lack of han-
required to cross active aircraft oper-             gar availability, hangar rental rates,
ating areas. Discussions with local                 and/or operational needs). At Sioux
personnel and officials may also have               Falls Regional Airport, nearly all the
important bearing on the site location.             based aircraft are currently stored in
                                                    enclosed hangar facilities. Therefore,
                                                    requirements for future enclosed han-
GENERAL AVIATION                                    gar facilities were planned for each
REQUIREMENTS                                        based aircraft.

The purpose of this section is to de-               Approximately 50 percent of the han-
termine the landside space require-                 gared aircraft at Sioux Falls Regional
ments for general aviation hangar and               Airport are currently stored in T-
apron parking facilities during the                 hangars. The majority of aircraft cur-
planning period. In addition, the total             rently stored in these hangars are sin-
surface area needed to accommodate                  gle engine. A planning standard of
general aviation activities throughout              1,200 square feet per based aircraft
the planning period is estimated.                   has been used to determine future re-

HANGARS                                             The other half of hangared aircraft are
                                                    stored in executive/conventional han-
Utilization of hangar space varies as a             gars, which are designed for multiple
function of local climate, security, and            aircraft storage. As the trend towards
owner preferences. The trend in gen-                more sophisticated aircraft continues
eral aviation aircraft, whether single              throughout the planning period, it is
or multi-engine, is towards more so-                important to determine the need for
phisticated aircraft (and, conse-                   more executive/conventional hangars.
quently, more expensive aircraft);                  For executive/conventional hangars, a
therefore, many aircraft owners prefer              planning standard of 1,200 square feet
enclosed hangar space to outside tie-               was used for single engine aircraft,
downs.                                              while a planning standard of 3,000
                                                    square feet was used for multi-engine,
The demand for aircraft storage han-                jet, and helicopters. These planning
gars is dependent upon the number                   standards recognize that some of the
and type of aircraft expected to be                 larger business jets require a greater
based at the airport in the future. For             amount of space.
Since portions of executive/ conven-            Future hangar requirements for the
tional hangars are also used for air-           airport are summarized in Table 3H.
craft maintenance, and servicing, re-           As shown in the table, additional han-
quirements for maintenance/service              gar area will be required before the
hangar area were estimated using a              end of the short term planning period.
planning standard of approximately              Chapter Four, Airport Development
15 percent of the total hangar space            Alternatives, will examine the options
needs.                                          available for hangar development at
                                                the airport and determine the best lo-
                                                cation for each type of hangar facility.

Aircraft Storage Requirements
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                                          Future Requirements
                                   Currently        Short    Intermediate     Long
                                   Available        Term         Term         Term
Total Aircraft to be Hangared              95           105             110      125
Single Engine Positions                    55            58              59        61
Multi-Engine Positions                     40            47              51        64
Hangar Area Requirements (s.f.)
T-Hangar Area                             57,500      62,400           66,000     74,400
Executive Hangar Area                     25,500      43,200           51,000     60,600
Conventional Hangar Area                 116,800      87,000           91,800    108,600
Maintenance Area                          10,700      28,900           31,300     36,500
Total Hangar Area (s.f.)                 210,500     221,500          240,100    280,100

AIRCRAFT PARKING APRON                          For planning purposes, 25 percent of
                                                the based aircraft total will be used to
A parking apron should provide for the          determine the parking apron require-
number of locally-based aircraft that           ments of local aircraft, due to some
are not stored in hangars, and for              aircraft requiring both hangar storage
those aircraft used for air taxi and            and parking apron. Since the majority
training activity. Parking should be            of locally-based aircraft are stored in
provided for itinerant aircraft (pas-           hangars, the area requirement for
senger and air freight) as well. As             parking of locally-based aircraft is
mentioned in the previous section, ap-          smaller than for transient aircraft.
proximately 97 percent of based air-            Therefore, a planning criterion of 650
craft at Sioux Falls Regional Airport           square yards per aircraft was used to
are currently stored in hangars. It is          determine the apron requirements for
estimated that the percentage of based          local aircraft.
aircraft stored in hangars will remain
near 97 percent by the end of the               Along with based aircraft parking
planning period.                                needs, transient aircraft parking

needs must also be considered when              Total aircraft parking apron require-
determining apron requirements. A               ments for general aviation are pre-
planning criterion of 800 square yards          sented in Table 3J. Currently, apron
was used for single and multi-engine            area at the airport totals approxi-
itinerant aircraft, and 1,600 square            mately 48,000 square yards, with ap-
yards for itinerant jets.                       proximately 85 total tie-down posi-
                                                tions. Additional apron area will be
                                                needed in the future.

General Aviation Aircraft Parking Apron Requirements
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                  Currently     Short         Intermediate      Long
                                  Available     Term              Term          Term
Single, Multi-Engine Transient
Aircraft Positions                                    25                  28          34
  Apron Area (s.y.)                               20,200              22,100      27,100
Transient Jet Aircraft Positions                       6                   7           8
  Apron Area (s.y.)                               10,100              11,100      13,600
Locally-Based Aircraft Positions                      26                  28          31
  Apron Area (s.y.)                               17,100              17,900      20,300
Total Positions                           85          58                  62          74
Total Apron Area (s.y.)               48,000      47,400              51,100      61,000

CARGO REQUIREMENTS                              square foot was used to determine
                                                building requirements while a plan-
Building space requirements for the             ning standard of 3.5 square feet of
sorting and transfer of air cargo was           apron per square foot of building was
also examined.      As mentioned in             used to estimate future apron re-
Chapter One, three all-cargo operators          quirements. Table 3K presents the
(DHL, FedEx, and UPS) offer cargo               cargo area requirements for Sioux
services at Sioux Falls Regional Air-           Falls Regional Airport.     Additional
port. The scheduled passenger air-              cargo facilities will be needed in the
lines also provide cargo and air mail           long term. It should be noted that the
services. A planning standard of 800            demand for docks and garages will
pounds of enplaned air cargo per                vary with each company.

Cargo Area Requirements
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                                Short        Intermediate       Long
                               Available        Term             Term          Term
Enplaned Air Cargo (pounds)    36,555,961       42,800,000       50,100,000    68,600,000
Building Space (s.f.)              62,300           53,500           62,600        85,800
Apron Area (s.y.)                  44,000           20,800           24,400        33,300

SUPPORT REQUIREMENTS                               year 2000 and should be sufficient
                                                   through the planning period.
Various facilities that do not logically
fall within classifications of airfield,
terminal building, or general aviation             AIRPORT MAINTENANCE/
areas have also been identified. These             STORAGE FACILITIES
other areas provide certain functions
related to the overall operation of the            Maintenance facilities at Sioux Falls
airport, and include: aircraft rescue              Regional Airport consist of four build-
and firefighting, fuel storage, snow               ings located on the east side of the
removal equipment storage, and air-                airport, north of the general aviation
port maintenance facilities.                       area. Approximately 10,700 square
                                                   feet of total space is provided by these
                                                   four buildings, which are used to store
AIRCRAFT RESCUE                                    equipment and vehicles used in gen-
AND FIREFIGHTING                                   eral maintenance activities at the air-
                                                   port. Previous planning has called for
Requirements for aircraft rescue and               the relocation of these facilities to al-
firefighting (ARFF) services at an air-            low for expansion of air cargo facili-
port are established under Federal                 ties.
Aviation Regulations (FAR) Part 139,
which applies to the certification and
operation of land airports served by               FUEL STORAGE
any scheduled or unscheduled passen-
ger operation of an air carrier using an           All aircraft fuel storage facilities at
aircraft with more than nine seats.                the airport are privately-owned and
                                                   operated by BAS. Three separate fuel
Paragraph 139.315 establishes ARFF                 storage facilities provide the capability
index ratings, based on the length of              of storing 214,000 gallons of Jet A fuel,
the largest aircraft with an average of            50,000 gallons of 100LL fuel, and
five or more daily departures. Sioux               19,000 gallons for diesel/other. Air-
Falls Regional Airport has been classi-            craft refueling is provided from several
fied with Index B requirements, which              fueling trucks.
apply to airports servicing aircraft less
than 126 feet. Specifications have                 Storage requirements are normally
been developed for the trucks in terms             based upon two-week usage require-
of dry chemicals, water, and foam ap-              ments. Generally, fuel tanks should
plication agents they are required to              be of adequate capacity to accept a full
carry.                                             refueling tanker, which is approxi-
                                                   mately 8,000 gallons, while maintain-
As mentioned in Chapter One, a                     ing a reasonable level of fuel in the
12,000 square-foot building located on             storage tank.
the southwest portion of the SDANG
apron houses the ARFF facilities.                  The existing fuel depot consists of the
This building was completed in the                 following tank capacity by fuel type:

   •   Jet A:       6 – 20,000 gallon           SUMMARY
                    2 – 47,000 gallon
                                                The intent of this chapter has been to
   •   100LL:       2 – 15,000 gallon           outline the facilities required to meet
                    1 – 20,000 gallon           potential aviation demands projected
                                                for the airport through the planning
   •   Diesel/other: 1 – 19,000 gallon          horizon. The next step is to develop a
                                                direction for implementation that will
Existing tanks provide adequate ca-             best meet these projected needs. The
pacity for fuel settling and two-week           remainder of the master plan will be
usage requirements.                             devoted to outlining this direction, its
                                                schedule, and costs.

Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority               Chapter Four
                                         AIRPORT DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER FOUR                                                       Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority

Airport Development Alternatives
In the previous chapter, airside and               short, intermediate, and long-term
landside facility needs that would satisfy         facility needs. It should be noted that
projected demand over the planning                 this evaluation was undertaken during
period were identified. The next step in           late spring and early summer of 2006,
the master planning process is to                  and does not reflect any projects that
evaluate the various ways these facilities         may have been undertaken subsequent
can be provided. In this chapter, the              to this date.       Since the level of
facility needs will be applied to a series         commercial and general aviation activity
of airport development alternatives. The           can vary from forecast levels, flexibility
possible combination of alternatives can           must be considered in the plan. If
be endless, so some intuitive judgment             activity levels vary significantly within a
must be applied to identify the                    five-year period, the Sioux Falls Regional
alternatives which have the greatest               Airport Authority should consider an
potential for implementation.         The          update to the plan to reflect the changed
alternatives analysis is an important step         condition.
in the planning process since it provides
the underlying rationale for the final             Since the combination of alternatives can
master plan recommendations.                       be endless and budgeted time for
                                                   alternative evaluation is limited, only the
The alternatives presented in this chapter         most prudent and feasible alterna-
provide a series of options for meeting            tives were examined. However, special

consideration has been given in this               of the previous airport planning efforts
analysis to the terminal building and              and the development that has occurred
the condition of Airport Authority-                during the intervening years.
owned facilities. Additional materials
prepared for terminal building evalua-             The last comprehensive master plan
tions have been summarized and at-                 was completed in October 1995. The
tached as an appendix to this report.              airport layout drawings were updated
                                                   in 2001, and an Environmental Evalua-
While the South Dakota Air National                tion (short environmental assessment)
Guard operates under its own master                was completed in support of the exten-
plan, it leases property from the Airport          sion of Runway 15-33 (also in 2001).
Authority and provides firefighting ser-
vices under a joint use agreement. Fu-             Recounting recent improvements will
ture land lease needs will be taken into           assist with the identification of current
consideration during the update of this            issues affecting future development op-
master plan and included on final lay-             tions. Following completion of the mas-
out drawings.                                      ter plan in 1995, the Airport Authority
                                                   pursued the following projects:
New aerial photography of the airport
and vicinity was flown during the                  $     Expansion of air cargo apron,
spring of 2006 for the purpose of devel-                 construction of a 40,000 square
oping new base mapping and to verify                     foot sort building, and develop-
the location and elevation of existing                   ment of a new entrance road and
facilities. The new photography was                      truck court adjacent to the air
used during the preparation of exhibits                  cargo area.
in this chapter.
                                                   $     Relocation of the Big Sioux River
The alternatives presented in this chap-                 on the northwest end of Runway
ter will be reviewed with the Planning                   15-33, and the subsequent exten-
Advisory Committee to allow for further                  sion of the runway by 1,330 feet
refinement prior to selecting a final                    (providing a total length of 8,000
master plan concept. Following selec-                    feet).
tion of the concept, updated airport lay-
out plan drawings and a capital im-                $     Relocation of Minnesota Avenue
provement program will be developed.                     southeast of the terminal area,
However, final decisions with regard to                  removing a portion of the road
pursuing individual projects for com-                    from the object free area of Run-
mercial and general aviation users will                  way 15-33, and providing expan-
rest with the Airport Authority.                         sion capability for rental car
                                                         storage areas.

BACKGROUND                                         $     Expansion of bag claim, rental
                                                         car offices, and provision for in-
Prior to presenting airport development                  ternational arrivals in the termi-
alternatives, it is helpful to review some               nal. In addition, security areas

      and offices were expanded after              these were application of the latest FAA
      9/11, new hold rooms were added              design standards, impact of commercial
      in the terminal, and restrooms               and general aviation fleet transitions,
      were updated.                                in-line screening of bags in the ticketing
                                                   area, hold room capacities on the board-
$     Expansion of public parking, re-             ing concourse, queuing at the screening
      location of employee parking into            area, potential for common-use gates,
      a new lot, and expansion of                  zoning of airport property, physical con-
      rental car storage areas.                    dition of existing Airport Authority
                                                   buildings (including the terminal), and
$     Realignment of National Guard                the development of new areas on the
      Drive, removing a portion of the             airfield for aircraft storage hangars.
      road from the object free area of
      Runway 3-21.                                 FAA design standards continue to be
                                                   revised consistent with new instrument
$     Construction of a new fire sta-              approach procedures. This plan is using
      tion.                                        design standards finalized in September
                                                   2005, and updated again in 2006. A to-
$     Construction of new general                  tal re-write of airport design standards
      aviation facilities, including a             is anticipated in 2007; therefore, the
      new hangar/office complex for                Airport Authority will need to continue
      Business Aviation Services (the              to evaluate the impact of design stan-
      general aviation fixed base op-              dard revisions over time.
                                                   Several of the issues related to the ter-
Other projects completed throughout                minal building (in-line screening, hold
the period included the reconstruction             room capacities, queuing at the screen-
of airfield pavements, replacement of              ing checkpoint, common-use gates, etc.)
airfield lighting, and the addition of             were examined during terminal plan-
centerline and touchdown zone lights on            ning sessions undertaken May 9-11,
Runway 3-21. The Benson Road exten-                2006. The exhibits prepared for the
sion/interchange project was completed             planning sessions have been reproduced
in the late 1990s, providing needed ac-            and included as Appendix B to this re-
cess to the airport from the east side of          port.
Sioux Falls, and a direct connection to I-
229.                                               A sample zoning ordinance for the use
                                                   of airport property has been prepared
                                                   and submitted to the City of Sioux Falls
INITIAL DEVELOPMENT                                Planning Department for their review.
CONSIDERATIONS                                     A final version of this ordinance, if ac-
                                                   cepted by the City of Sioux Falls prior to
Several development considerations                 completion of the master plan, will be
were identified during the initial stages          included with this report.
of the master plan. Included among

The evaluation of the physical condition            The ramifications of the Ano action@ al-
of existing buildings owned by the Air-             ternative is inconsistent with the long
port Authority has been completed and               term transportation goals of the Airport
included as Appendix C to this report.              Authority, which are to enhance local
The buildings examined included the                 and interstate commerce. A policy of
main terminal, snow removal equip-                  Ano action@ would be considered an irre-
ment and maintenance facilities, alert              sponsible approach, affecting not only
hangars and office at north end of the              the long term viability of the airport
airfield, and general aviation hangars.             and the investment that has been made
                                                    in it, but also the economic growth and
                                                    development of the airport=s service
CONSIDERATION OF                                    area. Therefore, the Ano action@ alter-
NON DEVELOPMENT                                     native was not considered as prudent or

                                                    TRANSFER OF SERVICES
                                                    TO ANOTHER AIRPORT
In analyzing and comparing costs and
benefits of various development alter-
                                                    Transferring services to another airport
natives, it is important to consider the
                                                    essentially considers limiting develop-
consequences of no further develop-
                                                    ment at Sioux Falls Regional Airport
ment. The Ano action@ alternative es-
                                                    and relying on other airports to serve
sentially considers keeping the airfield
                                                    aviation demand for the local area.
in its present condition, and not provid-
ing for any improvements to existing
                                                    There are six general aviation public-
facilities. The primary result of this al-
                                                    use airports located within 30 nautical
ternative, as in any growing air trans-
                                                    miles of the airport (each airport is de-
portation market, would be the eventual
                                                    scribed in Chapter One). These airports
inability of the airport to satisfy the in-
                                                    do not provide comparable runway
creasing demands of the airport service
                                                    length or instrument approach capabili-
                                                    ties, which are a necessity for most cor-
                                                    porate users. The nearest airport pro-
The airport=s aviation demand forecasts
                                                    viding competitive commercial service is
and facility requirements analysis indi-
                                                    Omaha (approximately three hours),
cated a need for additional facilities
                                                    while Minneapolis-St. Paul (approxi-
during the twenty years of the planning
                                                    mately four hours) is the nearest com-
period. Evaluations undertaken of ex-
                                                    mercial hub airport. There are no
isting facilities have indicated that
                                                    nearby facilities available for the South
some of these facilities will require re-
                                                    Dakota Air National Guard or the air
placement during the planning period.
                                                    cargo companies.
Without these improvements, customers
of the airport will be constrained from
                                                    Considering that comparable aviation
taking advantage of the airport=s air
                                                    facilities are not readily available to ac-
transportation capabilities.
                                                    commodate existing demand, other

nearby facilities could not easily fulfill         ment made in Sioux Falls Regional Air-
the airport=s current role.                        port.

DEVELOPMENT OF                                     AIRFIELD
A NEW AIRPORT                                      CONSIDERATIONS
The relocation of aviation services to a           Airfield facilities are, by their very na-
new facility is another option which can           ture, a focal point of the airport com-
be considered. However, the develop-               plex. Because of their role, and the fact
ment of a new commercial service air-              that they (and restricted areas adjacent
port is a very complex and expensive               to the airfield) physically dominate a
development option, which can have far             great deal of the airport=s property, air-
reaching impacts of its own. For these             field facility needs are often the most
reasons, few new commercial service                critical factor in the determination of
airports have been constructed in the              viable airport development alternatives.
U.S. over the last twenty years.
                                                   In particular, the runway system re-
The existing airport comprises a land              quires the greatest influence on the
area of approximately 1,600 acres. A               identification and development of other
new airport would likely require an                airport facilities. Furthermore, there
even greater acreage. Typically, new               are a number of FAA design criteria
sites are located far from existing devel-         which must be considered when exam-
opment, requiring greater ground travel            ining airfield improvements (reference
times. In addition, potential environ-             Chapter Three, Tables 3B, 3C, and sup-
mental impacts can be significant.                 porting narrative). Previous projects
                                                   have improved safety areas for Run-
The cost of purchasing a site and devel-           ways 15, 33, and 21. It is anticipated
oping facilities comparable to today=s             that a project in 2007 will improve the
airport would require a financial com-             safety area on Runway 3. While several
mitment in excess of $500 million. The             runway protection zones extend beyond
high costs associated with new site de-            airport property, the Airport Authority
velopment will continue to limit the               has purchased aviation easements for
number of new facilities that the avia-            the areas not included within their
tion industry can absorb.                          property.

The attempts to create new general
aviation reliever airports are also met            RUNWAYS
with significant opposition. In fact, the
list of new reliever airports constructed          The facility needs evaluation has not
in the past twenty years is nearly as              identified a need for additional runway
short as the list of new commercial ser-           length on any of the existing runways.
vice airports. Therefore, it would be              Furthermore, forecast operational de-
prudent to attempt to maximize the                 mand and existing capacity does not re-
utility of the existing airport invest-

quire additional runway capacity, which            cient exit points. Furthermore, if a
is most commonly achieved with paral-              runway begins to exceed 30 hourly op-
lel runways. Therefore, no runway ex-              erations during peak periods, acute an-
tensions or new runways will be consid-            gled exits may be located along the
ered in this evaluation.                           runway to improve exit ratings. Previ-
                                                   ous planning considered an acute an-
To meet FAA recommended crosswind                  gled exit on Runway 21; however, with
coverage of 95 percent on the runway               greater allocation of traffic onto Run-
system, a two-runway system is re-                 way 15-33, it should not be necessary to
quired. However, this requirement is               construct any acute angled exits on
achieved with Runways 3-21 and 15-33,              Runway 3-21 or 15-33.
and does not require Runway 9-27.
                                                   Spacing between runways and parallel
Since Runway 15-33 was extended to                 taxiways meets or exceeds the mini-
8,000 feet, it has received greater utili-         mum requirement (400 feet). However,
zation by commercial air carriers and              Taxiway C extends along the edge of the
the Air National Guard (which have ar-             Air National Guard apron, and falls
resting systems and holding areas on               within a restrictive safety area which
both runways). Proximity to the termi-             extends 400 feet from the aircraft park-
nal allows for relatively short taxi               ing line (as depicted on Exhibit 4A.
times, especially on Runway 33 depar-              Relocating all commercial and general
tures. However, commercial carriers or             aviation aircraft onto Runway 9-27 for
general aviation aircraft are without a            taxiing keeps aircraft outside the re-
holding apron when departing Runway                stricted area. However, consideration
33. This has been depicted on previous             may need to be given to constructing a
airport layout plan drawings, but can-             parallel taxiway at a separation of 240
not be constructed at this time due to a           feet from the runway centerline.
conflict with the runway protection zone
for Runway 9-27. The holding apron
should continue to be depicted on the              AIRPORT TRAFFIC
airport layout drawing, consistent with            CONTROL TOWER
Exhibit 4A. Consideration should also
be given to providing a holding apron              The FAA will be responsible for the sit-
for commercial or general aviation air-            ing of a replacement control tower facil-
craft at the entrance to Runway 3, also            ity. A conceptual analysis undertaken
depicted on the exhibit.                           by Koch Hazard Architects in March
                                                   2006 identified two siting options on the
                                                   west side of the airfield. One site was
TAXIWAYS                                           near the Air National Guard hush
                                                   house (since considered unacceptable),
Taxiways are constructed primarily to              while another site was identified south
facilitate aircraft movements to and               of the Army National Guard facilities
from the runway system and landside                (identified on Exhibit 4A). It is antici-
facilities. Exit taxiways along the run-           pated that the existing site on the east
ways should be spaced to provide effi-             side will continue to provide a viable


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Diversion Channel

                                                                                                                                                                    BNSF Railroad
                                                                                            SRE SITE D
                                                                        Minnesota Ave.

                                                                                                                                                           Jaycee Ln.
                                                                                                           Or                                                                                                                             HOLD APRON
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           RUNWAY 33

                                                                                                                                      Hangar St.

                                                    al G

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Existing Runway Protection Zone (RPZ)
                                                                                                                                      EXISTING ATCT
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ultimate RPZ
                                                                        SRE SITE A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Ultimate Airfield Pavement
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      CONSTRUCT NEW TAXIWAY
                                                                                                                                                                            yA                                                                                        TO SEGREGATE ANG TRAFFIC           ASR

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    x 75’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Airport Surveillance Radar
                                                                                                                                                           i     wa                               50’
                                                                                                                                                       Tax                                      1
                                                                                                                                                                                           0’ x                                                                                                          ATCT   Airport Traffic Control Tower

                                                                                         SRE SITE C                                                                                8,0

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                7 3,15
                                                                                                                                                                             3                                                                                                                           SRE
                                                                                                                                                                        15-3                                                                                                                                    Snow Removal Equipment
                                                                                               ALT. ATCT SITE                                       un

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              ay 9-2
                                                                                                                                                   R                                                                                                                                                            ASR Critical Area

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Air National Guard Safety Area

                                               SRE SITE B

                                                                                                                                                                                                                240’ MIN.
                                                                                                                                                            nw                                                                                                                                           RUNWAY PROTECTION ZONES
                                                                                                                                                                             3-2                                         Ta                                                                               Not Lower Than 1-Mile (9-27 existing)
                                                                                                                                                                                 1                                          x  iw
                                                                                                                                                                                     8,9                                         ay                                                                        500’ x 1,000’ x 700’
                                                                                                                                                                                         99                                           B
                                                                                                                                                                                             ’x                                                                                                           Not Lower Than 1-Mile (15-33 existing)
                                                                                                                                                                                                     0’                                                        400’ TO EDGE                                500’ x 1,700’ x 1,010’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               OF SAFETY AREA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Not Lower Than 3/4-Mile (15-33 future)
                                                                                                                     CR    1
                                                                                                                       ITI ,500’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           1,000’ x 1,700’ x 1,510’
                                                                                                                          CA                                                                                                                                                                              Lower Than 3/4-Mile (3-21 existing)
                                                                                                                                RE                                                                                                                                                                         1,000’ x 2,500’ x 1,750’

                                                                                                                        FUTURE                                                                                                                                                              HOLD APRON
                                                                                                                      ASR-II SITE                                                                                                                                                           RUNWAY 3


                   0          1000                               2000                                                                                                                                           x
                          SCALE IN FEET
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                Elmwood Municipal Golf Course
                       PHOTO DATE: 4-22-06

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exhibit 4A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          AIRFIELD CONSIDERATIONS
siting option; therefore, future develop-         TERMINAL BUILDING
ment alternatives in this master plan             ALTERNATIVES
will take into consideration these three
potential control tower sites.                    Terminal planning sessions were held
                                                  May 9-11, 2006 in the terminal build-
                                                  ing. The results have been summarized
NAVIGATIONAL AIDS                                 on a series of exhibits presented as Ap-
                                                  pendix B to this report. These work
Siting evaluations have been under-               sessions were designed to allow inter-
taken by the FAA for a new Airport                ested parties to participate in the devel-
Surveillance Radar (the current radar is          opment of future development alterna-
presently located between the intersect-          tives. The airport administration, air-
ing runways). The selected site is on             lines, concessionaires, airport security,
the west side of the airfield, near the           and rental car companies participated
intersection of the perimeter road and            in the sessions. The alternatives were
hush house access road. The location              limited to the existing terminal build-
has been noted on Exhibit 4A. A                   ing, apron, and public parking area,
1,500-ft. critical area exists around the         which have been expanded several
antenna site, as noted on the exhibit.            times since the terminal was initially
Based upon the finished ceiling height            dedicated in 1970. The most recent
of the tower, objects constructed in this         terminal building renovations were
area may be subject to height limita-             completed in 2004 and a public park-
tions to maintain line-of-sight for the           ing/circulation road realignment was
radar.                                            underway in 2006. A general evalua-
                                                  tion of the terminal building (general
Runway 3-21 was equipped with center-             building condition, electrical and me-
line and touchdown zone lighting in               chanical) was undertaken for this mas-
1995. However, approach lighting (and             ter plan, and included as Appendix C to
other equipment) has not been up-                 this report.
graded to provide for lower landing
minimums. The standard approach                   The existing terminal site provides for
lighting system for Category II is the            expansion of the building, gates, and
ALSF-2, which consists of light bars at           rental car area. However, with the cur-
100-foot intervals (in lieu of 200-foot           rent expansion of the public parking
spacing with the existing MALSR sys-              area, all of the available area within the
tem). The previous master plan rec-               expanded terminal re-circulation loop
ommended that both runway ap-                     road will have been used, as depicted on
proaches be upgraded to Category II               Exhibit 4B. The expansion of public
standards, which would lower landing              parking will provide a total of 1,949
minimums. Plans should continue to                parking spaces in the long term and
reflect this upgrade.                             short term lots.

(Leave space for 2 page exhibit)


                                                        LOOP ROAD (2006)


       PARKING (+480)                                          Min                                                   el
     EXPANSION (2006)                                             nes
                                       PARKING (+150)                               .
                                     EXPANSION (2006)
               FUTURE BUILDING

                                                          FUTURE RENTAL
                                                          CAR EXPANSION

                                                 RENTAL CAR
                                                                                        0                      400

                         CONCOURSE                                   NO
                                                                       RTH                  SCALE IN FEET

                                                                                        PHOTO DATE: 4-22-06

                                                                                       Exhibit 4B
                                                                     TERMINAL AREA ALTERNATIVE

Future expansion opportunities will ei-             will take into consideration adequate
ther be remote (likely requiring shuttle)           area for remote parking locations, al-
or vertical (requiring the higher devel-            lowing the Airport Authority flexibility
opment cost of a parking deck). While               in future decisions.
parking decks provide a higher and bet-
ter use of limited landside area, and               Future expansion of the terminal build-
greater acceptance by the traveling pub-            ing concourse, should additional gates
lic, their development costs are several            be required, may be accomplished with
times higher than surface lots and cre-             construction of a new concourse. How-
ate greater disruption to the existing              ever, based upon projected need, this
parking operation during construction.              may not be necessary during the 20-
Generally, if greater weight is given to            year plan period, especially with greater
convenience and user acceptance, the                joint-use of gates. An adequate foot-
parking deck is more favorable. How-                print will still need to be reserved on
ever, shuttle lots may still be required            the airfield to protect this option.
for phased construction of a parking
deck, since it would displace existing              The curbside may need to be widened at
parking areas in front of the terminal              a future date with an additional lane, or
during construction. The master plan                commercial vehicles may need to be

segregated to an outside curb, although          TICKETING AND BAG MAKE-UP
neither option appears to be necessary
at this time. The parking/re-circulation         The ticketing lobby congestion is attrib-
lane project in 2006 will create added           utable to the counter relocation which
length to the curb frontage, and reduce          was undertaken several years ago to
potential conflicts.                             provide space behind the counters for
                                                 bag screening. It is compounded by the
Rental car ready areas may easily be             need to provide queuing space in front
expanded to the south, and rental car            of each airline counter. While the tick-
storage areas extended south, as dic-            eting offices zone works well, the bag
tated by demand. The Hertz facility is           make-up zone is constrained (and will
constrained at its existing location. A          become more constrained with the in-
location farther south (as noted on the          troduction of new bag screening equip-
exhibit) will provide greater expansion          ment later this year). Terminal entry
potential.                                       points directly in front of the ticket
                                                 counters contribute to cold air blasts di-
Each end of the terminal building can            rectly into the lobby during the winter.
be expanded (based upon the number of
airlines or peak demands) to provide             Ideally, the bag screening process
additional ticketing wing or bag claim           should be isolated behind the counter
areas. Other considerations may affect           wall. To create a bag screening area, an
ticketing and bag claim expansion                additional 25 feet needs to be created on
(these were given consideration during           the back side of the building. This
the terminal planning sessions and dis-          would allow bags to move from behind
cussed in the following paragraphs).             the airline counters to the centralized
                                                 bag screen area, then onto carousels
Three areas of concern were identified           where each airline would transfer bags
on the first level of the building:              to aircraft. By moving the bag screen-
                                                 ing area, the ticketing counter can be
$     Congestion in the ticketing lobby          moved back to its original position, al-
      and bag screening area.                    lowing proper queuing and circulation
$     Access to/from the upper level             in the lobby. Additional kiosks (for pas-
      activities (via the moving walk-           senger check-in) could be placed in the
      way).                                      waiting areas across from the lobby,
$     Possible congestion and lack of            and individual airline counters be re-
      expansion potential in the bag             configured consistent with each indi-
      claim area.                                vidual airline=s standard.

Two areas of concern were identified on          Expansion potential needs to be pro-
the second level:                                vided for the gift shop, and the entry
                                                 points to the terminal should be re-
$     Congestion at the security check-          worked to eliminate cold air blasts into
      point.                                     the lobby. The preceding ideas have
$     The location and size of hold              been identified on the terminal exhibits
      rooms.                                     included in the appendix. Details have

been provided for the ticket counter                upon reaching the second level creates
zone and for the in-line bag screening.             congestion during busier periods. While
                                                    the one security checkpoint lane may
                                                    reach capacity (180-200 passengers per
BAG CLAIM AND F.I.S.                                hour) during the busiest periods, the
                                                    need to queue passengers in a limited
The bag claim wing is configured with               area creates most of the conflict. Two
three flatbed AT@ carousels, with the               alternatives were examined, including:
third located adjacent to the F.I.S. area.          a) Replacement of the moving walkway
When the airport handles an interna-                with standard escalators, and b) Reloca-
tional flight (only 4-6 times per year), a          tion of the security exit point. Each of
curtain drops down from the ceiling to              these alternatives provide additional
isolate the area. When this happens, it             queuing space. Expansion concepts for
creates congestion at the bag drop-off              the screening lanes were also developed.
zone and in front of the rental car                  One concept involves relocation of
counters. The low frequency of interna-             Covenant Aviation Security (the private
tional flights makes this an inconven-              security company providing screening
ience, but not a significant problem.               services) support space to the ramp
The third carousel is a Aswing@ device,             level to provide additional security
which can be used for domestic flights              queuing area, while the more long-term
when not being used for international.              concept (providing three screening
                                                    lanes) involves the construction of addi-
When it becomes necessary to add addi-              tional space in conjunction with a new
tional bag claim capacity, the F.I.S.               concourse.
area will block expansion. Three alter-
natives were identified: a) Relocate                Several expansion concepts for the sec-
F.I.S. and the Aswing@ zone to the north            ond level concourse were developed dur-
wall, b) Extend existing flatbed AT@ car-           ing the work sessions. While one of the
ousels by adding additional area on the             concepts reflects the construction of a
back side of the building, and c) Relo-             second concourse to provide additional
cate F.I.S. to a new location outside the           gate capacity, this has not been identi-
existing building. The most cost effec-             fied in the master plan as a need during
tive means to add bag claim lobby and               the 20-year planning period. The con-
bag claim carousel frontage is with the             cepts developed for the existing con-
second option.                                      course provide greater flexibility in the
                                                    use of existing gates, additional gate
                                                    positions, greater hold room capacity,
BOARDING CONCOURSE                                  and additional restrooms.

An elevated moving walkway provides                 Aircraft parking positions at Gates 2
access from the main lobby to the sec-              and 4 may need to be re-aligned with
ond level concourse. While this non-                construction of additional bag screening
typical system creates some problems                area on the ticketing wing. However,
for users, the fact that travelers enter            the addition of a jet loading bridge at
the security checkpoint immediately                 Gate 2, and expansion of the hold room,

 would provide greater flexibility in the            isolated development potential. In ad-
use of this gate.      Additional hold               dition, with development of the larger
room/gate positions have been noted ad-              conventional hangars on the Business
jacent to Gates 5 and 6. Another pair of             Aviation Services leasehold, and addi-
restrooms have been shown adjacent to                tional employees in the area, the exist-
Gate 5.                                              ing auto parking is limited, especially
                                                     along Aviation Avenue. Therefore, any
Gate 3 would appear to offer the capa-               development plan must include dedi-
bility of being used as a Aswing@ gate for           cated areas for vehicular parking.
multiple carriers. Electronic screens at
the gate would provide the opportunity               Recently, Business Aviation Services
to quickly switch the gate to alternate              proposed a jet park for the parcel be-
carriers, depending on peak period                   tween Hangar Street and Jaycee Lane
scheduling.                                          (depicted on Exhibit 4C). The proposal
                                                     consists of hangars ranging from 3,600
                                                     to 15,360 square feet, with the majority
GENERAL AVIATION                                     in the 7,000 to 8,000 sq. ft. range.
ALTERNATIVES                                         Business Aviation Services had pro-
                                                     posed this concept in response to the
Previous plans have assumed an in-                   need to provide a location for the
filling of T-hangars and executive han-              15,360-sq. ft. hangar, and to provide a
gars on the east side of the airfield.               location for other conventional box han-
However, most of the demand in recent                gars on the airport.
years as been in executive and larger
conventional hangars, with little de-                Aircraft access to the area is provided
mand for small nested T-hangars.                     by an existing taxiway. Vehicular ac-
Therefore, existing areas on the east                cess is provided by a new stub road from
side of the airfield have been reexam-               Hangar Street. Utilities would be ex-
ined, as have potential new develop-                 tended from existing lines on the north
ment areas on the west side.                         side of Hangar Street. This concept
                                                     preserves the existing car rental/ termi-
The general aviation area on the east                nal overflow lot, and the additional land
side is limited to aircraft with wing-               to Hangar Street which fronts Minne-
spans less than 55 feet, excluding larger            sota Avenue. As noted on the exhibit, a
turbofan and turboprop aircraft. How-                buffer area needs to be preserved at the
ever, a majority of the existing general             Jaycee Lane/Minnesota Avenue inter-
aviation fleet mix is still able to operate          section for potential long-term entrance
within this area. The area is a mix of               improvements.
larger conventional storage hangars (lo-
cated along the flight line), individual             With construction of the new general
executive hangars, and nested T-                     aviation services hangar and office
hangars, as depicted on Exhibit 4C.                  complex by the Airport Authority and
                                                     Business Aviation Services, and the
Several of the existing T-hangar rows                need to serve an increasing demand for
were never completed, leaving areas of               corporate aircraft, consideration needs


                                                                                                       Diversion Channel
                   Benson Rd.

                                                                                                  MAINTAIN BUFFER FOR
                                                      BNSF Railroad
                                                                                                  POTENTIAL ENTRANCE
                                                                                                             Minnesota Ave.

                                                               John Orr Dr.
                                                                                                        RESERVE FOR
                                                                                                     OVERFLOW PARKING
                                                                                                      AND RENTAL CAR

                                                                                                                                Jaycee Ln.
                                                                                     Hangar St.
                                                                                                          JET PARK

                                                                                                  AUTO PARKING

                                                                                                     DESIGNATE POSITIONS
                                                                                                     FOR TRANSIENT JETS                      EXTEND
                     RAMP                                                                                                                    RAMP AND

                                                                              EXTEND GA RAMP FOR TIE-DOWNS


                   0                            300                            Ultimate Building
                                                                               Ultimate Airfield Pavement
                                SCALE IN FEET
                                                                               Ultimate Roads/Parking
                                                                               Corporate Parcels
                      PHOTO DATE: 4-22-06

                                                                                                                                     Exhibit 4C
                                                                                                                GENERAL AVIATION ALTERNATIVE
to be given to expanding the general                 available for lease will be limited in
aviation ramp to provide additional                  their ability to handle larger turbofan
parking positions for all aircraft sizes,            and turboprop aircraft. Therefore, de-
and to improve the traffic flow from the             velopment potential on the west side of
ramp to and from the runway system.                  the airfield has also been given consid-
Area should be reserved directly in front            eration in this plan to meet long-term
of the facility for itinerant jet aircraft,          needs.
which will displace some of the existing
fixed wing parking positions. The heli-              While development along Runway 3-21
copter landing area and parking posi-                must take into consideration the more
tions will remain at the corner of the               restrictive setback requirements associ-
ramp, separated from the fixed wing                  ated with the instrument runway, the
traffic by the recommended 300 feet.                 potential for aviation-related develop-
Additional automobile parking needs to               ment at the northwest end of Runway
be provided near the Hangar                          15-33 was enhanced several years ago
Street/Aviation Avenue intersection, as              with the extension of the runway and
depicted on Exhibit 4C.                              the relocation of the Big Sioux River.
                                                     By extending an access taxiway from
Exhibit 4C also depicts other options                Taxiway A, the area offers excellent de-
for in-filling general aviation areas                velopment potential, as depicted on
along Hangar Street. The available                   Exhibit 4D.
parcels may be marketed to individual
tenants, consistent with demand. Each                The layout which is depicted assumes a
parcel which is leased should take into              parallel taxilane at 750 feet from the
consideration the size of aircraft to be             runway, and individual development
hangared, expansion potential, vehicu-               parcels of one acre in size. Roads and
lar access and parking, and compatibil-              utilities will need to be extended into
ity with adjacent development. Road-                 the area. The entrance road will need
way access from Hangar Street needs to               to be extended from the west side of the
be established to provide access to indi-            Army National Guard facility. This
vidual parcels, as noted on the exhibit.             plan offers good flexibility and expan-
                                                     sion potential west of the parcels de-
At the present time, the Airport Author-             picted on the exhibit. It offers good ac-
ity is reviewing several proposals for               cess to the airfield while not interfering
new hangars and expansions to existing               with other commercial operations, and
hangars. While it is difficult to antici-            will remain clear of potential conflicts
pate the exact need for each and every               with existing or future navigational
potential tenant, the parcels which are              aids.

(leave room for ½ page exhibit)                                         RESTRICTION LINE

                South Dakota Army                  RESERVE FOR
                  National Guard




 PROTECTION ZONE                                                                         NORTH

                                                                            0                    500

                                                                                SCALE IN FEET

                                                                            PHOTO DATE: 4-22-06

                                                                                 Exhibit 4D
                                                       GENERAL AVIATION WEST ALTERNATIVE

AIR CARGO                                          push-back configuration, which well ex-
ALTERNATIVES                                       ceeds the projected demand. However,
                                                   some air cargo activities and equipment
Previous plans have depicted an addi-              storage are being handled in general
tional air cargo sort building and truck           aviation areas on the east side, creating
court in the vicinity of the current snow          some conflicts with existing aircraft
removal equipment (SRE)/airport main-              movements and future general aviation
tenance buildings, consistent with the             hangar development. When consoli-
alignment of the current ramp, as de-              dated into the designated air cargo
picted on Exhibit 4E. This continues               area, the activities will be properly seg-
to provide the best option for expansion           regated, and potential conflicts will be
of air cargo facilities. The current ramp          minimized.
will handle 10-12 aircraft positions in a

                   John Orr Dr.   TO BE REMOVED                      FUTURE
                                                                     TRUCK COURT
(Leave space for 2 page exhibit)

                                               FUTURE SORT


                                                                          0                        400

                                                                              SCALE IN FEET

                                                                           PHOTO DATE: 4-22-06

                                                                                 Exhibit 4E
                                                              AIR CARGO AREA ALTERNATIVE

SNOW REMOVAL                                       C). Combined, the existing structures
EQUIPMENT (SRE)                                    total 18,300 square feet. Generally,
                                                   new SRE buildings are constructed with
                                                   easy access from both the landside and
MAINTENANCE FACILITIES                             airside. The location designated in the
                                                   previous master plan fits with this cri-
Previous plans have designated an al-              teria, although the site is limited to 4
ternate location for the SRE and airport           acres. Alternatives to this site include
maintenance facilities, to provide area            the areas south or west of the South
for air cargo expansion. It is antici-             Dakota Army National Guard facility,
pated that a replacement structure will            and the parcel immediately north of the
need to be 25,000 to 30,000 square feet,           fuel farm (which has also been desig-
and be located on a land parcel of 3 to 4          nated on the airport land use plan for
acres. The existing facilities consist of          airport support). Each of these loca-
four buildings, with the condition of              tions have been depicted on Exhibit
each building discussed in the building            4A.
evaluation report (included as Appendix

SUMMARY                                            business opportunities which may be
                                                   presented to the Airport Authority
Upon review of the airport development             while protecting the long-term interests
alternatives with the Planning Advisory            of the aviation users. The final concept
Committee and the Airport Authority, a             will be used to develop new airport lay-
final master plan concept will be devel-           out plan drawings and a capital im-
oped to fulfill the projected 20-year de-          provement program, each of which will
mands of the planning period. The con-             be presented in the following chapters.
cept should remain flexible to unique

Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority                               Chapter Five
                                         MASTER PLAN CONCEPT, NOISE ANALYSIS,
                                                       and LAYOUT DRAWINGS
CHAPTER FIVE                                                       Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority

Master Plan Concept, Noise Analysis,
and Layout Drawings
The airport master planning process for            Following the fourth coordination
Sioux Falls Regional Airport has evolved           meeting with the PAC, a draft final
through the development of forecasts of            master plan report will be prepared and
future     demand,       facility   needs          presented to the Sioux Falls Regional
assessments, and the evaluation of                 Airport Authority (SFRAA).          Upon
airport development alternatives. The              approval of the final master plan
planning process has included the                  document, a final technical report will be
development of four working papers,                prepared for the study.
distributed to a Planning Advisory
Committee (PAC), and discussed at
coordination meetings held throughout              RECOMMENDED
the study process. The coordination of             MASTER PLAN CONCEPT
the planning effort has allowed the direct
input of each of these representatives             The recommended master plan concept,
into the ongoing planning effort, which            depicted on Exhibit 5A, provides
has resulted in the development of a               anticipated airside and landside needs
master plan concept. The purpose of this           over the twenty-year planning period
chapter is to present the master planning          (the aerial photograph used in this
concept in narrative and graphic form.             exhibit was taken in April 2006).


                                                                                                                                                                                                    MAINTAIN BUFFER FOR
                                                                                                               RESERVE FOR OVERFLOW                                                                 POTENTIAL ENTRANCE
                                                                               Diversion Channel              PARKING AND RENTAL CAR                                                                IMPROVEMENTS                                                                BNSF Railroad
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Minnesota Ave.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Mi                                                      FUTURE RENTAL
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              CAR EXPANSION

                                                                                                                                                            Hangar St.

                                                                                                                                                                                     Jaycee Ln.
                                                                          RESERVE FOR AIR                Jo
                                                                          CARGO SUPPORT                         Or                                                                                                                                                FUTURE RENTAL CAR FACILITY
                                                                      .                     FUTURE                                                                                  JET PARK
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Existing Runway Protection Zone (RPZ)
                                                                                        TRUCK COURT                                                                                                                                                                                                    A1

                                                       al G                                                                                                                                                                        TERMINAL                                                                                                 Ultimate RPZ

                                                                                                     FUTURE SORT                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ultimate Airfield Pavement

                                                                                                        BUILDING                                                                                                                   CONCOURSE     A2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       HOLD APRON                           Ultimate Road/Parking
                                                                                                                                                                                                     EXISTING ATCT                                                                                     RUNWAY 33
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ultimate Building

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ASR    Airport Surveillance Radar
                                                                                                        DESIGNATE POSITIONS
                                                                                                         FOR TRANSIENT JETS                                                                                            A3                                                                                                            ATCT   Airport Traffic Control Tower

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        x 75’
                            FUTURE                                                                                                                                                   iwa                                50’
                         LOOP ROAD                                                                                               UPGRADE TO                                      Tax                                 x1                                                                                                              SRE    Snow Removal Equipment
                                                                                             M                                                                                                                 00’
                                                                                                                                 CAT II APPROACH

                                                                                                                                                                                                         3 8

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    7 3,15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Critical Area
                                                                                                          ALTERNATIVE                                                                                5-3

                                                                                                                                                                                                  y1                                  EXISTING
                                                                                                          ATCT SITE             Ru                                                  wa
                                                    PROPOSED                                                                      nw                                           Ru
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Ordinance Area

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            ian tra
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   ay 9-2
                                                  SRE BUILDING                                                                          ay
                                                                                                                                                1                              CROSSFIELD                                                                                                                                                   Air National Guard Safety Area
                                                                                                                                                    8,9                       TAXIWAY FOR

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          o civil
                                                                                                                                                       99                                                                                                                                                                                   Lease Parcels
                                                                                                                                                          ’x                  AIR CARRIERS                                       CR      1
                                                                                                                                                                         0’                                                          ITI ,500
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        CA ’

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     lose t
                                       RESERVE FOR                                                        A4
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           A                                                                         RUNWAY PROTECTION ZONES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   y C (c
                                      DEVELOPMENT                                                                                                                                                                                         Ta                                                                                          Not Lower Than 1-Mile (9-27 existing)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                iw                                                                                     500’ x 1,000’ x 700’
                                                                                   A5                                                                                                                                                                                                     400’ TO EDGE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Lower Than 1-Mile (15-33 existing)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       500’ x 1,700’ x 1,010’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          OF SAFETY AREA
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      Not Lower Than 3/4-Mile (15-33 future)
                                                                                                                       CR     1                                                                      800’
                                                                                                                          ITI ,500’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       1,000’ x 1,700’ x 1,510’
                                                                                                                             CA                                                                                                                                                                                                       Lower Than 3/4-Mile (3-21 existing)
                                                                                                                                LA                                                                  AREA
                                                                                                                                   RE                                                                                                                                                                                                  1,000’ x 2,500’ x 1,750’

                                                                                                                          FUTURE                                                                                                                                                                                        HOLD APRON
                                                                                                                       ASR-11 SITE                                                                                                                                                                                      RUNWAY 3


                     0           1000                               2000                                                                                                                                                         x
                             SCALE IN FEET
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            Elmwood Municipal Golf Course
                          PHOTO DATE: 4-22-06

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        Exhibit 5A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            MASTER PLAN CONCEPT
This will allow the facility to meet the          The master plan and airport layout
growing demands of commercial, air                drawings provide a means to present
cargo, and general aviation users.                this information.

                                                  The certification manual contains in-
AIRFIELD DESIGN STANDARDS                         formation on the following topics:

The Federal Aviation Administration               •     General Information
(FAA) has established design criteria             •     Organization and Management
to define the physical dimensions of              •     Airport Information
runways and taxiways, and the                     •     Maintenance and Inspection
imaginary clearance surfaces sur-                        Program
rounding the runway system. The de-               •     Operational Safety
sign standards also define the separa-            •     Hazardous Materials
tion criteria for the placement of land-          •     Aircraft Rescue and
side facilities. As discussed earlier in                 Firefighting
Chapter Three, FAA design criterion               •     Snow and Ice Control
is a function of the critical design air-         •     Airport Emergency Plan
craft or “family” of aircraft which con-          •     Wildlife Hazard Management
duct a minimum of 500 or more itiner-             •     Maintenance of Certification
ant operations (landings and takeoffs)                   Manual
each year. The design category is
measured by the wingspan of the air-              The airport will need to continually
craft and their approach speed.                   monitor their compliance with Part
                                                  139 in each of the aforementioned ar-
As a commercial service airport, Sioux            eas. The capital program (to be pre-
Falls Regional Airport must also com-             sented in the following chapter) will
ply with the requirements of Federal              include items which are necessary to
Aviation Regulation (F.A.R.) Part 139,            maintain compliance with Part 139
Certification of Airports. This regula-           and are reimbursable under the Air-
tion prescribes the rules governing the           port Improvement Program (AIP).
certification and operation of land air-
ports which serve scheduled or un-                As with many airports, runways,
scheduled passenger operations of an              taxiways, and landside development
air carrier that are conducted with an            areas are designed to differing design
aircraft having a seating capacity of             standards. Runways 3-21 and 15-33
more than nine passengers. Under                  are designed to Airport Reference
F.A.R. Part 139, the airport must                 Code (ARC) D-IV standards, while
complete (and maintain) a certification           Runway 9-27 is designed to B-II stan-
manual which outlines their compli-               dards. While aircraft in higher ARCs
ance under each provision of the regu-            may occasionally use the airport, their
lation. The compliance level required             use is not expected to result in an up-
is dependent on the airport’s design              grade to the airport/runway ARC. Air
standards and the size and frequency              carrier and air cargo areas are de-
of the aircraft in scheduled service.             signed to airplane design group (ADG)

IV standards and general aviation ar-           feet from the existing ASR antenna,
eas are generally designed to lesser            potential conflicts from taxiing aircraft
ADG II standards. Dimensional stan-             will need to be considered.         Ulti-
dards for safety, including runway              mately, the ASR is to be relocated to
safety areas, runway protection zones,          the west side of the airfield as noted in
and other general physical planning             Exhibit 5A.
requirements, have been included in
Tables 3B and 3C.                               The runway safety area project on
                                                Runway 3 (southwest end), which was
                                                recommended in the previous master
AIRFIELD RECOMMENDATIONS                        plan, is scheduled to be completed in
                                                2007. A series of alternatives are be-
The recommended master plan con-                ing considered to mitigate impacts on
cept includes a series of improvements          the Elmwood Municipal Golf Course,
on the airfield to provide additional           and these alternatives and the pre-
operational capability and taxiway ac-          ferred action will be reflected in envi-
cess to areas which may be developed            ronmental documentation later this
during the planning period.                     year.

While the plan does not include any             It has been recommended that the
runway extensions, hold aprons have             Airport Authority continue to plan for
been recommended for Runways 33                 a Category II approach on Runway 3-
and 3, to reduce potential delays to            21, although the airport will not qual-
departing aircraft. The hold apron for          ify for this upgrade until later in the
Runway 33 has been configured to re-            planning period. The Category II ap-
duce potential conflicts with the run-          proach will require an upgrade in
way protection zone on Runway 9-27              navaid equipment and approach light-
(east end). In addition, a cross-field          ing, although centerline lighting and
taxiway between exits A3 and B2 has             touchdown zone lighting was installed
been recommended to improve traffic             in 1995, and the runway already has
flow into the terminal area when ter-           high intensity edge lighting. The plan
minal-bound aircraft land on Runway             also reflects an upgrade in the ap-
3. During the evaluation of alterna-            proach minimums to Runway 15-33,
tives in the previous chapter, a paral-         but not below 3/4-mile visibility mini-
lel taxiway between Taxiway C and               mums. This is reflected on Exhibit
Runway 9-27 had been examined to                5A by the expanded width of the ap-
allow for the closure of Taxiway C to           proach runway protection zone.
civilian traffic. However, the taxiway
would have created conflicts at the             An alternative location for the airport
Runway 9/Taxiway C intersection; and            traffic control tower (ATCT) has been
after further review, the addition of a         noted on the north end of the airfield,
cross-field taxiway appears to serve            although the FAA will require a con-
the need for an alternative to taxiing          trol tower siting study to determine if
civilian aircraft on Runway 9-27.               an alternate location is an improve-
Since the taxiway will be located 350           ment over the existing site. A higher

line-of-sight from the existing location         needs. Areas south of the rental car
is necessary as future facilities are            facilities should also be reserved for
constructed adjacent to the air cargo            long-term rental car/remote public
ramp (or elsewhere on the airfield).             parking needs.

Future taxiways are recommended on               The terminal building alternatives
the north end of the airfield to access          evaluation considered congestion in
potential hangar development adja-               the ticketing lobby and bag screening
cent to Runways 3-21 and 15-33. The              area, access to/from the upper level
taxiways will need to avoid ILS criti-           boarding concourse (moving walkway),
cal areas on Runway 3-21 (as depicted)           possible congestion and lack of expan-
and the hold apron on Runway 15-33               sion potential in the bag claim area,
(also depicted). Also, the runway-               congestion in the security checkpoint
taxiway separation adjacent to Run-              area, and the location and size of hold
way 3-21 will need to be maintained at           rooms. The following has been rec-
a minimum distance of 560 feet (it               ommended in each of these areas:
currently meets or exceeds this dis-
tance) to meet Category II require-              Ticketing and Bag Make-Up
ments after applying local elevation
and critical aircraft wingspan dimen-            •     Ultimately, place the bag
sions to formulas provided by the                      screening process behind the
FAA.                                                   ticketing counter wall.      This
                                                       will require a 25-foot addition to
                                                       the back side of the ticketing
TERMINAL AREA                                          wing, and creation of a new bag
RECOMMENDATIONS                                        screening area. It will allow the
                                                       ticketing counter to be relocated
Current projects (2006) will create a                  to its original position in the
terminal re-circulation road, extend                   lobby and eliminate the conges-
the terminal exit road past the rental                 tion currently being experi-
car lot, and add to the public parking                 enced.
area. An additional public parking
area in the future will need to be de-           •     With relocation of the ticketing
veloped either at a remote location or                 counter, kiosks (for passenger
by constructing a parking deck. How-                   check-in) can be added, entry
ever, with the added parking being                     points can be re-worked (to
added in the current expansion (which                  mitigate cold air blasts in win-
will bring the total number of public                  ter), and the gift shop can be al-
parking spaces to 1,949), the lot                      lowed to expand.
should be able to handle parking de-
mand for many years as the number of             Bag Claim and F.I.S.
boarding passengers increase. It has
been recommended that the area adja-             •     For additional bag claim front-
cent to Jaycee Lane (used by rental                    age (and lobby), extend existing
car companies in the past) be retained                 flatbed baggage carousels by re-
for overflow and/or displaced parking
     locating the back wall, and               AIR CARGO
     enlarging the lobby. This will            RECOMMENDATIONS
     also serve to improve the traffic
     flow for luggage tugs in the bag          The previous master plan had recom-
     drop off area. The third carou-           mended that the airport maintenance
     sel will continue to be used as a         and SRE facilities be relocated to al-
     third domestic carousel or to             low for the development of a sort
     serve international flights.              building, truck court, and support fa-
                                               cilities. This plan has confirmed the
Boarding Concourse                             need to continue to plan for this relo-
                                               cation. This will allow for the consoli-
•    In the short term, to relieve             dation of air cargo activities into one
     congestion at the security                area, and remove air cargo activities
     checkpoint, relocate the glass            from current general aviation areas
     wall and doors separating se-             (where they conflict with general avia-
     cure/non-secure areas to allow            tion aircraft movements and potential
     additional queuing space on the           hangar development).       The airport
     second level. The long term so-           maintenance and SRE facilities will be
     lution should involve replace-            relocated into new facilities on the
     ment of the moving walkway                west side of Runway 3-21.
     with a traditional escalator.

•    In the short term, to provide             GENERAL AVIATION
     additional area on the second             RECOMMENDATIONS
     level for security screening, re-
     locate security company of-               The general aviation area on the east
     fice/support space to the first           side of the airfield is limited in the
     level.     Construct additional           size and number of hangar facilities
     space on the second level (pos-           which can be constructed. However, a
     sibly in conjunction with a new           mix of executive and conventional
     concourse) for the long term.             hangars can be constructed in remain-
                                               ing open areas to meet long-term de-
•    Add a jet loading bridge at Gate          mands. It is anticipated that the
     2 and expand the hold room                newly constructed hangar and office
     area.                                     complex for Business Aviation Ser-
                                               vices will provide excellent facilities to
•    Add hold room area/gate posi-             serve this need. The following meas-
     tions adjacent to Gates 5 and 6,          ures have been recommended:
     and a pair of restrooms adjacent
     to Gate 6.                                •     Designate positions in front of
                                                     the new BAS facility for tran-
•    Add electronic screens at Gate 3                sient jets, displacing existing
     to allow for the use of this gate               tie-downs as necessary. Relo-
     by multiple carriers.                           cate tie-downs onto newly con-
                                                     structed ramp (as noted on Ex-

     hibit 5A). Expand auto park-              the prevailing noise conditions at
     ing behind all hangars on Avia-           Sioux Falls Regional Airport. The
     tion Avenue, especially closest           Federal      Aviation  Administration
     to the new BAS facility.                  (FAA) has approved one computer
                                               model, the Integrated Noise Model
•    Provide for additional individ-           (INM), for developing aircraft noise
     ual executive/box hangars, re-            exposure contours for airports like
     duce the number of nested han-            Sioux Falls Regional Airport. Version
     gars over the planning period,            6.2 is the most current version of the
     and provide additional parcels            INM at this time. It is the version
     for corporate hangar/office fa-           used for the noise analysis described
     cilities. To support the addi-            in this section.
     tional    hangars,      roadways
     should be constructed perpen-             INM describes aircraft noise in Yearly
     dicular to Hangar Street (as re-          Day-Night Average Sound Level
     quired) to allow for secure sepa-         (DNL). DNL accounts for the in-
     ration between public and non-            creased sensitivity to noise at night
     public areas.                             (10:00 p.m. to 7:00 a.m.) and is the
                                               metric preferred by the FAA, Envi-
•    Open up areas on the west side            ronmental Protection Agency (EPA),
     for general aviation develop-             and Department of Housing and Ur-
     ment by constructing a partial            ban Development (HUD), among oth-
     parallel taxiway to Runway 3-             ers, as an appropriate measure of cu-
     21, and a parallel taxilane next          mulative noise exposure.
     to Taxiway A (the parallel taxi-
     way to Runway 15-33). Indi-               The INM works by defining a network
     vidual lease parcels will aver-           of grid points at ground level around
     age one acre in size, and provide         the airport. It then selects the shortest
     excellent access to the airfield.         distance from each grid point to each
     The hangars will face either to           flight track and computes the noise
     the southeast or southwest, and           exposure for each aircraft operation,
     offer the potential for combined          by aircraft type and engine thrust
     hangar/office development. The            level, along each flight track. Correc-
     area offers expansion potential           tions are applied for air-to-ground
     beyond the dozen parcels identi-          acoustical    attenuation,     acoustical
     fied on Exhibit 5A, by exten-             shielding of the aircraft engines by the
     sion of the loop road and taxi-           aircraft itself, and aircraft speed
     lane.                                     variations. The noise exposure levels
                                               for each aircraft are then summed at
                                               each grid location. The cumulative
NOISE EXPOSURE                                 noise exposure levels at all grid points
ANALYSIS                                       are then used to develop noise expo-
                                               sure contours for selected values (e.g.,
                                               65, 70, and 75 DNL). Noise contours
This section of the Master Plan out-
                                               are then plotted on a base map of the
lines the methodology for analyzing

airport environs using the DNL met-              the computation of airport-specific
ric.                                             flight profiles (rates of climb and de-
In addition to the mathematical pro-
cedures defined in the model, the INM            A variety of user-supplied input data
has another very important element.              is required to use the Integrated Noise
This is a data base containing tables            Model. This includes the airport ele-
correlating noise, thrust settings, and          vation, average annual temperature, a
flight profiles for most of the civilian         mathematical definition of the airport
aircraft, and many common military               runways, the mathematical descrip-
aircraft, operating in the United                tion of ground tracks above which air-
States. This data base, often referred           craft fly, and the assignment of spe-
to as the noise curve data, has been             cific aircraft with specific engine types
developed under FAA guidance based               at specific takeoff weights to individ-
on rigorous noise monitoring in con-             ual flight tracks.
trolled settings. In fact, the INM data-
base was developed through more                  For the purposes of this analysis,
than a decade of research including              computer input files were prepared for
extensive field measurements of more             the latest year available (2005) and
than 10,000 aircraft operations.                 the long range forecast developed in
                                                 Chapter Two (2025). These are briefly
The database also includes perform-              summarized in Table 5A.
ance data for each aircraft to allow for

Operations Summary - Sioux Falls Regional Airport
              Operation Type                         2005                  2025

Airlines                                                    16,900                 25,600
Air Taxi/Cargo                                              18,960                 29,400
General Aviation                                            28,419                 42,000
Military                                                     3,551                  3,800
Subtotal                                                    67,830                100,800


General Aviation                                            18,366                 28,000
Military                                                     3,551                  3,800
                                                            21,917                 31,800
TOTAL OPERATIONS                                            89,747                132,600

The distribution of these operations             velopment of the input model data.
among various categories, users, and             The business jet, turboprop, and
types of aircraft is critical to the de-         multi-engine piston operation mix

were developed using FAA=s instru-               The INM and FAA aircraft substitu-
ment flight rule (IFR) database and              tion list provide data for most of the
Sioux Falls Regional Airport landing             business turbojet aircraft in the na-
fee reports. The remaining portion of            tional fleet. The LEAR35 represents
general aviation operation mix was               the Lear 30 series aircraft and the
developed using the Sioux Falls Re-              CNA500 effectively represents the
gional Airport based aircraft fleet mix.         Cessna 500 series aircraft that domi-
Table 5B summarizes the fleet mix                nate the small Stage 3 business jet
data input into the noise analysis by            category. The CL600 represents the
annual aircraft operations.                      Falcon 2000 and Challenger 600 air-
                                                 craft. The GV designator was used to
In order to select the proper aircraft           represent the Gulfstream V series air-
from the INM database, a review of               craft.
the current fleet mix for Sioux Falls
Regional Airport was conducted. The              The MD83 and MD81 designators rep-
FAA aircraft substitution list indicates         resent the MD-83 and MD-87 aircraft
that the general aviation single-engine          in the airline fleet mix, respectively.
variable pitch propeller model, the              The Airbus 300, 319, and 320 were
GASEPV, represents a number of sin-              represented by the A300, A319, and
gle-engine general aviation aircraft.            A320 INM designators. The Boeing
Among others, these include the Beech            727, 757, and 767 were represented by
Bonanza, Cessna 177 and 180, Piper               the 727EM2, 757PW, and 767300 INM
Cherokee Arrow, Piper PA-32, and the             designators. The McDonnell Douglas
Mooney. The general aviation single-             DC-9-30/40, DC-9-50, and DC-8-70 se-
engine fixed pitch propeller model, the          ries aircraft were represented by the
GASEPF, also represents several sin-             DC93LW, DC95HW, and DC870 INM
gle-engine general aviation aircraft.            designators, respectively. The SF-340
These include the Cessna 150 and 172,            and Regional Jet aircraft in the fleet
Piper Archer, Piper PA-28-140 and                mix are represented by the SF340 and
180, and the Piper Tomahawk.                     CL601 designators, respectively.

The FAA's substitution list recom-               Two types of helicopters commonly op-
mends the BEC58P, the Beech Baron,               erating at Sioux Falls Regional Air-
to represent the light twin-engine air-          port are also modeled. The itinerant
craft such as the Piper Navajo, Beech            helicopter activity was modeled with
Duke, Cessna 310, and others. The                the B206L designator and the local
CNA441 effectively represents light              helicopter activity with the R22 desig-
turbo-prop and twin-engine piston air-           nator. Military aircraft in the Sioux
craft such as the Cessna 402, Gulf-              Falls fleet mix were represented by
stream Commander, and others. In                 the F16GE fighter jet aircraft. All
addition, the DCH6 is recommended                substitutions are commensurate with
for use in modeling the Merlin Metro-            published FAA guidelines.
liner and King Air turboprop aircraft.

Fleet Mix Data C Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                       Designator       2005      2025


     A-320                                     A320         680      7,680
     MD-83                                    MD83          420          0
     MD-87                                    MD81          200          0
     A-319                                     A319       1,450      7,680
     DC-9-30/40/50                          DC95HW        2,000          0
     CRJ-700                                    GV        1,450      6,400
     CRJ-200                                  CL601       8,000      3,072
     CRJ-440                                  CL601         720          0
     SF-340                                   SF340       1,980        768

      DC-8-71/73                             DC870           40          0
      A300-600                                 A300         720      3,050
      B-767-300                              767300           0      1,525
      B-757-200                              757PW           20      1,525
      B-727-200                             727EM2        1,700          0
      DC-9-30                               DC93LW          420          0
      DC-9-40                               DC93LW          310          0
      Medium Turboprop                        DHC6        7,000      5,825
      Light Turboprop                       CNA441        3,650      5,825
      Multi-Engine Piston                   BEC58P        2,550      5,825
      Single-Engine Piston                  GASEPF        2,550      5,825

    Single-Engine Piston Variable           GASEPV        9,410     15,750
    Single-Engine Piston Fixed              GASEPF        9,409     15,750
    Multi-Engine Piston                     BEC58P        5,000      3,990
    Turboprop                               CNA441        1,500      2,100
    Citation 500                            CNA500        1,500      2,100
    Lear 35                                 LEAR35          300        420
    Falcon 2000                               CL600         300        420
    Challenger 600                            CL600         250        420
    Gulfstream V                                GV           50        210
    Helicopter                                B206L         700        840

     F-16                                       F16GE     3,551      3,800
Subtotal Itinerant                                       67,830    100,800

TABLE 5B (Continued)
Fleet Mix Data C Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                        Designator               2005           2025

    Single-Engine Piston Variable             GASEPV                7,933         11,200
    Single-Engine Piston Fixed                GASEPF                7,933         11,200
    Multi-Engine Piston                       BEC58P                1,500          2,800
    Turboprop                                 CNA441                  500          1,400
    Helicopter                                  R22                   500          1,400

      F-16                                        F16GE             3,551          3,800
Subtotal Local                                                     21,917         31,800
TOTAL OPERATIONS                                                   89,747        132,600

Runway usage data is another essen-               runway system.        The consolidated
tial input to the INM. For modeling               tracks were developed to reflect these
purposes, wind data analysis usually              common patterns and to account for
determines runway use percentages;                the inevitable flight track dispersions
however, this provides only the direc-            around the airport. A series of stan-
tional availability of a runway and               dard turns and straight-out flight
does not consider pilot selection, pri-           tracks were assumed for itinerant
mary runway operations, or local op-              traffic. A standard left turn pattern
erating conventions. Continuous re-               was assumed for all three runways for
cords of the runway usage at Sioux                local traffic. Although the consoli-
Falls Regional Airport are not kept by            dated flight tracks appear as distinct
the airport.    However, the Airport              paths, they actually represent average
Traffic Control Tower (ATCT) staff                flight routes and illustrate areas of the
was consulted during the development              surrounding community where air-
of runway usage assumptions. Table                craft operations can be expected most
5C depicts assumed runway use data                often.
by operation type at Sioux Falls Re-
gional Airport.                                   The standard arrival profile used in
                                                  the INM program is a three-degree
Flight track data was derived based               approach. There is no indication that
on experience at other airports of simi-          there was any variation on this stan-
lar size. At airports such as Sioux               dard procedure at Sioux Falls Re-
Falls Regional Airport, aircraft traffic          gional Airport; therefore, the standard
is expected over most areas around                approach was included in the model as
the airport. Air traffic density gener-           representative of local operating con-
ally increases nearer the airport as it           ditions.
is funneled to and dispersed from the

Runway Use Data
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                         Aircraft Category

             Air Carrier/                 Business Jet       Single-/Multi-
Runways      Commuter          Cargo     and Turboprop       Engine Piston     Military
     3               16.0%       21.0%             24.0%               23.0%      15.0%
    21               36.0%       49.0%             36.0%               35.0%      35.0%
    15               12.0%        9.0%             12.0%               11.0%      15.0%
    33               36.0%       21.0%             28.0%               27.0%      35.0%
     9                0.0%        0.0%              0.0%                2.0%       0.0%
    27                0.0%        0.0%              0.0%                2.0%       0.0%
     3               16.0%       21.0%             24.0%               23.0%      15.0%
    21               36.0%       49.0%             36.0%               35.0%      35.0%
    15               12.0%        9.0%             12.0%               11.0%      15.0%
    33               36.0%       21.0%             28.0%               27.0%      35.0%
     9                0.0%        0.0%              0.0%                2.0%       0.0%
    27                0.0%        0.0%              0.0%                2.0%       0.0%

INM Version 6.2 computes the takeoff             The INM computes separate departure
profiles based on the user-supplied              profiles (altitude at a specified dis-
airport elevation and the average an-            tance from the airport with associated
nual temperature entries in the input            velocity and thrust settings) for each
batch. At Sioux Falls Regional Air-              of the various types of aircraft using
port, the elevation is 1,429 feet mean           the airport.
sea level (MSL) and the average an-
nual temperature is 45.1 degrees                 Output data selected for calculation by
Fahrenheit (F). If other than stan-              the INM were annual average noise
dard conditions (temperature of 59 de-           contours in DNL. This section pre-
grees F. and elevations of zero feet             sents the results of the contour analy-
MSL) are specified by the user, the              sis for current, forecast, and alterna-
profile generator automatically com-             tive noise exposure conditions, as de-
putes the takeoff profiles using the             veloped from the Integrated Noise
airplane performance coefficients in             Model. Table 5D summarizes the
the data base and the equations in the           area within each set of contours. As
Society of Automotive Engineers Aero-            indicated earlier, the federal govern-
space    Information     Report   1845           ment, including the FAA, has identi-
(SAE/AIR 1845).                                  fied the 65 DNL contour as the
                                                 threshold of incompatibility.

Comparative Areas of Noise Exposure (Square Miles)
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
      DNL Contour                  2005                                   2025
            65                     1.96                                   1.90
            70                     0.93                                   0.94
            75                     0.54                                   0.53

Exhibits 5B and 5C illustrate the                  AIRPORT LAYOUT
2005 and 2025 noise exposure at Sioux              PLAN DRAWINGS
Falls Regional Airport, respectively.
As seen on Exhibit 5B, the 2005 70
                                                   The remainder of this chapter pro-
and 75 DNL noise exposure contours
                                                   vides a brief description of the airport
do not extend off the existing airport
                                                   layout drawings that will be submitted
property boundaries. The 2005 65
                                                   to the FAA for review and approval.
DNL contour extends off airport prop-
                                                   Guidelines for these drawings are is-
erty on all four runway ends.
                                                   sued by the FAA and periodically up-
                                                   dated.   These drawings have been
The 2025 noise exposure contours de-
                                                   prepared to graphically depict the ul-
picted on Exhibit 5C are very similar
                                                   timate airport layout, facility devel-
in shape and size to the 2005 noise ex-
                                                   opment, safety areas, and imaginary
posure contours. The retirement of
                                                   surfaces that extend beyond each
the louder hush-kitted Stage 2 DC-9
                                                   runway end. The set includes:
and 727-200 from the fleet in the fu-
ture generally offsets the increased
                                                      •   Airport Data Sheet
noise generated by higher operations
                                                      •   Airport Layout Plan Drawing
forecast in 2025. Most of the im-
provements in aircraft noise reduction                •   Landside Facilities Drawing
technology have been accomplished on                  •   Airport Airspace Drawings
departure with quieter engines.                            (multiple sheets)
Therefore, very little noise reduction is             •   Aerial (2006)
seen when aircraft are on approach                    •   Inner Portion of the Approach
due to the lower levels of thrust used                     Surfaces (multiple sheets)
during this phase of flight. This re-                 •   Land Use Drawing
sults in narrower “spike-shaped” con-                 •   Airport Property Map
tours. As seen on Exhibit 5C 2025 70
and 75 DNL noise exposure contours                 The layout and drawings are prepared
continue to remain on airport property             on a computer-aided drafting system
and the 65 DNL contour is narrower                 (AutoCAD) to allow easier updating
and extend off airport property                    and revision. The set provides de-
slightly more than the 2005 65 DNL                 tailed information on existing and fu-
contour.                                           ture facilities. The drawings will be
                                                   submitted to the FAA for approval and


                                                                              Diversion Channel                                                                               BNSF Railroad
                                                                                                                                                             Minnesota Ave.

                                                                                                                   Hangar St.

                                                                                                                                Jaycee Ln.


                                                           al G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  2005 DNL Noise Contour

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ultimate Airfield Pavement

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ultimate Road/Parking

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ultimate Building

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Critical Area

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Ordinance Area

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Air National Guard Safety Area

                                                                                                                                                                                                                  Lease Parcels







                                                                                                                                                                                  Elmwood Municipal Golf Course


                   0          1200           2400

                          SCALE IN FEET

                       PHOTO DATE: 4-22-06

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          Exhibit 5B
                                                                                                                                                                                                                     2005 AIRCRAFT NOISE EXPOSURE

                                                                               Diversion Channel                                                                               BNSF Railroad
                                                                                                                                                              Minnesota Ave.


                                                                                                                    Hangar St.

                                                                                                                                 Jaycee Ln.
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   2025 DNL Noise Contour
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Ultimate Airfield Pavement
                                                                         Dr                                                                                                                                        Ultimate Road/Parking

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Ultimate Building

                                                             al G
                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Critical Area

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Ordinance Area

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Air National Guard Safety Area

                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Lease Parcels






                                       NORTH                                                                                                                      r

                                                                                                                                                                                   Elmwood Municipal Golf Course

                     0          1200           2400

                            SCALE IN FEET

                         PHOTO DATE: 4-22-06

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Exhibit 5C
                                                                                                                                                                                                                      2025 AIRCRAFT NOISE EXPOSURE
must reflect any future development               AIRPORT AIRSPACE DRAWINGS
under consideration for potential fund-
ing with the Airport Improvement                  To protect the airspace around the
Program (AIP).                                    airport and approaches to each run-
                                                  way end from hazards that could af-
                                                  fect the safe and efficient operation of
AIRPORT DATA SHEET                                aircraft arriving and departing the
                                                  airport, standards contained in 14
This data sheet provides airport and              Code of Federal Regulations (CFR),
runway data, wind summary data,                   Part 77, Objects Affecting Navigable
and vicinity/location maps. It is in-             Airspace, have been established for
tended to supplement the Airport                  use by local jurisdictions to control the
Layout Plan.                                      height of objects near the airport. The
                                                  Airport Airspace drawings included in
                                                  the drawing set are a graphical depic-
AIRPORT LAYOUT PLAN                               tion of these regulatory criteria.

The Airport Layout Plan (ALP)
graphically presents the existing and             F.A.R. Part 77 Imaginary Surfaces
ultimate airport layout. The ALP also
depicts runway protection zones, prop-            The Airspace Drawings assign three-
erty boundaries, building restriction             dimensional imaginary surfaces to
lines, elevation information, wind in-            each runway, each approach, and the
formation, runway and taxiway de-                 area immediately around and above
tails, location of navaid equipment,              the airport. These imaginary surfaces
and several tables to identify object             emanate from the runway centerline
penetrations or modifications to FAA              and are dimensioned according to visi-
standards. This drawing must be ap-               bility minimums associated with each
proved by the FAA before individual               runway approach. These surfaces in-
projects shown on the drawing are ap-             clude the primary surface, approach
proved for construction.                          surface, transitional surface, horizon-
                                                  tal surface, and conical surface. Part
                                                  77 imaginary surfaces are described in
LANDSIDE FACILITY DRAWING                         the following paragraphs.

The landside facilities drawing pro-
vides an enlargement of the general               •     PRIMARY SURFACE
aviation, terminal, and air cargo ar-
eas. Similar to the airport layout                The primary surface is an imaginary
plan, it depicts existing and future fa-          surface longitudinally centered on the
cilities anticipated within the plan-             runway and extending 200 feet beyond
ning period.                                      the end of each runway. The elevation

of any point on the primary surface is            point, the controlling surface is the
the same as the elevation along the               horizontal surface.
nearest associated point on the run-
way centerline. Under Part 77 regula-
tions, the primary surface for Run-               •     HORIZONTAL SURFACE
ways 3-21 and 15-33 is 1,000 feet
wide, while it is 500 feet wide for Run-          The horizontal surface is established
way 9-27.                                         at 150 feet above the highest elevation
                                                  of the runway surface. Having no
                                                  slope, the horizontal surface connects
•     APPROACH SURFACE                            the transitional and approach surfaces
                                                  to the conical surface at a distance of
An approach surface is also estab-                10,000 feet from the primary surfaces
lished for each runway. The approach              of each runway.
surface begins at the same width as
the primary surface, and extends up-
ward and outward from the primary                 •     CONICAL SURFACE
surface end and is centered along an
extended runway centerline for a dis-             The conical surface begins at the outer
tance which is based upon the cate-               edge of the horizontal surface, and
gory of the runway approach. The ap-              then continues for an additional 4,000
proach surfaces for Runways 3 and 21              feet horizontally at a slope of 20:1.
extend 50,000 feet from the primary               Therefore, at 4,000 feet from the hori-
surface at an upward slope of 50:1 for            zontal surface, the elevation of the
10,000 feet and 40:1 for the remaining            conical surface is 350 feet above the
40,000 feet. The approach surfaces for            highest airport elevation.
Runways 15 and 33 extend 10,000 feet
from the primary surface at an up-
ward slope of 34:1, while the approach            INNER APPROACH
surface for Runways 9 and 27 extend               SURFACE DRAWINGS
5,000 feet at an upward slope of 20:1.
                                                  The Inner Approach Surface Draw-
                                                  ings, prepared for each of the runway
•     TRANSITIONAL SURFACE                        approaches, are scaled drawings of the
                                                  runway protection zone, runway safety
Each runway has a transitional sur-               area, object free area, and obstacle
face that begins at the outside edge of           free zone. Each runway end drawing
the primary surface at the same eleva-            extends for twice the distance of the
tion as the runway. The transitional              runway protection zone, providing
surface also connects with the ap-                plan and profile views of the runway
proach surfaces of each runway. The               ends. These can assist the FAA, air-
surface rises at a slope of 7:1 up to a           port staff, engineers, or consultants
height which is 150 feet above the                with identification of existing obstruc-
highest runway elevation. At that                 tions or potential obstructions within

these areas. Elevations have been in-             will need to be coordinated with the
cluded (as available from the topog-              local FAA office.
raphic mapping undertaken in April
                                                  PROPERTY MAP

AIRPORT LAND USE DRAWING                          The Property Map provides informa-
                                                  tion on all land tracts owned by the
The objective of the Airport Land Use             SFRAA. It denotes which properties
Drawing is to coordinate uses of the              were obtained by transfer, fee simple
airport property in a manner compati-             title, or avigation easement. It also
ble with the functional design of the             indicates the date of acquisition for
airport facility.    Airport land use             each tract and the federal airport aid
planning is important for the orderly             project number, consistent with FAA
development and efficient use of                  guidelines.
available space. There are two pri-
mary considerations for airport land
use planning: first, to secure those ar-          SUMMARY
eas essential to the safe and efficient
operation of the airport; and second, to          The airport layout drawings and noise
determine compatible land uses for                contours are designed to assist the
the balance of the property which                 SFRAA in decision-making relative to
would be most advantageous to the                 future development. The plan consid-
airport and the community. To assist              ers anticipated development needs
with this evaluation, the 65 CNEL                 based upon forecasts developed for a
noise contour has been depicted. The              20-year planning period. Flexibility
plan depicts the recommendations for              will be essential in future development
ultimate land use development on the              as activity may not occur exactly as
airport, taking into consideration fu-            forecast. The drawings provide the
ture runway/taxiway development,                  SFRAA with overall direction for de-
building restriction lines, and poten-            velopment, ensuring long term airport
tial redevelopment areas. As facilities           viability and services for the Sioux
are proposed on airport property, they            Falls region.

                         NOTE: AIRPORT LAYOUT PLANS PENDING
                               FINAL APPROVAL FROM THE
                               FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION

Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority

                                                  AIRPORT LAYOUT PLANS
Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority                       Chapter Six
                                         CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM
CHAPTER SIX                                                        Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority

Capital Improvement Program
The successful implementation of the               development, the actual need for facilities
master plan will require that the Sioux            is established by airport activity. Proper
Falls    Regional Airport Authority                master planning implementation suggests
(SFRAA) remain flexible to changing                the use of airport activity levels, rather
aviation needs. Among the more                     than time as guidance for development.
important factors influencing decisions
to carry out a given recommendation are            This chapter of the master plan is
timing and airport activity. Both of these         intended to become one of the primary
factors should be used as references in            references used by the SFRAA for
plan implementation.                               implementing the plan recommenda-
                                                   tions. Consequently, the following
Experience has indicated that problems             narrative must provide understanding of
have materialized from the standard                each recommended development item.
time-based format of traditional                   This understanding of the overall
planning documents. The problems                   program will be critical in maintaining a
center around their inflexibility to deal          realistic and cost-effective program that
with unforeseen changes that may occur             provides maximum benefit to the
on the airport. While it is necessary for          SFRAA,       the      Federal    Aviation
scheduling and budgeting purposes to               Administration (FAA), and the South
consider   the   timing      of   airport          Dakota Department of Transportation.

AIRPORT DEVELOPMENT                             ines the overall cost of development
SCHEDULE AND COST                               and a demand-based schedule.
SUMMARIES                                       The development schedule can be ini-
                                                tially established, dividing the im-
Once the specific needs and improve-            provement needs into three planning
ments for the airport have been estab-          horizons:   short, intermediate, and
lished, the next step is to determine a         long term. Table 6A summarizes the
realistic schedule and cost for imple-          key activity milestones for each plan-
menting the plan. This section exam-            ning horizon.

Aviation Activity Planning Horizons
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                      Base Year      Short      Intermediate    Long
                                       (2005)        Term           Term        Term
Annual Operations                         89,747       99,300         108,600    132,600
   Air Carrier                            16,900       18,600          20,400     25,600
   Air Cargo (Jet)                         3,250        3,800           4,500      6,100
   General Aviation                       46,785       52,000          57,000     70,000
   Air Taxi                               15,710       17,300          19,100     23,300
   Military                                7,102        7,600           7,600      7,600
Annual Enplanements                      358,450      420,000         486,000    645,000
Total Based Aircraft                          95          105             110        125

The short term horizon covers items of          stones are reached, it will be time to
the highest priority, as well as items          program for the long term.
that should be developed as the air-
port approaches the short term activ-           Due to the conceptual nature of a mas-
ity milestones. Priority items include          ter plan, implementation of capital
improvements to facilities that are in-         projects should occur only after fur-
adequate for present demand and pro-            ther refinement of their design and
jects to improve safety and operational         costs through architectural and engi-
flexibility. Because of their priority,         neering analyses. Under normal con-
these items will need to be incorpo-            ditions, the costs estimated reflect an
rated into SFRAA and FAA program-               allowance for engineering and contin-
ming. To assist with this process,              gences that may be anticipated on the
short term projects are scheduled over          project. Capital costs presented in
a five-year period beginning with pro-          this chapter should be viewed only as
jects in the next fiscal year (2007).           estimates subject to further refine-
                                                ment during design. Nevertheless,
When short term horizon activity                these estimates are considered suffi-
milestones are reached, it will be time         ciently accurate for performing the
to program for the intermediate term            feasibility analyses in this chapter.
based upon the next milestones. Simi-           Cost estimates for each development
larly, when the intermediate mile-              project have been presented in Table
6B and are given in current (2006)                for the replacement of a 4,600-foot sec-
dollars, without future inflationary              tion of Runway 15-33 (which was
adjustment. Staging of the improve-               rated good on the pavement condition
ments are depicted on Exhibit 6A.                 index study in 2005), replacement of
                                                  the north terminal apron and portions
The short-term capital program (2007-             of Taxiways A, B, and C.
2011) includes projects in the terminal
building, on the airfield, in the general         In addition to continuing projects on
aviation and air cargo areas, and on              the terminal building, westside
the west side of the airfield where the           SRE/GA improvements, and GA ramp
new     snow      removal      equipment          expansion, the hold apron for Runway
(SRE)/maintenance building complex                3 is programmed to provide by-pass
will be constructed. A multi-year pro-            capability along Taxiway B at the
ject, extending throughout the five-              runway end. With continuing growth
year period, includes replacement of              in corporate jet aircraft that base at
the terminal roof, heating pumps, cool-           Sioux Falls, infrastructure improve-
ing tower, chiller and condenser                  ments (utilities, roadway, and ramp)
pumps and miscellaneous electrical.               are programmed for the open area be-
Airfield lighting improvements are re-            tween Jaycee Lane and Hangar
flected in the first year for Runway 3-           Street.
21 centerline lights, signs, distance-to-
go signs (Runway 15-33) and the heli-             In the third year, continuing pave-
port lighting circuit. A runway safety            ment rehabilitation, terminal up-
area project on Runway 3-21, at the               grades, and GA ramp improvements
southwest end, will relocate the fence,           are programmed. Consistent with al-
localizer, and perimeter road.        In-         ternative evaluations undertaken in
cluded in the project is mitigation for           previous chapters of the master plan,
impacts to the Elmwood Municipal                  it has been recommended that a cross-
Golf Course. The first phase of the               field taxiway be constructed, connect-
new westside improvements will pro-               ing Taxiways B2 and A3. On the ter-
vide utility and roadway extensions               minal’s concourse, it is recommended
for the new SRE/maintenance com-                  that the holdroom at Gate 2 be ex-
plex, with construction of a new                  panded, a jet bridge added, and elec-
30,000 square foot structure. Finally,            tronic screens be provided at Gate 3
expansion of the general aviation                 for easier use by multiple airlines.
ramp (multi-year project) will mitigate
congestion on the ramp and provide                By the fourth year of the plan, in-line
needed capacity. The ramp expansion               bag screening should be provided on
on the north end of the ramp will                 the ticketing wing by adding a 25-foot
mitigate existing conflicts with air-             extension across the back side of the
craft taxiing to storage hangars.                 building, behind existing bag make-up
                                                  areas. This addition was evaluated
Beginning with the second year of the             during the terminal alternatives
plan, it is anticipated that a multi-             evaluation, and provides the most effi-
year project will need to be initiated            cient configuration for bag screening


                                                                                                                                                                                                                 Maintain buffer for potential
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 entrance improvements
                                                                             Diversion Channel                                                                                                                                                                                              BNSF Railroad
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   1                       Minnesota Ave.

                                                                                                                                                                  Hangar St.

                                                                                                                                                                                                  Jaycee Ln.
                                                                                                                        r.                                                                                                                                                                                        3                      11
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       5                                                                                                        LEGEND
                                                                         .                                                                                                                   6
                                                                       Dr                                                                                                                                              6                                                                                                                                 Existing Runway Protection Zone (RPZ)

                                                          al G                                                          2                                                                                                                      8                                                                                                         Ultimate RPZ

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Short Term Improvements

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       4                               A2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Intermediate Term Improvements
                                                                                                                                                                                        4                                                                                                                                                                Long Term Improvements

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Critical Area
                                                                                                                 Designate positions
                                                                                                                    for transient jets                                                                                                A3                                                                                                                 Ordinance Area

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   x 75’
                                                                                                                                                                                                 iwa                              x1
                                                                                             M                                                                                               Tax                            00’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Air National Guard Safety Area

                                                                                                                                                                                                                      3 8

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               7 3,15
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         Lease Parcels
                                                                                                                                  6                                                                               5-3

                                                                                                 4                                    Ru                                                      n  wa
                                                                                                                                        nw                                                  Ru

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ian tra
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             ay 9-2
                                                                                                                                                   3-2                         9                                                      10
                                                                                                                                                          8,9                                                                                                                                                                                      RUNWAY PROTECTION ZONES

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      o civil
                                                                                                                                                                ’x                                                                                                                                                                                 Not Lower Than 1-Mile (9-27 existing)
                                                                                                                                                                           15                                                                      Cr 1,50
                                                                                                                                                                                   0’                                                                iti                                                                                            500’ x 1,000’ x 700’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        ca 0’

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 lose t
                                                                                                      1                                                                                                                                                   la                                                                                       Not Lower Than 1-Mile (15-33 existing)
                                                Reserve for                                                                                                                                                                                                 rea

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               y C (c
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    500’ x 1,700’ x 1,010’

                                               development                                                                                                                                                                                                 Ta                                                                                      Not Lower Than 3/4-Mile (15-33 future)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              x                                                                                     1,000’ x 1,700’ x 1,510’

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        B                                                                          Lower Than 3/4-Mile (3-21 existing)
                                                                                   A5                                                                                                                                                                                                                 400’ to edge                                  1,000’ x 2,500’ x 1,750’
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      of safety area
                                                                                                                                  1                                                                       800’
                                                                       11                                                    Cri ,500                                                                 Ordnance are
                                                                                                                                    al a ’                                                                                            a
                                                                                                                                        rea                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     NORTH


                                                                                                                                Future                                                                                                                                                                                                              0                    1000               2000
                                                                                                                             ASR-II site
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   SCALE IN FEET

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               PHOTO DATE: 4-22-06
                        SHORT TERM PROGRAM (0-5 yrs.)
                    1 Parking lot/loop road
                    2 Perimeter road relocation                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                2
                    3 SRE building/new access
                    4 General aviation ramp expansion                                                                                                                                                                                 g
                    5 Hold apron - Runway 3                                              INTERMEDIATE TERM PROGRAM (6-10 yrs.)
                                                                                                            e                                                                                                      LONG TERMioPROGRAM (11-20 yrs.)
                                                                                                         Av                                                                                                                                        x
                    6 Jet park
                                                                                                   la rd
                                                                                             1 Extend taxiways - west general aviation                                                                                                 iv
                                                                                                                                                                                                                  1 Expand Aircraft Rescue and Fire Fighting (ARFF)
                                                                                             2 Bul
                    7 Ticketing wing                                                           Construct new air cargo facilities                                                                                 2 Expand terminal parking
                    8 Concourse improvements                                                 S
                                                                                             3 Hold apron - Runway 33                                                                                             3 Departure Concourse
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Elmwood Municipal
                    9 Pavement rehabilitation - Runway 15-33                                         4 Airport Traffic Control Tower                                                                              4 Air carrier apron
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              Golf Course
                    10 Cross-field taxiway                                                           5 Bag claim expansion                                                                                        5 Rental car expansion
                    11 ODALS - Runway 15-33                                                          6 Cat II - Runway 3-21                                                                                       6 Ticketing/bag claim

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Exhibit 6A
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         DEVELOPMENT STAGING
in the future. In addition, it has been           SRE/ARFF equipment, expansion of
recommended that ODALS approach                   the ARFF station, additional develop-
lights be provided on each approach to            ment on the west side, expansion of
Runway 15-33, allowing for lowered                surface parking (and parking struc-
landing minimums (3/4 mile). Con-                 ture), pavement rehabilitation, a new
tinuing multi-year projects include the           departure concourse on the terminal,
terminal building upgrades and                    air carrier apron, expansion of rental
pavement rehabilitation on Runway                 car storage areas, expansion of ticket-
15-33. Pavement rehabilitation on the             ing/bag claim areas in the terminal,
north portion of the terminal apron is            and upgrades of airfield lighting.
also included in this year.

In the fifth year of the plan, additional         CAPITAL IMPROVEMENTS
improvements on the terminal con-                 FUNDING
course have been recommended, in-
cluding replacement of the elevated               Financing for capital improvements at
moving walkways with traditional es-              Sioux Falls Regional Airport/Joe Foss
calators (allowing extension of the               Field does not utilize any general tax
check-in queue on the upper level),               monies. Rather, the contributors to
and expansion of holdrooms and new                the airport’s development are its us-
restrooms at Gates 5/6. In addition,              ers, through a system of leases and
the rehabilitation of Runway 15-33                fees. These sources include not only
and terminal upgrades should have                 the rates and charges for airport use
been completed.                                   imposed by the SFRAA, but also the
                                                  Federal Airport Improvement Pro-
During the intermediate planning pe-              gram (AIP). Projects funded under the
riod (2012-2016), projects include ad-            AIP since 1999 have been itemized in
ditional development of taxiways and              Table 6C. The following paragraphs
roads on the west side for general                outline the key sources for funding.
aviation development, construction of
an additional air cargo sortation build-
ing and truck court, infrastructure
                                                  FEDERAL GRANTS
improvements in the GA area (east
side) for additional storage hangars,
                                                  The United States Congress has long
construction of a hold apron for Run-
                                                  recognized the need to develop and
way 33, construction of a new airport
                                                  maintain a system of aviation facilities
traffic control tower, expansion of the
                                                  across the nation for the purpose of
terminal bag claim area, upgrades to
                                                  national defense and promotion of in-
airfield lighting and Cat II capabilities
                                                  terstate commerce. Various grants-in-
on Runway 3-21. In addition, addi-
                                                  aid programs to public airports have
tional pavement rehabilitation is
                                                  been established over the years for
planned on the airfield.
                                                  this purpose. The most recent legisla-
                                                  tion was the Airport Improvement
During the long term planning period
                                                  Program (AIP) of 1982. The AIP has
(2017-2026), projects include new
been reauthorized several times. The               the depository for all federal aviation
Wendell H. Ford Aviation and Invest-               taxes such as those on airline tickets,
ment Reform Act for the 21st Century               aviation fuel, lubricants, tires, and
covered four years (through federal                other aviation-related fees. The funds
fiscal year (FY) 2003), while Vision               are distributed under appropriations
100 – Century of Aviation Reauthoriza-             set forth by Congress to airports in the
tion Act covers FY 2004-2007.                      United States which have certified eli-
                                                   gibility. The distribution of grants is
The source for AIP funds is the Avia-              administered by the FAA.
tion Trust Fund. The Trust Fund is

Projects Receiving AIP Funding (1999-2005)
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
   FAA          Grant
Fiscal Year    Number                    Project Description                  Federal Funds
1999         25, 26, 27   Construct Aircraft Rescue & Firefighting Building       $2,017,866
                          And Reconstruct Apron (Phase II)
2000         28           Reconstruct Apron (Phase III)                           $1,434,140
2001         29           Rehabilitate T/W B, R/W 3-21 Lighting, and              $2,280,770
                          Expand Terminal
2002         30, 31       Rehabilitate Taxiway, Acquire SRE, Extend               $2,889,570
                          Runway, and Expand Terminal
2003         32           R/W 3-21 Lighting, RSA, Apron, Expand Terminal,         $3,160,000
                          And Rehabilitate R/W 3-21
2004         33           Expand Apron, Rehabilitate Taxiway                      $2,042,500
2005         34           Rehabilitate Apron and Taxiway, Lighting                $2,783,500
Source: FAA

Under the AIP program, examples of                 time the project participation rates
eligible development projects include              beyond 2007.
the airfield, aircraft parking aprons,
and access roads. Passenger terminal               The program provides funding for eli-
building improvements (such as bag-                gible projects at airports. Through an
gage claim and public waiting lobbies)             entitlement program, primary com-
may also be eligible for FAA funding               mercial service airports receive a
(in addition, the TSA provides funding             guaranteed minimum of federal assis-
for terminal security). However, im-               tance each year, based on their en-
provements such as automobile park-                planed passenger levels and Congres-
ing, fueling facilities, utilities, hangar         sional appropriation levels. A primary
buildings, airline ticketing, and airline          airport is defined as any commercial
operations areas (or other revenue-                service airport enplaning at least
generating areas) are not generally                10,000 passengers annually. Sioux
eligible for AIP funds. The airport is             Falls Regional Airport/Joe Foss Field
eligible for 95 percent funding under              was the 137th busiest primary airport
Vision 100. It is not known at this                in the U.S. in Calendar Year (CY)

2005. The annual enplanements in                  mulas to increase entitlements over
CY 2005 will be used by the FAA to                previous levels and to establish special
establish FY 2007 entitlements.                   set-asides for noise programs, general
                                                  aviation and non-primary airports,
Under the current formula, airports               and other special programs.
enplaning at least 10,000 passengers
annually are entitled to a minimum of             Table 6D outlines estimates of annual
$1,000,000. For the first 50,000 en-              entitlement funds for Sioux Falls Re-
planements, the airport receives                  gional Airport/Joe Foss Field through
$15.60 per enplanement. For the next              2025, assuming the current entitle-
50,000 enplanements, the airport re-              ment formula remains in place over
ceived $10.40 per enplanement. The                the planning period.
next 400,000 boardings provide $5.20
per enplanement.        For the next              In a number of cases, airports face ma-
500,000, the airport receives $1.30 per           jor projects that will require funds in
enplanement. For all enplanements                 excess of the airport’s annual entitle-
over one million, the airport receives            ments. Therefore, additional funds
$1.00 per enplaned passenger.                     from discretionary apportionments
                                                  under AIP become desirable.         The
In addition, airports that have over              primary feature about discretionary
100 million pounds of landed weight               funds is that they are distributed on a
by all-cargo carriers receive a cargo             priority basis. These priorities are es-
entitlement. In FY 2006, the airport              tablished by the FAA, utilizing a prior-
received $325,818, based upon a CY                ity code system. Under this system,
2004     total   landed    weight     of          projects are ranked by their purpose.
403,957,200 pounds. This entitlement              Projects ensuring airport safety and
is based upon the airport’s percentage            security are ranked as the most im-
of the total landed weight at all eligi-          portant priorities, followed by main-
ble airports. In CY 2004, the airport             taining current infrastructure devel-
recorded 0.27 percent of the U.S. total.          opment, mitigating noise and other
                                                  environmental impacts, meeting stan-
Exhibit 6B depicts the history of AIP             dards, and increasing system capacity.
authorizations and appropriations.                Capacity projects requiring greater
Unfortunately, the funding levels au-             than $5 million in discretionary fund-
thorized in the legislation have not              ing require a benefit-cost analysis to
always been the levels appropriated in            prove that the benefit-cost (B/C) ratio
the annual congressional budget proc-             is greater than 1.0.
ess. For example, the AIP authorized
level for fiscal year 1996 was $2.16 bil-         Other funds can come through the
lion, but only $1.45 billion was appro-           Airway Facilities (AAF) section of the
priated.                                          FAA. The main mission of AAF is to
                                                  promote the safe and efficient use of
The Wendell H. Ford Aviation Invest-              the National Airspace System (NAS).
ment and Reform Act for the 21st Cen-             As activity conditions warrant, the
tury (AIR 21) adjusted allocation for-



                                                            Authorization Levels
                                            3.5             Appropriations Levels


                    DOLLARS (in billions)





                                              1982   1985         1990              1995   2000           2005 '07

                                                                       FAA FISCAL YEAR

                    Source: FAA

                                                                                                                 Exhibit 6B
                                                                                                   AIP AUTHORIZATION AND
                                                                                                  APPROPRIATIONS HISTORY
airport will be considered by AAF for                stalled, owned, and maintained by the
various navigational aids to be in-                  FAA.

Potential FAA Entitlement Funds
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                                                   Annual Entitlement
    Calendar Year          Annual Enplanements             Funding Level           Fiscal Year
   2003 (Historical)               298,448                    2,331,930                2005
   2004 (Historical)               333,338                    2,513,358                2006
   2005 (Historical)               356,459                    2,633,587                2007
         2006                      369,000                    2,698,800                2008
         2007                      382,000                    2,766,400                2009
         2008                      394,000                    2,828,800                2010
         2009                      407,000                    2,896,400                2011
         2010                      420,000                    2,964,000                2012
         2011                      433,000                    3,031,600                2013
         2012                      446,000                    3,099,200                2014
         2013                      459,000                    3,166,800                2015
         2014                      472,000                    3,234,400                2016
         2015                      486,000                    3,307,200                2017
         2016                      501,000                    3,381,300                2018
         2017                      516,000                    3,400,800                2019
         2018                      532,000                    3,421,600                2020
         2019                      548,000                    3,442,400                2021
         2020                      564,000                    3,463,200                2022
         2021                      580,000                    3,484,000                2023
         2022                      596,000                    3,504,800                2024
         2023                      612,000                    3,525,600                2025
         2024                      628,000                    3,546,400                2026
         2025                      645,000                    3,568,500                2027
Source for historical enplanements: ACAIS database.
Projection of entitlement funds based upon total projected passenger enplanements and the current
(Vision 100) formula.

Whereas entitlement monies are                       authorized sources such as those de-
guaranteed on an annual basis, discre-               scribed in the following subsections.
tionary funds are not assured. The
amount of funding for the develop-
ment program that Sioux Falls Re-                    PASSENGER FACILITY
gional Airport/Joe Foss Field will de-               CHARGES
sire from the FAA was previously out-
lined in Table 6B. If the combination                The Aviation Safety Act and Capacity
of entitlement and discretionary fund-               Expansion Act of 1990 contained a
ing does not provide enough capital for              provision for airports to levy passen-
planned development, projects would                  ger facility charges (PFCs) for the
either be delayed or require funding                 purposes of enhancing airport safety,
from the airport’s revenues or other                 capacity, or security, or to reduce noise
                                                     or enhance competition.
14 CFR Part 158 of May 29, 1991, es-              plication, the airport must give notice
tablishes the regulations that must be            and an opportunity for consultation to
followed by airports choosing to levy             airlines operating at the airport.
PFCs. Passenger facility charges may
be imposed by public agencies control-            PFCs are to be treated similar to other
ling a commercial service airport with            airport improvement grants, rather
at least 2,500 annual passengers with             than as airport revenues, and will be
scheduled service. Authorized agen-               administered by the FAA. Participat-
cies were allowed to impose a charge              ing airlines are able to retain up to
of $1.00, $2.00, or $3.00 per enplaned            eight cents per passenger for adminis-
passenger. Recent legislation (AIR 21)            trative handling purposes.
passed in early 2000, has allowed the
cap to increase to $4.50. Sioux Falls             Table 6E outlines the airport’s poten-
Regional Airport/Joe Foss Field does              tial annual PFC revenue at $4.50 per
not collect a PFC.                                enplaned passenger through 2025
                                                  (based upon the Airport Master Plan
Prior approval is required from the               forecasts).
Department of Transportation (DOT)
before an airport is allowed to levy a
PFC. The DOT must find that the                   LOCAL SHARE FUNDING
projected revenues are needed for spe-
cific, approved projects.     Any AIP-            The balance of project costs, after con-
eligible project, whether development             sideration has been given to grants,
or planning related, is eligible for PFC          must be funded through local re-
funding. Gates and related areas for              sources. Assuming federal and state
the movement of passengers and bag-               funding, this essentially equates from
gage are eligible, as are on-airport              2.5 to 5 percent of the project costs if
ground access projects. Any project               all eligible FAA funds are available.
approved must preserve or enhance
safety, security, or capacity; re-                There are several alternatives for local
duce/mitigate noise impacts; or en-               finance options for future development
hance competition among carriers.                 at the airport, including airport reve-
                                                  nues, direct funding from SFRAA, is-
PFCs may be used only on approved                 suing bonds, and leasehold financing.
projects. However, PFCs can be util-              These strategies could be used to fund
ized to fund 100 percent of a project.            the local matching share, or complete
They may be used as matching funds                the project if grant funding cannot be
for AIP grants or to augment AIP-                 arranged.
funded projects. PFCs can be used for
debt service and financing costs of               The capital improvement program has
bonds for eligible airport development.           assumed that some landside facility
These funds may also be commingled                development (e.g., private hangars)
with general revenue for bond debt                would be funded by third parties. Un-
service. Before submitting a PFC ap-              der this type of development, the

SFRAA would complete the necessary                  way) improvements, as the public-use
infrastructure (e.g., ramp and taxi-                portions are grant-eligible.

Potential Passenger Facility Charge (PFC) Revenues
Sioux Falls Regional Airport
                                                                         Potential Annual
          Calendar Year                Annual Enplanements                PFCs (at $4.50)
         2003 (Historical)                     298,448                      $1,179,168
         2004 (Historical)                     333,338                       1,317,018
         2005 (Historical)                     356,459                       1,408,370
               2006                            369,000                       1,457,919
               2007                            382,000                       1,509,282
               2008                            394,000                       1,556,694
               2009                            407,000                       1,608,057
               2010                            420,000                       1,659,420
               2011                            433,000                       1,710,783
               2012                            446,000                       1,762,146
               2013                            459,000                       1,813,509
               2014                            472,000                       1,864,872
               2015                            486,000                       1,920,186
               2016                            501,000                       1,979,451
               2017                            516,000                       2,038,716
               2018                            532,000                       2,101,932
               2019                            548,000                       2,165,148
               2020                            564,000                       2,228,364
               2021                            580,000                       2,291,580
               2022                            596,000                       2,354,796
               2023                            612,000                       2,418,012
               2024                            628,000                       2,481,228
               2025                            645,000                       2,548,395
Note:   PFC calculation assumes that 90 percent of enplanements are revenue passengers.

IMPLEMENTATION                                      completed. The format used in the de-
                                                    velopment of this Master Plan has at-
Experience has indicated that prob-                 tempted to deal with this issue by pro-
lems have materialized from the stan-               viding more flexibility in the program.
dard form of time-based planning                    The primary issues upon which this
documents. These problems center                    Master Plan is based will remain valid
around the plan’s inflexibility and in-             for many years. The primary goal is
herent inability to deal with new is-               for the airport to maintain a self-
sues that develop from unforeseen                   supporting position without sacrificing
changes that may occur after it is                  service to the public.

Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority             Appendix A
                                         GLOSSARY OF TERMS
APPENDIX            A

ABOVE GROUND LEVEL: The elevation of a
point or surface above the ground.
                                                  AIRCRAFT APPROACH CATEGORY: A grouping
ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE AVAILABLE                of aircraft based on 1.3 times the stall speed
(ASDA): See declared distances.                   in their landing configuration at their maxi-
                                                  mum certificated landing weight. The
ADVISORY CIRCULAR: External publications          categories are as follows:
issued by the FAA consisting of non-
regulatory material providing for the recom-      • Category A: Speed less than 91 knots.
mendations relative to a policy, guidance         • Category B: Speed 91 knots or more,
and information relative to a specific avia-        but less than 121 knots.
tion subject.                                     • Category C: Speed 121 knots or more,
                                                    but less than 141 knots.
AIR CARRIER: An operator which: (1) per-          • Category D: Speed 141 knots or more,
for ms at least five round trips per week           but less than 166 knots.
between two or more points and publishes          • Category E: Speed greater than 166 knots.
flight schedules which specify the times, days
of the week, and places between which             AIRCRAFT RESCUE AND FIRE FIGHTING: A facil-
such flights are performed; or (2) transports     ity located at an airport that provides
mail by air pursuant to a current contract        emergency vehicles, extinguishing agents,
with the U.S. Postal Service. Certified in        and personnel responsible for minimizing the
accordance with Federal Aviation Regula-          impacts of an aircraft accident or incident.
tion (FAR) Parts 121 and 127.
                                                  AIRFIELD: The portion of an airport which
AIRCRAFT: A transportation vehicle that is        contains the facilities necessary for the
used or intended for use for flight.              operation of aircraft.

AIRCRAFT APPROACH CATEGORY: An alpha-             AIRLINE HUB: An airport at which an airline
betic classification of aircraft based upon 1.3   concentrates a significant portion of its activ-
times the stall speed in a landing configura-     ity and which often has a significant amount
tion at their maximum certified landing           of connecting traffic.
                                                  AIRPLANE DESIGN GROUP (ADG): A grouping
AIRCRAFT OPERATION: The landing, takeoff,         of aircraft based upon wingspan. The groups
or touch-and-go procedure by an aircraft on       are as follows:
a runway at an airport.
                                                  • Group I: Up to but not including 49 feet.
AIRCRAFT OPERATIONS AREA: A restricted            • Group II: 49 feet up to but not including
and secure area on the airport property             79 feet.
designed to protect all aspects related to        • Group III: 79 feet up to but not including
aircraft operations.                                118 feet.
                                                  • Group IV: 118 feet up to but not including
A private organization serving the interests      • Group V: 171 feet up to but not including
and needs of general aviation pilots and air-       214 feet.
craft owners.                                     • Group VI: 214 feet or greater.

                                              A-1                                      Airport Consultants
                                                           GLOSSARY             OF     TERMS

AIRPORT AUTHORITY: A quasi-governmental            AIRPORT REFERENCE POINT (ARP): The latitude
public organization responsible for setting the    and longitude of the approximate center of
policies governing the management and              the airport.
operation of an airport or system of airports
under its jurisdiction.                            AIRPORT SPONSOR: The entity that is legally
                                                   responsible for the management and opera-
AIRPORT BEACON: A navigational aid locat-          tion of an airport, including the fulfillment of
ed at an airport which displays a rotating         the requirements of laws and regulations
light beam to identify whether an airport is       related thereto.
                                                   AIRPORT SURFACE DETECTION EQUIPMENT: A
AIRPORT CAPITAL IMPROVEMENT PLAN: The              radar system that provides air traffic con-
planning program used by the Federal Avia-         trollers with a visual representation of the
tion Administration to identify, prioritize, and   movement of aircraft and other vehicles on
distribute funds for airport development and       the ground on the airfield at an airport.
the needs of the National Airspace System to
meet specified national goals and objec-           AIRPORT SURVEILLANCE RADAR: The primary
tives.                                             radar located at an airport or in an air traffic
                                                   control terminal area that receives a signal
AIRPORT ELEVATION: The highest point on the        at an antenna and transmits the signal to air
runway system at an airport expressed in feet      traffic control display equipment defining the
above mean sea level (MSL).                        location of aircraft in the air. The signal pro-
                                                   vides only the azimuth and range of aircraft
AIRPORT LAYOUT DRAWING (ALD): The draw-            from the location of the antenna.
ing of the airport showing the layout of
existing and proposed airport facilities.          AIRPORT TRAFFIC CONTROL TOWER (ATCT): A
                                                   central operations facility in the terminal air
AIRPORT MASTER PLAN: The planner’s concept         traffic control system, consisting of a tower,
of the long-term development of an airport.        including an associated instrument flight rule
                                                   (IFR) room if radar equipped, using
AIRPORT MOVEMENT AREA SAFETY SYSTEM: A             air/ground communications and/or radar,
system that provides automated alerts and          visual signaling and other devices to provide
warnings of potential runway incursions or         safe and expeditious movement of terminal
other hazardous aircraft movement events.          air traffic.

drawing depicting the Federal Aviation Reg-        ty which provides enroute air traffic control
ulation (FAR) Part 77 sur faces, a                 service to aircraft operating on an IFR flight
representation of objects that penetrate           plan within controlled airspace over a large,
these surfaces, runway, taxiway, and ramp          multi-state region.
areas, navigational aids, buildings, roads and
other detail in the vicinity of an an airport.     AIRSIDE: The portion of an airport that con-
                                                   tains the facilities necessary for the operation
AIRPORT REFERENCE CODE (ARC): A coding             of aircraft.
system used to relate airport design criteria to
the operational (Aircraft Approach Catego-         AIRSPACE: The volume of space above the
ry) to the physical characteristics (Airplane      surface of the ground that is provided for the
Design Group) of the airplanes intended to         operation of aircraft.
operate at the airport.

                                               A-2                                      Airport Consultants
                                                            GLOSSARY             OF    TERMS

AIR TAXI: An air carrier certificated in accor-      flight plan when visibility is less than three
dance with FAR Part 121 and FAR Part 135             miles and/or when the ceiling is at or below
and authorized to provide, on demand, pub-           the minimum initial approach altitude.
lic transportation of persons and property by
aircraft. Generally operates small aircraft          APPROACH LIGHTING SYSTEM (ALS): An air-
“for hire” for specific trips.                       port lighting facility which provides visual
                                                     guidance to landing aircraft by radiating
AIR TRAFFIC CONTROL: A service operated by           light beams by which the pilot aligns the air-
an appropriate organization for the purpose          craft with the extended centerline of the
of providing for the safe, orderly, and expedi-      runway on his final approach and landing.
tious flow of air traffic.
                                                     APPROACH MINIMUMS: The altitude below
AIR ROUTE TRAFFIC CONTROL CENTER                     which an aircraft may not descend while on
(ARTCC): A facility established to provide air       an IFR approach unless the pilot has the run-
traffic control service to aircraft operating on     way in sight.
an IFR flight plan within controlled airspace
and principally during the enroute phase             APPROACH SURFACE: An imaginary obstruc-
of flight.                                           tion limiting surface defined in FAR Part 77
                                                     which is longitudinally centered on an
AIR TRAFFIC HUB: A categorization of com-            extended runway centerline and extends
mercial service airports or group of                 outward and upward from the primary sur-
commercial service airports in a metropolitan        face at each end of a runway at a
or urban area based upon the proportion of           designated slope and distance based upon
annual national enplanements existing at the         the type of available or planned approach
airport or airports. The categories are large        by aircraft to a runway.
hub, medium hub, small hub, or non-hub. It
forms the basis for the apportionment of enti-       APRON: A specified portion of the airfield
tlement funds.                                       used for passenger, cargo or freight loading
                                                     and unloading, aircraft parking, and the
AIR TRANSPORT ASSOCIATION OF AMERICA:                refueling, maintenance and servicing of
An organization consisting of the principal          aircraft.
U.S. airlines that represents the interests of the
airline industry on major aviation issues            AREA NAVIGATION: The air navigation proce-
before federal, state, and local government          dure that provides the capability to establish
bodies. It promotes air transportation safety        and maintain a flight path on an arbitrary
by coordinating industry and governmental            course that remains within the coverage
safety programs and it serves as a focal point       area of navigational sources being used.
for industry efforts to standardize practices
and enhance the efficiency of the air trans-         AUTOMATED TERMINAL INFORMATION SERVICE
portation system.                                    (ATIS): The continuous broadcast of recorded
                                                     non-control information at towered airports.
ALERT AREA: See special-use airspace.                Information typically includes wind speed,
                                                     direction, and runway in use.
ALTITUDE: The vertical distance measured in
feet above mean sea level.                           AUTOMATED SURFACE OBSERVATION SYSTEM
                                                     (ASOS): A reporting system that provides fre-
ANNUAL INSTRUMENT APPROACH (AIA): An                 quent airport ground sur face weather
approach to an airport with the intent to            observation data through digitized voice
land by an aircraft in accordance with an IFR        broadcasts and printed reports.

                                                 A-3                                     Airport Consultants
                                                          GLOSSARY             OF     TERMS

(AWOS): Equipment used to automatically           program used by the Federal Aviation
record weather conditions (i.e. cloud height,     Administration to identify, prioritize, and dis-
visibility, wind speed and direction, tempera-    tribute Airport Improvement Program funds
ture, dewpoint, etc.)                             for airport development and the needs of
                                                  the National Airspace System to meet speci-
AUTOMATIC DIRECTION FINDER (ADF): An air-         fied national goals and objectives.
craft radio navigation system which senses
and indicates the direction to a non-direc-       CARGO SERVICE AIRPORT: An airport served
tional radio beacon (NDB) ground                  by aircraft providing air transportation of
transmitter.                                      property only, including mail, with an annual
                                                  aggregate landed weight of at least
AVIGATION EASEMENT: A contractual right or        100,000,000 pounds.
a property interest in land over which a right
of unobstructed flight in the airspace is         CATEGORY I: An Instrument Landing System
established.                                      (ILS) that provides acceptable guidance
                                                  information to an aircraft from the coverage
AZIMUTH: Horizontal direction expressed as        limits of the ILS to the point at which the
the angular distance between true north           localizer course line intersects the glide path
and the direction of a fixed point (as the        at a decision height of 100 feet above the
observer’s heading).                              horizontal plane containing the runway
BASE LEG: A flight path at right angles to the
landing runway off its approach end. The          CATEGORY II: An ILS that provides accept-
base leg normally extends from the down-          able guidance information to an aircraft
wind leg to the intersection of the extended      from the coverage limits of the ILS to the
runway centerline. See “traffic pattern.”         point at which the localizer course line inter-
                                                  sects the glide path at a decision height of
BASED AIRCRAFT: The general aviation air-         50 feet above the horizontal plane contain-
craft that use a specific airport as a home       ing the runway threshold.
                                                  CATEGORY III: An ILS that provides accept-
BEARING: The horizontal direction to or from      able guidance information to a pilot from the
any point, usually measured clockwise from        coverage limits of the ILS with no decision
true north or magnetic north.                     height specified above the horizontal plane
                                                  containing the runway threshold.
BLAST FENCE: A barrier used to divert or dissi-
pate jet blast or propeller wash.                 CEILING: The height above the ground sur-
                                                  face to the location of the lowest layer of
BLAST PAD: A prepared surface adjacent to         clouds which is reported as either broken or
the end of a runway for the purpose of elimi-     overcast.
nating the erosion of the ground surface by
the wind forces produced by airplanes at the      CIRCLING APPROACH: A maneuver initiated
initiation of takeoff operations.                 by the pilot to align the aircraft with the run-
                                                  way for landing when flying a predetermined
BUILDING RESTRICTION LINE (BRL): A line           circling instrument approach under IFR.
which identifies suitable building area loca-
tions on the airport.                             CLASS A AIRSPACE: See Controlled Airspace.

                                              A-4                                      Airport Consultants
                                                           GLOSSARY              OF    TERMS

CLASS B AIRSPACE: See Controlled Airspace.           not including flight level FL600. All persons
                                                     must operate their aircraft under IFR.
CLASS C AIRSPACE: See Controlled Airspace.
                                                   • CLASS B: Generally, the airspace from
CLASS D AIRSPACE: See Controlled Airspace.           the surface to 10,000 feet MSL surrounding
                                                     the nation’s busiest airports. The configura-
CLASS E AIRSPACE: See Controlled Airspace.           tion of Class B airspace is unique to each
                                                     airport, but typically consists of two or
CLASS G AIRSPACE: See Controlled Airspace.           more layers of air space and is designed to
                                                     contain all published instrument approach
CLEAR ZONE: See Runway Protection Zone.              procedures to the airport. An air traffic
                                                     control clearance is required for all aircraft
COMMERCIAL SERVICE AIRPORT: A public air-            to operate in the area.
port providing scheduled passenger service
that enplanes at least 2,500 annual passen-        • CLASS C: Generally, the airspace from the
gers.                                                surface to 4,000 feet above the airport
                                                     elevation (charted as MSL) surrounding
COMMON TRAFFIC ADVISORY FREQUENCY: A                 those airports that have an operational
radio frequency identified in the appropriate        control tower and radar approach control
aeronautical chart which is designated for           and are served by a qualifying number of
the purpose of transmitting airport advisory         IFR operations or passenger enplane-
information and procedures while operating           ments. Although individually tailored for
to or from an uncontrolled airport.                  each airport, Class C airspace typically
                                                     consists of a surface area with a five nauti-
COMPASS LOCATOR (LOM): A low power,                  cal mile (nm) radius and an outer area
low/medium frequency radio-beacon                    with a 10 nautical mile radius that extends
installed in conjunction with the instrument         from 1,200 feet to 4,000 feet above the
landing system at one or two of the marker           airport elevation. Two-way radio commu-
sites.                                               nication is required for all aircraft.

CONICAL SURFACE: An imaginary obstruc-             • CLASS D: Generally, that airspace from the
tion-limiting surface defined in FAR Part 77         surface to 2,500 feet above the air port
that extends from the edge of the horizontal         elevation (charted as MSL) surrounding
surface outward and upward at a slope of             those airports that have an operational
20 to 1 for a horizontal distance of 4,000 feet.     control tower. Class D airspace is individu-
                                                     ally tailored and configured to encompass
CONTROLLED AIRPORT: An airport that has an           published instrument approach proce
operating airport traffic control tower.             dures. Unless otherwise authorized, all
                                                     persons must establish two-way radio
CONTROLLED AIRSPACE: Airspace of defined             communication.
dimensions within which air traffic control ser-
vices are provided to instrument flight rules      • CLASS E: Generally, controlled airspace
(IFR) and visual flight rules (VFR) flights in       that is not classified as Class A, B, C, or
accordance with the airspace classification.         D. Class E airspace extends upward
Controlled airspace in the United States is          from either the surface or a designated
designated as follows:                               altitude to the overlying or adjacent
                                                     controlled airspace. When designated
• CLASS A: Generally, the airspace from              as a surface area, the airspace will be
  18,000 feet mean sea level (MSL) up to but         configured to contain all instrument

                                               A-5                                       Airport Consultants
                                                                                                    GLOSSARY             OF    TERMS

  procedures. Class E airspace encom-                                                        DECISION HEIGHT: The height above the end
  passes all Victor Airways. Only aircraft                                                   of the runway surface at which a decision
  following instrument flight rules are                                                      must be made by a pilot during the ILS or Pre-
  required to establish two-way radio                                                        cision Approach Radar approach to either
  communication with air traffic control.                                                    continue the approach or to execute a
                                                                                             missed approach.
• CLASS G: Generally, that airspace not
  classified as Class A, B, C, D, or E. Class G                                              DECLARED DISTANCES: The distances
  airspace is uncontrolled for all aircraft.                                                 declared available for the airplane’s takeoff
  Class G airspace extends from the surface                                                  runway, takeoff distance, accelerate-stop
  to the overlying Class E airspace.                                                         distance, and landing distance require-
                                                                                             ments. The distances are:
 FL 600                             CLASS A
 18,000 MSL
                                                                                             • TAKEOFF RUNWAY AVAILABLE (TORA): The
                                   CLASS E                                                     runway length declared available and
                                                                                               suitable for the ground run of an airplane
                                                      LEGEND                                   taking off;
  14,500 MSL
                                        AGL -    Above Ground Level
                                         FL -    Flight Level in Hundreds of Feet
                                        MSL -    Mean Sea Level                              • TAKEOFF DISTANCE AVAILABLE (TODA):
                                    Source: "Airspace Reclassification and Charting
                                            Changes for VFR Products," National
                                                                                               The TORA plus the length of any remain-
                                            Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration,
                                            National Ocean Service. Chart adapted
                                                                                               ing runway and/or clear way beyond the
                                            by Coffman Associates from AOPA Pilot,
    CLASS G                                 January 1993.                                      far end of the TORA;

                        CLASS B
                                                                                             • ACCELERATE-STOP DISTANCE AVAILABLE
                                                                                               (ASDA): The runway plus stopway length
                         40 n.m.

                                                                                               declared available for the acceleration
                                                  CLASS C
 Nontowered              30 n.m.
                                                                                Airport        and deceleration of an aircraft aborting
                                                   20 n.m.
   Airport      700      20 n.m.                                       CLASS D                 a takeoff; and
                AGL                                10 n.m.               10 n.m.
                         12 n.m.

              CLASS G                CLASS G                 CLASS G                         • LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE (LDA): The
                                                                                               runway length declared available and
CONTROLLED FIRING AREA: See special-use                                                        suitable for landing.
                                                                                             DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION: The cabi-
CROSSWIND: A wind that is not parallel to a                                                  net level federal government organization
runway centerline or to the intended flight                                                  consisting of modal operating agencies,
path of an aircraft.                                                                         such as the Federal Aviation Administration,
                                                                                             which was established to promote the coor-
CROSSWIND COMPONENT: The component                                                           dination of federal transportation programs
of wind that is at a right angle to the runway                                               and to act as a focal point for research and
centerline or the intended flight path of an                                                 development efforts in transportation.
                                                                                             DISCRETIONARY FUNDS: Federal grant funds
CROSSWIND LEG: A flight path at right angles                                                 that may be appropriated to an airport
to the landing runway off its upwind end. See                                                based upon designation by the Secretary of
“traffic pattern.”                                                                           Transportation or Congress to meet a speci-
                                                                                             fied national priority such as enhancing
DECIBEL: A unit of noise representing a level                                                capacity, safety, and security, or mitigating
relative to a reference of a sound pressure 20                                               noise.
micro newtons per square meter.

                                                                                           A-6                                   Airport Consultants
                                                            GLOSSARY             OF    TERMS

DISPLACED THRESHOLD: A threshold that is            ENTITLEMENT: Federal funds for which a com-
located at a point on the runway other than         mercial service airport may be eligible based
the designated beginning of the runway.             upon its annual passenger enplanements.

DISTANCE MEASURING                                  ENVIRONMENTAL ASSESSMENT (EA): An envi-
EQUIPMENT (DME):                                    ronmental analysis performed pursuant to
Equipment (airborne                                 the National Environmental Policy Act to
and ground) used to                                 determine whether an action would signifi-

measure, in nautical                      2 NM
                                                    cantly affect the environment and thus
miles, the slant range                              require a more detailed environmental

distance of an air-                                 impact statement.

craft from the DME
navigational aid.                                   ENVIRONMENTAL AUDIT: An assessment of the
                                                    current status of a party’s compliance with
DNL: The 24-hour average sound level, in A-         applicable environmental requirements of a
weighted decibels, obtained after the               party’s environmental compliance policies,
addition of ten decibels to sound levels for        practices, and controls.
the periods between 10 p.m. and 7 a.m. as
averaged over a span of one year. It is the         ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT STATEMENT (EIS): A
FAA standard metric for determining the             document required of federal agencies by
cumulative exposure of individuals to noise.        the National Environmental Policy Act for
                                                    major projects ar legislative proposals affect-
DOWNWIND LEG: A flight path parallel to the         ing the environment. It is a tool for
landing runway in the direction opposite to         decision-making describing the positive and
landing. The downwind leg normally extends          negative effects of a proposed action and
between the crosswind leg and the base leg.         citing alternative actions.
Also see “traffic pattern.”
                                                    ESSENTIAL AIR SERVICE: A federal program
EASEMENT: The legal right of one party to use       which guarantees air carrier service to
a portion of the total rights in real estate        selected small cities by providing subsidies as
owned by another party. This may include            needed to prevent these cities from such
the right of passage over, on, or below the         service.
property; certain air rights above the proper-
ty, including view rights; and the rights to any    FEDERAL AVIATION REGULATIONS: The general
specified form of development or activity, as       and permanent rules established by the
well as any other legal rights in the property      executive departments and agencies of the
that may be specified in the easement doc-          Federal Government for aviation, which are
ument.                                              published in the Federal Register. These are
                                                    the aviation subset of the Code of Federal
ELEVATION: The vertical distance measured in        Regulations.
feet above mean sea level.
                                                    FINAL APPROACH: A flight path in the direc-
ENPLANED PASSENGERS: The total number of            tion of landing along the extended runway
revenue passengers boarding aircraft,               centerline. The final approach normally
including originating, stop-over, and transfer      extends from the base leg to the runway.
passengers, in scheduled and non-sched-             See “traffic pattern.”
uled services.
                                                    FINDING OF NO SIGNIFICANT IMPACT (FONSI):
ENPLANEMENT: The boarding of a passenger,           A public document prepared by a Federal
cargo, freight, or mail on an aircraft at an        agency that presents the rationale why a
airport.                                            proposed action will not have a

                                                  A-7                                    Airport Consultants
                                                            GLOSSARY               OF    TERMS

significant effect on the environment and for       GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM (GPS): A sys-
which an environmental impact statement             tem of 24 satellites used as reference points
will not be prepared.                               to enable navigators equipped with GPS
                                                    receivers to determine their latitude, longi-
FIXED BASE OPERATOR (FBO): A provider of            tude, and altitude.
services to users of an airport. Such services
include, but are not limited to, hangaring,         GROUND ACCESS: The transportation system
fueling, flight training, repair, and mainte-       on and around the airport that provides
nance.                                              access to and from the airport by ground
                                                    transportation vehicles for passengers, employ-
FLIGHT LEVEL: A designation for altitude within     ees, cargo, freight, and airport services.
controlled airspace.
                                                    HELIPAD: A designated area for the takeoff,
FLIGHT SERVICE STATION: An operations facili-       landing, and parking of helicopters.
ty in the national flight advisory system which
utilizes data interchange facilities for the col-   HIGH INTENSITY RUNWAY LIGHTS: The highest
lection and dissemination of Notices to             classification in terms of intensity or brightness
Airmen, weather, and administrative data            for lights designated for use in delineating
and which provides pre-flight and in-flight         the sides of a runway.
advisory services to pilots through air and
ground based communication facilities.              HIGH-SPEED EXIT TAXIWAY: A long radius taxi-
                                                    way designed to expedite aircraft turning off
FRANGIBLE NAVAID: A navigational aid which          the runway after landing (at speeds to 60
retains its structural integrity and stiffness up   knots), thus reducing runway occupancy
to a designated maximum load, but on                time.
impact from a greater load, breaks, distorts,
or yields in such a manner as to present the        HORIZONTAL SURFACE: An imaginary obstruc-
minimum hazard to aircraft.                         tion-limiting surface defined in FAR Part 77
                                                    that is specified as a portion of a horizontal
GENERAL AVIATION: That portion of civil avia-       plane surrounding a runway located 150 feet
tion which encompasses all facets of                above the established airport elevation. The
aviation except air carriers holding a certifi-     specific horizontal dimensions of this surface
cate of convenience and necessity, and              are a function of the types of approaches
large aircraft commercial operators.                existing or planned for the runway.

GLIDESLOPE (GS): Provides vertical guidance         INSTRUMENT APPROACH PROCEDURE: A series
for aircraft during approach and landing.           of predetermined maneuvers for the orderly
The glideslope consists of the following:           transfer of an aircraft under instrument flight
                                                    conditions from the beginning of the initial
1. Electronic components emitting signals           approach to a landing, or to a point from
   which provide vertical guidance by ref-          which a landing may be made visually.
   erence to airborne instruments during
   instrument approaches such as ILS; or            INSTRUMENT FLIGHT RULES (IFR): Procedures
                                                    for the conduct of flight in weather condi-
2. Visual ground aids, such as VASI, which          tions below Visual Flight Rules weather
   provide vertical guidance for VFR                minimums. The term IFR is often also used to
   approach or for the visual portion of an         define weather conditions and the type
   instrument approach and landing.                 of flight plan under which an aircraft is

                                                A-8                                        Airport Consultants
                                                               GLOSSARY               OF    TERMS

INSTRUMENT LANDING SYSTEM (ILS): A preci-              LOCAL TRAFFIC: Aircraft operating in the traf-
sion instrument approach system which                  fic pattern or within sight of the tower, or
normally consists of the following electronic          aircraft known to be departing or arriving
components and visual aids:                            from the local practice areas, or aircraft exe-
                                                       cuting practice instrument approach
1. Localizer.         4. Middle Marker.                procedures. Typically, this includes touch-
2. Glide Slope.       5. Approach Lights.              and-go training operations.
3. Outer Marker.
                                                       LOCALIZER: The component of an ILS
INSTRUMENT METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS:                  which provides course guidance to the
Meteorological conditions expressed in terms           runway.
of specific visibility and ceiling conditions that
are less than the minimums specified for visu-         LOCALIZER TYPE DIRECTIONAL AID (LDA): A
al meteorological conditions.                          facility of comparable utility and accuracy
                                                       to a localizer, but is not part of a complete ILS
ITINERANT OPERATIONS: Operations by air-               and is not aligned with the runway.
craft that are not based at a specified
airport.                                               LONG RANGE NAVIGATION SYSTEM (LORAN):
                                                       Long range navigation is an electronic navi-
KNOTS: A unit of speed length used in navi-            gational aid which determines aircraft
gation that is equivalent to the number of             position and speed by measuring the
nautical miles traveled in one hour.                   difference in the time of reception of synchro-
                                                       nized pulse signals from two fixed transmitters.
LANDSIDE: The portion of an airport that pro-          Loran is used for enroute navigation.
vides the facilities necessary for the
processing of passengers, cargo, freight, and          LOW INTENSITY RUNWAY LIGHTS: The lowest
ground transportation vehicles.                        classification in terms of intensity or brightness
                                                       for lights designated for use in delineating
LANDING DISTANCE AVAILABLE (LDA): See                  the sides of a runway.
declared distances.
                                                       MEDIUM INTENSITY RUNWAY LIGHTS: The mid-
LARGE AIRPLANE: An airplane that has a                 dle classification in terms of intensity or
maximum certified takeoff weight in excess             brightness for lights designated for use in
of 12,500 pounds.                                      delineating the sides of a runway.

differential GPS system that provides localized        instrument approach and landing system
measurement correction signals to the basic            that provides precision guidance in azimuth,
GPS signals to improve navigational accura-            elevation, and distance measurement.
cy, integrity, continuity, and availability.
                                                       MILITARY OPERATIONS: Aircraft operations
LOCAL OPERATIONS: Aircraft operations per-             that are performed in military aircraft.
formed by aircraft that are based at the
airport and that operate in the local traffic          MILITARY OPERATIONS AREA (MOA): See
pattern or within sight of the airport, that are       special-use airspace.
known to be departing for or arriving from
flights in local practice areas within a pre-          MILITARY TRAINING ROUTE: An air route
scribed distance from the airport, or that             depicted on aeronautical charts for the con-
execute simulated instrument approaches at             duct of military flight training at speeds
the airport.                                           above 250 knots.

                                                 A-9                                          Airport Consultants
                                                                 GLOSSARY             OF     TERMS

MISSED APPROACH COURSE (MAC): The flight                 NOISE CONTOUR: A continuous line on a map
route to be followed if, after an instrument             of the airport vicinity connecting all points of
approach, a landing is not affected, and                 the same noise exposure level.
occurring normally:
                                                         NON-DIRECTIONAL BEACON (NDB): A beacon
1. When the aircraft has descended to the                transmitting nondirectional signals whereby
   decision height and has not established               the pilot of an aircraft equipped with direction
   visual contact; or                                    finding equipment can determine his or her
                                                         bearing to and from the radio beacon and
2. When directed by air traffic control to pull          home on, or track to, the station. When the
   up or to go around again.                             radio beacon is installed in conjunction with
                                                         the Instrument Landing System marker, it is nor-
MOVEMENT AREA: The runways, taxiways, and                mally called a Compass Locator.
other areas of an airport which are utilized for
taxiing/hover taxiing, air taxiing, takeoff, and         NON-PRECISION APPROACH PROCEDURE: A
landing of aircraft, exclusive of loading ramps          standard instrument approach procedure in
and parking areas. At those airports with a              which no electronic glide slope is provided,
tower, air traffic control clearance is required         such as VOR, TACAN, NDB, or LOC.
for entry onto the movement area.
                                                         NOTICE TO AIRMEN: A notice containing
NATIONAL AIRSPACE SYSTEM: The network of air             information concerning the establishment,
traffic control facilities, air traffic control areas,   condition, or change in any component of or
and navigational facilities through the U.S.             hazard in the National Airspace System, the
                                                         timely knowledge of which is considered
NATIONAL PLAN OF INTEGRATED AIRPORT SYS-                 essential to personnel concerned with flight
TEMS: The national airport system plan                   operations.
developed by the Secretary of Transporta-
tion on a biannual basis for the development             OBJECT FREE AREA (OFA): An area on the
of public use airports to meet national air              ground centered on a runway, taxiway, or
transportation needs.                                    taxilane centerline provided to enhance the
                                                         safety of aircraft operations by having the
NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION SAFETY BOARD: A                  area free of objects, except for objects that
federal government organization established              need to be located in the OFA for air naviga-
to investigate and determine the probable                tion or aircraft ground maneuvering purposes.
cause of transportation accidents, to recom-
mend equipment and procedures to                         OBSTACLE FREE ZONE (OFZ): The airspace
enhance transportation safety, and to review             below 150 feet above the established airport
on appeal the suspension or revocation of                elevation and along the runway and extend-
any certificates or licenses issued by the Sec-          ed runway centerline that is required to be
retary of Transportation.                                kept clear of all objects, except for frangible
                                                         visual NAVAIDs that need to be located in
NAUTICAL MILE: A unit of length used in navi-            the OFZ because of their function,
gation which is equivalent to the distance               in order to provide clearance for aircraft
spanned by one minute of arc in latitude, that           landing or taking off from the runway, and
is, 1,852 meters or 6,076 feet. It is equivalent to      for missed approaches.
approximately 1.15 statute mile.
                                                         OPERATION: A take-off or a landing.
NAVAID: A term used to describe any electri-
cal or visual air navigational aids, lights, signs,      OUTER MARKER (OM): An ILS navigation facili-
and associated supporting equipment (i.e.                ty in the terminal area navigation system
PAPI, VASI, ILS, etc.)                                   located four to seven miles from

                                                     A-10                                      Airport Consultants
                                                          GLOSSARY             OF     TERMS

the runway edge on the extended center-           and extending behind the runway threshold
line, indicating to the pilot that he/she is      that is 200 feet long by 800 feet wide. The
passing over the facility and can begin final     POFA is a clearing standard which requires
approach.                                         the POFA to be kept clear of above ground
                                                  objects protruding above the runway safety
PILOT CONTROLLED LIGHTING: Runway light-          area edge elevation (except for frangible
ing systems at an airport that are controlled     NAVAIDS). The POFA applies to all new
by activating the microphone of a pilot on a      authorized instrument approach procedures
specified radio frequency.                        with less than 3/4 mile visibility.

PRECISION APPROACH: A standard instru-            PRIMARY AIRPORT: A commercial service air-
ment approach procedure which provides            port that enplanes at least 10,000 annual
runway alignment and glide slope (descent)        passengers.
information. It is categorized as follows:
                                                  PRIMARY SURFACE: An imaginary obstruction
• CATEGORY I (CAT I): A precision approach        limiting surface defined in FAR Part 77 that is
  which provides for approaches with a            specified as a rectangular surface longitudi-
  decision height of not less than 200 feet       nally centered about a runway. The specific
  and visibility not less than 1/2 mile or        dimensions of this surface are a function of
  Runway Visual Range (RVR) 2400 (RVR             the types of approaches existing or planned
  1800) with operative touchdown zone and         for the runway.
  runway centerline lights.
                                                  PROHIBITED AREA: See special-use airspace.
• CATEGORY II (CAT II): A precision approach
  which provides for approaches with a            PVC: Poor visibility and ceiling. Used in deter-
  decision height of not less than 100 feet       mining Annual Sevice Volume. PVC
  and visibility not less than 1200 feet RVR.     conditions exist when the cloud ceiling is less
                                                  than 500 feet and visibility is less than one
• CATEGORY III (CAT III): A precision             mile.
  approach which provides for approaches
  with minima less than Category II.              RADIAL: A navigational signal generated by
                                                  a Very High Frequency Omni-directional
PRECISION APPROACH PATH INDICATOR                 Range or VORTAC station that is measured as
(PAPI): A lighting system providing visual        an azimuth from the station.
approach slope guidance to aircraft during
a landing approach. It is similar to a VASI but   REGRESSION ANALYSIS: A statistical technique
provides a sharper transition between the         that seeks to identify and quantify the rela-
colored indicator lights.                         tionships between factors associated with a
ty in the terminal air traffic control system     REMOTE COMMUNICATIONS OUTLET (RCO):
used to detect and display with a high            An unstaffed transmitter receiver/facility
degree of accuracy the direction, range,          remotely controlled by air traffic personnel.
and elevation of an aircraft on the final         RCOs serve flight service stations (FSSs).
approach to a runway.                             RCOs were established to provide ground-to-
                                                  ground communications between air traffic
PRECISION OBJECT FREE AREA (POFA): An             control specialists and pilots at satellite air-
area centered on the extended runway cen-         ports for delivering enroute clearances,
terline, beginning at the runway threshold        issuing departure authorizations, and

                                              A-11                                     Airport Consultants
                                                         GLOSSARY             OF    TERMS

acknowledging instrument flight rules cancel-    RUNWAY PROTECTION ZONE (RPZ): An area off
lations or departure/landing times.              the runway end to enhance the protection
                                                 of people and property on the ground. The
REMOTE TRANSMITTER/RECEIVER (RTR): See           RPZ is trapezoidal in shape. Its dimensions are
remote communications outlet. RTRs serve         determined by the aircraft approach speed
ARTCCs.                                          and runway approach type and minima.
RELIEVER AIRPORT: An airport to serve general    RUNWAY SAFETY AREA (RSA): A defined sur-
aviation aircraft which might otherwise use a    face surrounding the runway prepared or
congested air-carrier served airport.            suitable for reducing the risk of damage to
                                                 airplanes in the event of an undershoot,
RESTRICTED AREA: See special-use airspace.       overshoot, or excursion from the runway.

RNAV: Area navigation - airborne equipment       RUNWAY VISIBILITY ZONE (RVZ): An area on
which permits flights over determined tracks     the airport to be kept clear of permanent
within prescribed accuracy tolerances with-      objects so that there is an unobstructed line-
out the need to over fly ground-based            of-site from any point five feet above the
navigation facilities. Used enroute and for      runway centerline to any point five feet
approaches to an airport.                        above an intersecting runway centerline.

RUNWAY: A defined rectangular area on an         RUNWAY VISUAL RANGE (RVR): An instrumen-
airport prepared for aircraft landing and        tally derived value, in feet, representing the
takeoff. Runways are normally numbered in        horizontal distance a pilot can see down the
relation to their magnetic direction, rounded    runway from the runway end.
off to the nearest 10 degrees. For example,
a runway with a magnetic heading of 180          SCOPE: The document that identifies and
would be designated Runway 18. The run-          defines the tasks, emphasis, and level of
way heading on the opposite end of the           effort associated with a project or study.
runway is 180 degrees from that runway end.
For example, the opposite runway heading         SEGMENTED CIRCLE: A system of visual indica-
for Runway 18 would be Runway 36 (mag-           tors designed to provide traffic pattern
netic heading of 360). Aircraft can takeoff or   information at airports without operating
land from either end of a runway, depending      control towers.
upon wind direction.
                                                 SHOULDER: An area adjacent to the edge of
RUNWAY ALIGNMENT INDICATOR LIGHT: A              paved runways, taxiways, or aprons provid-
series of high intensity sequentially flashing   ing a transition between the pavement and
lights installed on the extended centerline of   the adjacent surface; support for aircraft run-
the runway usually in conjunction with an        ning off the pavement; enhanced drainage;
approach lighting system.                        and blast protection. The shoulder does not
                                                 necessarily need to be paved.
synchronized flashing lights, one on each        SLANT-RANGE DISTANCE: The straight line dis-
side of the runway threshold, which provide      tance between an aircraft and a point on
rapid and positive identification of the         the ground.
approach end of a particular runway.
                                                 SMALL AIRPLANE: An airplane that has a max-
RUNWAY GRADIENT: The average slope, mea-         imum certified takeoff weight of up to 12,500
sured in percent, between the two ends of a      pounds.
                                                 SPECIAL-USE AIRSPACE: Airspace of defined

                                             A-12                                    Airport Consultants
                                                              GLOSSARY             OF     TERMS

dimensions identified by a sur face area              routing, preprinted for pilot use in graphic
wherein activities must be confined because           and textual or textual form only.
of their nature and/or wherein limitations
may be imposed upon aircraft operations               STOP-AND-GO: A procedure wherein an air-
that are not a part of those activities.              craft will land, make a complete stop on the
Special-use airspace classifications include:         runway, and then commence a takeoff from
• ALERT AREA: Airspace which may contain              that point. A stop-and-go is recorded as two
  a high volume of pilot training activities or       operations: one operation for the landing
  an unusual type of aerial activity, neither         and one operation for the takeoff.
  of which is hazardous to aircraft.
                                                      STOPWAY: An area beyond the end of a
• CONTROLLED FIRING AREA: Airspace                    takeoff runway that is designed to support
  wherein activities are conducted under              an aircraft during an aborted takeoff without
  conditions so controlled as to eliminate            causing structural damage to the aircraft. It is
  hazards to nonparticipating aircraft and to         not to be used for takeoff, landing, or taxiing
  ensure the safety of persons or property on         by aircraft.
  the ground.
                                                      STRAIGHT-IN LANDING/APPROACH: A landing
• MILITARY OPERATIONS AREA (MOA):                     made on a runway aligned within 30 degrees
  Designated airspace with defined vertical           of the final approach course following com-
  and lateral dimensions established outside          pletion of an instrument approach.
  Class A airspace to separate/segregate
  certain military activities from instrument         TACTICAL AIR NAVIGATION (TACAN): An ultra-
  flight rule (IFR) traffic and to identify for       high frequency electronic air navigation
  visual flight rule (VFR) traffic where these        system which provides suitably-equipped air-
  activities are conducted.                           craft a continuous indication of bearing and
                                                      distance to the TACAN station.
• PROHIBITED AREA: Designated airspace
  within which the flight of aircraft is              TAKEOFF RUNWAY AVAILABLE (TORA): See
  prohibited.                                         declared distances.

• RESTRICTED AREA: Airspace designated                TAKEOFF DISTANCE AVAILABLE (TODA): See
  under Federal Aviation Regulation                   declared distances.
  (FAR) 73, within which the flight of aircraft,
  while not wholly prohibited, is subject to          TAXILANE: The portion of the aircraft parking
  restriction. Most restricted areas are desig-       area used for access between taxiways and
  nated joint use. When not in use by the             aircraft parking positions.
  using agency, IFR/VFR operations can be
  authorized by the controlling air traffic           TAXIWAY: A defined path established for the
  control facility.                                   taxiing of aircraft from one part of an airport
                                                      to another.
• WARNING AREA: Airspace which may con-
  tain hazards to nonparticipating aircraft.          TAXIWAY SAFETY AREA (TSA): A defined sur-
                                                      face alongside the taxiway prepared or
STANDARD INSTRUMENT DEPARTURE (SID): A                suitable for reducing the risk of damage to
preplanned coded air traffic control IFR              an airplane unintentionally departing the
departure routing, preprinted for pilot use in        taxiway.
graphic and textual form only.
planned coded air traffic control IFR arrival         lished flight procedures for conducting

                                                   A-13                                    Airport Consultants
                                                             GLOSSARY                      OF             TERMS

instrument approaches to runways under
instrument meteorological conditions.

TERMINAL RADAR APPROACH CONTROL: An                                        DOWNWIND LEG
element of the air traffic control system             BASE
responsible for monitoring the en-route and            LEG                                  LEG

terminal segment of air traffic in the airspace        FINAL APPROACH               DEPARTURE LEG

surrounding airports with moderate to high-                             RUNWAY

levels of air traffic.
                                                                         UPWIND LEG

TETRAHEDRON: A device used as a landing
direction indicator. The small end of the
tetrahedron points in the direction of landing.   UNCONTROLLED AIRPORT: An airport without
                                                  an air traffic control tower at which the con-
THRESHOLD: The beginning of that portion of the   trol of Visual Flight Rules traffic is not
runway available for landing. In some instances   exercised.
the landing threshold may be displaced.
                                                  UNCONTROLLED AIRSPACE: Airspace within
TOUCH-AND-GO: An operation by an aircraft         which aircraft are not subject to air traffic
that lands and departs on a runway without        control.
stopping or exiting the runway. A touch-and-
go is recorded as two operations: one             UNIVERSAL COMMUNICATION (UNICOM): A
operation for the landing and one operation       nongovernment communication facility
for the takeoff.                                  which may provide airport information at
                                                  certain airports. Locations and frequencies of
TOUCHDOWN: The point at which a landing           UNICOM’s are shown on aeronautical charts
aircraft makes contact with the runway            and publications.

                                                  UPWIND LEG: A flight path
TOUCHDOWN ZONE (TDZ): The first 3,000 feet        parallel to the landing                                                     60
of the runway beginning at the threshold.         runway in the direction of                        0°

                                                  landing. See “traffic pat-                                                   12
TOUCHDOWN ZONE ELEVATION (TDZE): The              tern.”                                             2   40

highest elevation in the touchdown zone.
                                                  VECTOR: A heading issued to an
TOUCHDOWN ZONE (TDZ) LIGHTING: Two rows           aircraft to provide navigational
of transverse light bars located symmetrically    guidance by radar.
about the runway centerline normally at 100-
foot intervals. The basic system extends 3,000    VERY HIGH FREQUENCY/ OMNIDIRECTIONAL
feet along the runway.                            RANGE STATION (VOR): A ground-based elec-
                                                  tronic navigation aid transmitting very high
TRAFFIC PATTERN: The traffic flow that is pre-    frequency navigation signals, 360 degrees in
scribed for aircraft landing at or taking off     azimuth, oriented from magnetic north. Used
from an airport. The components of a typical      as the basis for navigation in the national air-
traffic pattern are the upwind leg, crosswind     space system. The VOR periodically identifies
leg, downwind leg, base leg, and final            itself by Morse Code and may have an addi-
approach.                                         tional voice identification feature.

                                              A-14                                                              Airport Consultants
                                                           GLOSSARY             OF    TERMS

RANGE STATION/ TACTICAL AIR NAVIGATION             VORTAC: See “Very High Frequency Omnidi-
(VORTAC): A navigation aid providing VOR           rectional Range Station/Tactical Air
azimuth, TACAN azimuth, and TACAN                  Navigation.”
distance-measuring equipment (DME) at
one site.                                          WARNING AREA: See special-use airspace.

VICTOR AIRWAY: A control area or portion           WIDE AREA AUGMENTATION SYSTEM: An
thereof established in the form of a corridor,     enhancement of the Global Positioning Sys-
the centerline of which is defined by radio        tem that includes integrity broadcasts,
navigational aids.                                 differential corrections, and additional rang-
                                                   ing signals for the purpose of providing the
VISUAL APPROACH: An approach wherein an            accuracy, integrity, availability, and continu-
aircraft on an IFR flight plan,                    ity required to support all phases of flight.
operating in VFR conditions under the control
of an air traffic control facility and having an
air traffic control authorization, may proceed
to the airport of destination in VFR conditions.

An airport lighting facility providing vertical
visual approach slope guidance to aircraft         AC:     advisory circular
during approach to landing by radiating a
directional pattern of high intensity red and      ADF:    automatic direction finder
white focused light beams which indicate to
the pilot that he is on path if he sees            ADG:    airplane design group
red/white, above path if white/white, and
                                                   AFSS:   automated flight service station
below path if red/red. Some airports serving
large aircraft have three-bar VASI’s which
                                                   AGL:    above ground level
provide two visual guide paths to the same
runway.                                            AIA:    annual instrument approach
VISUAL FLIGHT RULES (VFR): Rules that govern       AIP:    Airport Improvement Program
the procedures for conducting flight under
visual conditions. The term VFR is also used in    AIR-21: Wendell H. Ford Aviation Investment
the United States to indicate weather condi-               and Reform Act for the 21st Century
tions that are equal to or greater than
minimum VFR requirements. In addition, it is       ALS:    approach lighting system
used by pilots and controllers to indicate
type of flight plan.                               ALSF-1: standard 2,400-foot high intensity
                                                           approach lighting system with
VISUAL METEOROLOGICAL CONDITIONS:                          sequenced flashers (CAT I
Meteorological conditions expressed in terms               configuration)
of specific visibility and ceiling conditions
which are equal to or greater than the             ALSF-2: standard 2,400-foot high intensity
                                                           approach lighting system with
threshold values for instrument meteorologi-
                                                           sequenced flashers (CAT II
cal conditions.
VOR: See “Very High Frequency Omnidirec-           APV:    instrument approach procedure
tional Range Station.”                                     with vertical guidance

                                               A-15                                     Airport Consultants
                                                          GLOSSARY             OF     TERMS

ARC:    airport reference code                    GS:     glide slope

                                                  HIRL:   high intensity runway edge lighting
ARFF:   aircraft rescue and firefighting
                                                  IFR:    instrument flight rules (FAR Part 91)
ARP:    airport reference point
                                                  ILS:    instrument landing system
ARTCC: air route traffic control center
                                                  IM:     inner marker
ASDA:   accelerate-stop distance available
                                                  LDA:    localizer type directional aid
ASR:    airport surveillance radar
                                                  LDA:    landing distance available
ASOS:   automated surface observation
        station                                   LIRL:   low intensity runway edge lighting

ATCT:   airport traffic control tower             LMM:    compass locator at middle marker

ATIS:   automated terminal information            LOC:    ILS localizer
                                                  LOM:    compass locator at ILS outer marker
AVGAS: aviation gasoline - typically 100 low
       lead (100LL)                               LORAN: long range navigation

AWOS:   automated weather observation             MALS:   medium intensity approach
        station                                           lighting system

BRL:    building restriction line                 MALSR: medium intensity approach lighting
                                                         system with runway alignment
CFR:    Code of Federal Regulations                      indicator lights

CIP:    capital improvement program               MIRL:   medium intensity runway edge
DME:    distance measuring equipment
                                                  MITL:   medium intensity taxiway edge
DNL:    day-night noise level                             lighting

DWL:    runway weight bearing capacity            MLS:    microwave landing system
        for aircraft with dual-wheel type
        landing gear                              MM:     middle marker

DTWL:   runway weight bearing capacity            MOA:    military operations area
        fo aircraft with dual-tandem type
        landing gear                              MSL:    mean sea level

FAA:    Federal Aviation Administration           NAVAID: navigational aid

FAR:    Federal Aviation Regulation               NDB:    nondirectional radio beacon

FBO:    fixed base operator                       NM:     nautical mile (6,076 .1 feet)
FY:     fiscal year
                                                  NPES:    National Pollutant Discharge
GPS:    global positioning system                          Elimination System

                                               A-16                                       Airport Consultants
                                                           GLOSSARY            OF      TERMS

                                                  SALS:    short approach lighting system
NPIAS:   National Plan of Integrated Airport
         Systems                                  SASP:    state aviation system plan

NPRM:    notice of proposed rulemaking            SEL:     sound exposure level
                                                  SID:     standard instrument departure
ODALS:   omnidirectional approach
         lighting system                          SM:      statute mile (5,280 feet)

OFA:     object free area                         SRE:     snow removal equipment

OFZ:     obstacle free zone                       SSALF:   simplified short approach lighting
                                                           system with sequenced flashers
OM:      outer marker
                                                  SSALR:   simplified short approach lighting
PAC:     planning advisory committee                       system with runway alignment
                                                           indicator lights
PAPI:    precision approach path indicator
                                                  STAR:    standard terminal arrival route
PFC:     porous friction course
                                                  SWL:     runway weight bearing capacity
PFC:     passenger facility charge                         for aircraft with single-wheel type
                                                           landing gear
PCL:     pilot-controlled lighting
                                                  STWL:    runway weight bearing capacity
PIW:     public information workshop                       for aircraft with single-wheel tan-
                                                           dem type landing gear
PLASI:   pulsating visual approach
         slope indicator                          TACAN:   tactical air navigational aid

POFA:    precision object free area               TDZ:     touchdown zone

PVASI:   pulsating/steady visual                  TDZE:    touchdown zone elevation
         approach slope indicator
                                                  TAF:     Federal Aviation Administration
PVC:     Poor visibility and ceiling.                      (FAA) Terminal Area Forecast

RCO:     remote communications outlet             TODA:    takeoff distance available

REIL:    runway end identifier lighting           TORA:    takeoff runway available

RNAV:    area navigation                          TRACON: terminal radar approach control

RPZ:     runway protection zone                   VASI:    visual approach slope indicator

RSA:     Runway Safety Area                       VFR:     visual flight rules (FAR Part 91)

RTR:     remote transmitter/receiver              VHF:     very high frequency

RVR:     runway visibility range                  VOR:     very high frequency
                                                           omni-directional range
RVZ:     runway visibility zone
                                                  VORTAC: VOR and TACAN collocated

                                               A-17                                     Airport Consultants
Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority                Appendix B
                                         TERMINAL ALTERNATIVES
Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority              Appendix C
                                         BUILDING EVALUATION
Appendix C

As a part of this study all of the buildings owned by the airport were given a walk
through and visual evaluation of general building, electrical and mechanical systems. No
materials testing were done during these walkthroughs.

Main Terminal
General Evaluation

Originally completed in 1970 it has been modified, added on and remodeled numerous
times. The most recent was in 2004 when areas were added on the upper concourse for
TSA offices and screening area, meeters’ and greeters’ waiting room, lavatory remodels
and additional airport administration rooms. Other recent additions include a US
Customs clearing area and offices, additional baggage claim and rental car counter space.
This was completed in 2001.

                                                                       The    building is
                                                                       primarily of steel
                                                                       framework, precast
                                                                       concrete panels and
                                                                       masonry block with
                                                                       concrete       floors
                                                                       below, on and
                                                                       above grade. The
                                                                       roof is a steel joist
                                                                       system           with
                                                                       decking     and     a
                                                                       membrane roofing
                                                                       system       covered
                                                                       with river rock for
                                                                       sunlight and wind
                                                                       protection.      The
                                                                       floors are covered
with rock tile, terrazzo and carpeting depending on the area served.

From a structural perspective there are no apparent problems. No adverse settlement,
masonry and precast concrete appear good with little or no cracking, thresholds and doors
function as intended. Floors are in very good condition.

With a building in excess of 35 years old and heavy public use there is always need of
repairs and refurbishing. This study will not address those issues in depth. A few items
of consequence were discovered during the inspection process. The most significant is
the roofing system. From discussion and observation it appears the roofing is the original
and there have been some leaks
over the past few years. Thirty
(30) plus years of life on a roof
system is considered good life.
Replacement should be considered
to minimize damaging effects,
prevent future interior damage and
ensure longevity of the building.
In addition there are some cracked
and weakened mortar joints in the
glazed brick located on the main
body of the terminal. Wind driven
rain can penetrate the joints. This
can be addressed with a tuck
pointing repair project.

Mechanical Evaluation

The heating plant for the main terminal is two steam boilers. The steam boilers are
Dunham Bush 200 HP dual fuel (gas/fuel oil) boilers with newer Gordon Piat burners.
The steam is converted to hot water in a shell and tube heat exchanger and supplied to the
building with two base mounted centrifugal pumps. There is also a large storage tank
approximately 1000 to 1500 gallons with a steam to hot water converter in it that is used
to produce domestic hot water for the terminal.

The boilers have been maintained very well, and they appear to be original equipment,
which makes them approximately 35 years old. This is beyond the estimated service life
of the boiler, according to American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air
Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) statistics, and replacement may be required in the
near future. The boilers also produce the hot water for the domestic water system for the
terminal. This works well in the winter months, but when heating is not required in the
building, it is very inefficient to produce minimal hot water with a 200 horsepower boiler.
We would recommend installing a smaller summer boiler to produce hot water in the low
heating load seasons.

The heating pumps for terminal are 20 horsepower, base mounted centrifugal pumps that
have been replaced recently. The two pumps are constant volume and are redundant.
Energy saving measures would be to control the pumps with a variable frequency drive
(VFD), but this would also require replacement of three-way control valves to two-way
control valves on many different pieces of equipment. The VFD’s should be considered if
controls are updated or changed to direct digital controls (DDC).

The chilled water plant for the building is a Trane Centrivac 320 ton centrifugal chiller,
with a Perma Pipe cooling tower. The chiller has all been maintained very well, and is
original equipment, the cooling tower is also original equipment which makes them
approximately 35 years old. This is beyond the estimated service life of the chiller, and
the system components according to ASHRAE statistics, and replacement may be
required in the near future. The cooling tower is in dire need of replacement, parts are
wearing out and we would recommend replacing soon. The chiller has refrigerant that is
no longer available and if there is a problem this will have to be converted over to a new
refrigerant. We would recommend budgeting in the near future for replacement of the

The chilled water pump for the terminal is a 30 horsepower, base mounted centrifugal
pump. The chilled water pump is a constant volume. Energy saving measures would be to
control the pump with a variable frequency drive, but this would also require replacement
of three-way control valves to two-way control valves on many different pieces of
equipment. The VFD’s should be considered if controls are updated or changed to DDC.
The pump is over 35 years old, and we would recommend budgeting in the near future
for replacement of this pump.

The condenser pump for the cooling tower is a 10 horsepower, base mounted centrifugal
pump this is over 35 years old, and we would recommend budgeting in the near future for
replacement of this pump. We would recommend replacing this pump when the cooling
tower is replaced.

The temperature control system for the building is a pneumatic Johnson Controls system.
The temperature control equipment has all been maintained very well, and appears to be
original equipment, which makes it approximately 35 years old. This is beyond the
estimated service life of the system and components according to ASHRAE statistics and
replacement may be required in the near future. We would recommend budgeting in the
near future for replacement of this system to a new direct digital control (DDC) system.
This would include replacement of control valves, dampers and actuators.

The ventilation systems for the main terminal building are air handling units located in
the penthouses on the roof. The air handling units are showing signs of age, more than 35
years, with rusting of the units, and parts missing (belt guards, etc.). We recommend
replacement of these air handling units.

The exhaust systems for the main terminal building are power roof exhaust fans located
on the roof. The exhaust equipment appears to be original equipment, which makes it
approximately 35 years old. This is beyond the estimated service life of the system and
components according to ASHRAE statistics and replacement may be required in the
near future. We would recommend budgeting replacement of these exhaust fans.

Electrical Evaluation

The electrical distribution system for the Terminal Building/Concourse facility consists
of two (2) padmount transformers located outside the Motivator Room. One transformer
supplies power to a 2000 ampere, 480 volt, three phase switchboard and the 2nd
transformer to a 1600 ampere, 208 volt, three phase switchboard. Both switchboards are
located inside the Motivator Room and distribute power to various distribution
panelboards throughout the facility. The two (2) main electrical rooms for distributing
power throughout this facility are the Motivator Room and Boiler Room.

       Motivator Room

       The electrical equipment that is currently installed in the Motivator Room was
       part of the original construction for the building. Most of the electrical gear was
       manufactured by General Electric and appears to be in good working order for its
       age. G.E. replacement parts are available in the case of future maintenance

       The labeling of disconnects for the distribution sections for each of the
       switchboards was a little unclear. There are a number of disconnects that have
       labels that were generated using a magic marker. Over time the magic marker
       begins to wear off and eventually the label becomes too hard to read. Main
       disconnects had multiple labels and identification along with instructions for
       airlines that no longer serve Sioux Falls. If maintenance personnel begin
       performing maintenance on the electrical distribution system and labels are
       missing or unclear, this could in turn lead to serious electrical hazards.

       There was adequate lighting within this area consisting of incandescent light
       fixtures and overall the maintenance staff had no further comments or issues with
       this room.

       Boiler Room

       The Boiler Room consists of a number of distribution panel boards, dry-type
       transformers, control relay cabinets, and an emergency standby generator. Again,
       most of the electrical gear was manufactured by General Electric and appears to
       be in good working order for its age. This electrical equipment was well labeled.

       The Boiler Room gets its power from the switchboards located within the
       Motivator Room. There are raceways between the Motivator Room and the
       Boiler Room that consist of metal wireways that appear to be in good condition.

       The Caterpillar Generator is listed as a Continuous Duty, 30kW, 37.5 kVA, 480
       volt, three phase system and is used to serve the emergency lighting throughout
       the facility in the case of an electrical power outage. Overall the generator itself

       appears to be in good condition and the maintenance staff regularly exercises this
       generator on a monthly basis.

       Lighting seemed adequate for the room and consisted of incandescent light

       Overall the Boiler Room seemed to be well maintained and the maintenance staff
       had no further comments or issues with this room.

       Terminal Building

       On the lower level there are a number of janitor rooms located throughout which
       contain auxiliary panelboards supplying miscellaneous power to various loads on
       the floor. The panelboards appear to be in good condition and have space, though
       minimal, for expansion.

       Lighting consists of mainly fluorescent T12 lighting and HID recess can lights
       along with some incandescent fixtures installed in the smaller storage rooms and
       janitor rooms. There are a few T8 fixtures installed; which in the turn are much
       more efficient and are more energy efficient in comparison to the T12 lamp. The
       T12 lamp will eventually be discontinued and no longer available; switching over
       to T8 lighting will be a necessity that should be budgeted for in the near future.

Snow Removal and Maintenance Facilities
Under this subtitle are four buildings. One serves a shop and personal area, one is cold
storage primarily for lawn mowing equipment and two other heated buildings are used
for storage and maintainer of equipment, heated sand storage and general storage of
lighting equipment spares, paint etc.

Maintenance Shop Building 12

The building is of a “pre
engineered” design, metal frame,
roof joists, masonry walls, steel
siding and exposed interior
insulation.     Exact year of
construction is not known but
conventional thinking puts it in
the late 1960 to early 1970 era.
This building has served the
airport well. The structure is in
fair to good condition. The
exterior sheet metal has some
fade and the roof metal has some

rust showing. We also observed some form of opening in the roof peak allowing light to
penetrate and possibly heat escape.

While the building does function there are shortfalls to its overall capability. The shop
space is too small to accommodate large equipment, there are no provisions such as
hoists, lifts, oil change pits, wash bay and auxiliary equipment that is considered standard
equipment for servicing large equipment. As a result there are maintenance bays located
in the other buildings that presently store equipment. Another function of a maintenance
building is a centralized location for spare airfield and equipment parts and maintenance
materials. The role of maintenance is also share by other buildings at this time.

In addition to a service role, the maintenance facility also provides personal services for
staff employees during periods of high demand. Winter usually is the time when
personnel are on standby or working long hours to clear airfield and vehicle pavements of
snow and ice. When forecasts are issued of large weather events, staff sometimes comes
in advance of the system to be prepared to respond quickly and efficiently to snow or
freezing rain. Modern maintenance facilities usually provide some form of rest area,
showers, lockers and cooking ability to sustain that effort. The existing facility has
limited features to accommodate these needs.

The most common form of snow removal equipment maintenance facility used today is a
combination of a large storage building with and attached shop, and space for the storage
of heated sand and other products used in the role of airfield maintenance. The facility is
usually located where there is easy or direct access to the airfield pavements, and away
from other conflicting traffic.

Mechanical Evaluation

The mechanical heating system for the building includes infrared tube heat and gas fired
unit heaters. These systems appear to be in fair to good condition with no complaints
from the personnel. The heating system does not appear to be original equipment, and
based on ASHRAE life expectancy these systems should have some years left in them.
The heating system for the office area and the bathroom is electric baseboard heat and
electric unit heaters. The electric heaters appear to be original equipment and would be
approximately 35 – 45 years old. These units have lasted there expected life and may
need replacement in the very near future.

The maintenance shop appears to have no ventilation system. Based on the new IMC and
IBC building codes and repair shop is required to have an exhaust system capable of
removing 1.5 cfm/sq. ft. of air and replaced with makeup air. This is a safety issue so
that a worker is not overcome by carbon monoxide while working on a vehicle. There
also did not appear to be any exhaust in the bathroom. We would recommend installing
an exhaust system with a fresh air makeup louver and controlling it with a carbon
monoxide sensor, and installing an exhaust fan in the bathroom.

Electrical Evaluation

The building electrical system consists of a 200 ampere, 120/240 volt, single phase
service to a 42 space panelboard located in the main office space. The panelboard appears
to be in good condition and has space, though minimal, for expansion.

Lighting in the building utilizes mostly fluorescent T12 lighting along with incandescent
lamps. The office and maintenance area utilize the fluorescent fixtures while the storage
space, small other rooms, and the outdoor building mounted lighting use incandescent
lighting. Many fixtures in the facility are missing lens covers including most of the
outdoor light fixtures.

Power and data appeared to be adequate but sparse. Outlets were installed at
approximately 48 inches above the finish floor, and did not appear to be causing
problems. There was minimal use of extension cords indicating that the outlets were
either in the correct locations, or that the staff has adapted to the locations.

Overall the building appears to have a few weaknesses. There are many missing lenses
on light fixtures. This is a sign that the lighting is not adequate enough and that the staff
feels more light is available without the lenses. These lenses provide a function, to direct
the light, around the space. Without these lenses, this is not possible. The light levels in
these areas should be reviewed and lighting upgrades made. Outdoor lighting can also be
better accomplished by the use of HID type lamps. This type of lamp produces more
“light” per watt and also has a longer lamp life than the incandescent fixtures currently
installed. This HID style fixtures are currently installed on storage building - 10.

Snow Removal Equipment Storage Building 14
                                                                  This is a converted
                                                                  aircraft hangar that is
                                                                  used for cold storage.
                                                                  The hangar door was
                                                                  modified to become a
                                                                  sealed wall.      It is
                                                                  presently used to store
                                                                  mostly turf mowing
                                                                  equipment and materials.
                                                                  The condition is fair to
                                                                  good. Galvanized metal
                                                                  structures can perform
                                                                  for many years before
                                                                  problems arise. There
                                                                  are no apparent leaks or
other issues.

Mechanical Evaluation

No heating, ventilation or plumbing required

Electrical Evaluation

This building electrical system included a 100 ampere 120/240 volt single phase service.
The panelboard was in good condition and had space for expansion if needed.

Incandescent lamps were used for both the indoor and outside building mounted lighting.
Lamp styles were changed and the fixture lenses removed to achieve a better light level,
but there is still a minimal light level inside the facility.

Power outlets seemed to be adequate for the facility. The building utilized non-GFCI
outlets throughout. The use of ground fault circuit interrupter outlets for this space would
be an added safety precaution for the staff. Again the lighting level for the building
should be reviewed for the type tasks conducted in the space. Outdoor lighting should be
reviewed and HID lighting utilized for the same reasons as stated for the maintenance
shop - building 12.

Snow Removal Equipment Storage Building 16
                                                                    This is the newest of
                                                                    the storage buildings.
                                                                    It is heated and lighted
                                                                    and is the location for
                                                                    heated sand storage.
                                                                    The building is in
                                                                    good condition with
                                                                    minor paint coating
                                                                    deterioration. It also
                                                                    serves as maintenance
                                                                    bays for the vehicles
                                                                    stored within it, and
                                                                    spare parts storage for
                                                                    airfield lighting.

While the building itself is in good condition, there are some general issues that don’t
allow the most efficient use. There are only two doors located adjacent to each other and
operators have to turn heavy equipment and work around parked vehicles to gain access
to sand and overnight storage. The building is also placed at an angle that doesn’t allow a
straight in approach due to the proximity of building 12.

Mechanical Evaluation

The mechanical heating system for the building was infrared tube heat. These systems
appear to be in fair to good condition with no complaints from the personnel. The heating
system does not appear to be original equipment, and based on ASHRAE life expectancy
these systems should have some years left in them.

The maintenance shop appears to have no ventilation system. Based on the new IMC and
IBC building codes and repair shop is required to have an exhaust system capable of
removing 1.5 cfm/sq. ft. of air and replaced with makeup air. This is a safety issue so
that a worker is not overcome by carbon monoxide while working on a vehicle. We
would recommend installing an exhaust system with a fresh air makeup louver and
controlling it with a carbon monoxide sensor.

Electrical Evaluation

The building electrical system consists of a 225 ampere, 120/240 volt single phase
service. The electrical equipment appeared to be in good condition.

The building lighting appeared adequate for the space. Fluorescent lighting was used for
the indoor lighting and HID lighting was used for outdoor area lighting.

Power outlets again appeared adequate for the facility. This building also utilized non-
GFCI outlets throughout. The use of ground fault circuit interrupter outlets for this space
would also be an added safety precaution for the staff.

Snow Removal Equipment Storage Building 10
This is the third heated storage
building for snow removal
equipment.        Servicing of
equipment is also preformed in
this building for the equipment
stored there. It is close to the
same age as the shop with
similar painted metal panels.

The building is in good
condition with no apparent
structural issues. The shortfalls
are minor. Some of the doors
are just wide enough to allow
equipment to access. With one wall being consisting of doors, if many are opened at one
time, much heat will escape to the atmosphere.

Mechanical Evaluation

The mechanical heating system for the building was infrared tube heat. These systems
appear to be in fair to good condition with no complaints from the personnel. The heating
system does not appear to be original equipment, and based on ASHRAE life expectancy
these systems should have some substantial years left in them.

The Snow Removal Equipment Storage appears to have no ventilation system. Based on
the new IMC and IBC building codes and repair shop is required to have an exhaust
system capable of removing 1.5 cfm/sq. ft. of air and replaced with makeup air. This is a
safety issue so that a worker is not overcome by carbon monoxide while working on a
vehicle. We would recommend installing an exhaust system with a fresh air makeup
louver and controlling it with a carbon monoxide sensor.

Electrical Evaluation

This building electrical system consisted of a 100 ampere, 120/240 volt single phase
system. The equipment appeared to be in good condition.

The building lighting appeared to be in good condition and was adequate for the tasks in
the space. The outdoor lighting utilized HID lights and appeared to also be in good

Power outlets again appeared adequate for the facility. This building also utilized non-
GFCI outlets throughout. The use of ground fault circuit interrupter outlets for this space
would also be an added safety precaution for the staff.

North Side Alert Hangars and Office
                                                               These are buildings that
                                                               were acquired from the SD
                                                               Air National Guard when
                                                               their status of providing air
                                                               to air intercept was
                                                               discontinued. There are
                                                               four (4) of them and they
                                                               are relatively big buildings
                                                               made of galvanized metal
                                                               panels and roof materials.
                                                               The main door is a bi-fold
                                                               metal door that is raised by
                                                               mechanical means lifting
                                                               up on the bottom chord.

The ceilings are very high compared to the width of the building. They were designed to
hold fighter jet aircraft. Heating is available with units installed near the ceiling, but the
buildings appear to be poorly insulated. The general condition appears to be fair to good.

As such, leasing them out will be difficult because of door width and heating challenges
and lack of water or sewer to these buildings. The concrete apron in front is in fair to
poor condition. The other support building that is associated with the hangars is the pilot
alert barracks. This is a masonry building where pilots sitting alert were housed. This
building sits on the land side or non secured side of the airfield. Exact age of the
buildings is not known, but most likely they were constructed in the 1950’s as a part of
the cold war defense policy.

Mechanical Evaluation

The mechanical heating system for the building includes four gas fired unit heaters.
These systems appear to be in fair condition. The building heating systems were not
being used and we didn’t think they are operated very much. The roofs of the buildings
are very high and the amount of space to heat would make heating expensive. The
heaters appear to be original equipment and would be over 50 years old. These units have
lasted there expected life and replacement would not be required if the spaces are not
being heated.

Electrical Evaluation

These building appeared to be in good electrical condition. Multiple sources of power
were present. Building lighting was done using fluorescent lighting and is adequate for a
hanger. Telephone lines were also installed in the building.

General Aviation Tee Hangars
This is a group of nested
tee hangars located in the
general aviation portion of
the airport behind Business
Aviation’s facility. There
are five hangars per side
for a total of 10. They are
supported by a bituminous
pavement up to the doors.
A few years ago, the inside
of the hangars were also
paved with bituminous
pavement.        They are
unheated and unventilated.
There is power for lights and door operation.

The hangars are made of galvanized metal panels and roofing. Access is gained with a
man door installed in the hangar door. They are in fair condition and have met the criteria
for expected life.

Mechanical Evaluation

Cold storage, no HVAC or plumbing required.

Electrical Evaluation

The building electrical system was minimal. Lighting and power to each space was
minimal consisting of poor lighting and minimal power. There is no outdoor area
lighting around or on the buildings for security.

These buildings are in need of the most improvement of the buildings reviewed. Lighting
and power in the spaces should be improved. In addition to this there should be a review
for the need for area lighting. There is no area lighting currently installed and this could
become a safety and loss prevention issue in the future.

Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority                            Appendix D
                                         LAND USE COMPATIBILITY EVALUATION
Appendix D

Sioux Falls Regional Airport is situated in Sioux Falls, South Dakota. It provides
commercial air service, air cargo, air ambulance, and general aviation services for
people within the community.

Ensuring that Sioux Falls Regional Airport is an integral part of the local economy
and the national aviation system requires an evaluation of the surrounding land
uses and the local policies that guide land use decisions. Land use compatibility is-
sues can restrict airports from achieving their potential by allowing noise-sensitive
or other non-compatible land uses to encroach on the airport. The following sections
will provide an overview of the existing land use control mechanisms for the airport
area, discuss potential alternatives, and provide recommendations for promoting
future land use compatibility.



Airport land use compatibility guidance is provided by the Federal Aviation Ad-
ministration (FAA) primarily in Code of Federal Regulation (CFR) Volume 14, Part
150. This section outlines the methodology for performing Part 150 Noise Compati-
bility Studies which are used by airports to identify areas adversely impacted by
aircraft noise. Noise compatibility studies are federally funded, voluntary studies
that result in a plan to mitigate and prevent noise impacts on noise-sensitive land
uses. A Part 150 study may be used to identify projects which are eligible for fund-
ing from the Airport Improvement Program (AIP) noise set-aside. Only projects
identified within a five-year forecast are eligible for funding through the program.

The attached Exhibit 1 from Appendix A of 14 CFR Part 150 outlines compatible
land uses in relation to noise exposure contours. The FAA guidelines state that
residential development, including standard construction (residential construction
without acoustic treatment), mobile homes, and transient lodging are all incompati-
ble with noise above 65 DNL. Homes of standard construction and transient lodg-
ing may be considered compatible where local communities have determined these
uses are permissible; however, sound insulation methods are recommended.
Schools and other public use facilities are also generally considered to be incompati-
ble with noise exposure above 65 DNL. As with residential development, communi-
ties can permit these uses to be acceptable with appropriate sound insulation meas-

Examples of incompatible land uses at various noise levels include outdoor music
venues and amphitheatres at levels exceeding 65 DNL; zoos and nature exhibits
above 70 DNL; and hospitals, nursing homes, places of worship, auditoriums, con-
cert halls, livestock breeding, amusement parks, resorts, and camps above 75 DNL.

Limiting the development of these noise-sensitive land uses can help to ensure air-
port land use compatibility in terms of noise. In addition to noise compatibility,
particular land uses can also pose safety issues for airport operations.

Wildlife Attractants

The FAA recognizes that certain land uses have the potential to attract hazardous
wildlife on or near public-use airports. The FAA provides guidance for wildlife at-
tractants in Advisory Circular 150/5200-33A. Wildlife attractants increase the risk
of animal strikes, which present serious aviation safety issues for airports. Guid-
ance from the FAA indicates that land uses determined to be hazardous wildlife at-
tractants should be avoided, eliminated, or mitigated to be at least 10,000 feet from
the nearest airport operations area for airports that serve turbine-powered aircraft,
such as Sioux Falls Regional Airport. Land uses which are considered to be hazard-
ous wildlife attractants as new land uses include the following:


                                                                   Yearly Day-Night Average Sound Level (DNL) in Decibels
                                 LAND USE                            Below                                                           Over
                                                                      65          65-70       70-75        75-80        80-85         85
                     Residential, other than mobile                                      1           1
                      homes and transient lodgings                      Y            N           N            N            N           N
                     Mobile home parks                                  Y            N           N            N            N           N
                                                                                         1           1            1
                     Transient lodgings                                 Y            N           N            N            N           N
                     PUBLIC USE
                                                                                         1           1
                     Schools                                            Y            N           N            N            N           N
                     Hospitals and nursing homes                        Y           25           30           N            N           N
                     Churches, auditoriums, and
                      concert halls                                     Y           25           30           N            N           N
                     Government services                                Y            Y           25          30            N           N
                                                                                                     2            3            4           4
                     Transportation                                     Y            Y           Y            Y            Y           Y
                                                                                                     2            3            4
                     Parking                                            Y            Y           Y            Y            Y           N
                     COMMERCIAL USE
                     Offices, business and professional                 Y            Y           25          30            N           N
                     Wholesale and retail-building materials,                                        2            3            4
                      hardware and farm equipment                       Y            Y           Y            Y            Y           N
                     Retail trade-general                               Y            Y           25          30            N           N
                                                                                                     2            3            4
                     Utilities                                          Y            Y           Y            Y            Y           N
                     Communication                                      Y            Y           25          30            N           N
                     MANUFACTURING AND
                                                                                                     2            3            4
                     Manufacturing, general                             Y            Y           Y            Y            Y           N
                     Photographic and optical                           Y            Y           25          30            N           N
                     Agriculture (except livestock)                                      6           7            8            8           8
                      and forestry                                      Y            Y           Y            Y            Y           Y
                                                                                         6           7
                     Livestock farming and breeding                     Y            Y           Y            N            N           N
                     Mining and fishing, resource
                      production and extraction                         Y            Y           Y            Y            Y           Y
                     Outdoor sports arenas and                                           5           5
                      spectator sports                                  Y            Y           Y            N            N           N
                     Outdoor music shells,
                      amphitheaters                                     Y            N           N            N            N           N
                     Nature exhibits and zoos                           Y            Y           N            N            N           N
                     Amusements, parks, resorts,
                      and camps                                         Y            Y           Y            N            N           N
                     Golf courses, riding stables, and
                      water recreation                                  Y            Y           25          30            N           N

                   The designations contained in this table do not constitute a federal determination that any use of land covered by the
                   program is acceptable under federal, state, or local law. The responsibility for determining the acceptable and permissible
                   land uses and the relationship between specific properties and specific noise contours rests with the local authorities. FAA
                   determinations under Part 150 are not intended to substitute federally-determined land uses for those
                   determined to be appropriate by local authorities in response to locally-determined needs and
                   values in achieving noise compatible land uses.
                   See other side for notes and key to table.

                                                                                                                             Exhibit 1
                                                                                                  LAND USE COMPATIBILITY GUIDELINES

                   Y (Yes)      Land Use and related structures compatible without restrictions.

                   N (No)       Land Use and related structures are not compatible and should be prohibited.

                   NLR          Noise Level Reduction (outdoor-to-indoor) to be achieved through incorporation
                                of noise attenuation into the design and construction of the structure.

                   25, 30, 35   Land Use and related structures generally compatible; measures to achieve NLR
                                of 25, 30, or 35 dB must be incorporated into design and construction of structure.

                   1   Where the community determines that residential or school uses must be allowed, measures
                       to achieve outdoor-to-indoor Noise Level Reduction (NLR) of at least 25 dB and 30 dB,
                       respectively, should be incorporated into building codes and be considered in individual
                       approvals. Normal residential construction can be expected to provide a NLR of 20 dB; thus,
                       the reduction requirements are often stated as 5, 10, or 15 dB over standard construction and
                       normally assume mechanical ventilation and closed windows year round. However, the use
                       of NLR criteria will not eliminate outdoor noise problems.

                   2   Measures to achieve NLR of 25 dB must be incorporated into the design and construction of
                       portions of these buildings where the public is received, office areas, noise-sensitive areas,
                       or where the normal noise level is low.

                   3   Measures to achieve NLR of 30 dB must be incorporated into the design and construction of
                       portions of these buildings where the public is received, office areas, noise-sensitive areas,
                       or where the normal noise level is low.

                   4   Measures to achieve NLR of 35 dB must be incorporated into the design and construction of
                       portions of these buildings where the public is received, office areas, noise-sensitive areas,
                       or where the normal noise level is low.

                   5   Land use compatible provided special sound reinforcement systems are installed.

                   6   Residential buildings require a NLR of 25.

                   7   Residential buildings require a NLR of 30.

                   8   Residential buildings not permitted.

                       Source: 14 CFR Part 150, Appendix A, Table 1.

                                                                                                   Exhibit 1 (Continued)
                                                                                  LAND USE COMPATIBILITY GUIDELINES
   •   Waste disposal operations
   •   Water management facilities
   •   Wetlands
   •   Dredge spoil containment areas
   •   Agricultural activities
   •   Golf courses

AC 150/5200-33A provides specific guidance for each of these land uses and steps
that can be taken to decrease hazardous situations and to mitigate existing land
uses. Typically, the presence of water makes these land uses hazardous as wildlife,
particularly birds, are drawn to water.


The height of structures can also pose aviation safety issues for airports. The FAA
has adopted Code of Federal Regulations Title 14, Part 77 to provide guidance for
regulating the height of structures in relation to the navigable airspace near air-
ports. Part 77 describes the methodology for developing what are termed imaginary
surfaces. The dimensions of these surfaces vary depending on the type and use of
the airport. A discussion of the Part 77 surfaces for Sioux Falls Regional Airport
can be found in Chapter Five of the Sioux Falls Regional Airport Master Plan. The
City of Sioux Falls has adopted an overlay zone to protect against the construction
of structures which could affect the navigable airspace around Sioux Falls Regional
Airport. The text for this zoning overlay can be found as an attachment to this re-
port (Appendix E).

Land use management techniques that address these compatibility issues will be
evaluated in the following sections. Recommendations will be made to best promote
land use compatibility for the Sioux Falls Regional Airport environs.


Municipalities are given the authority to control land uses in a number of ways, in-
cluding zoning, long range planning, building codes, and subdivision regulations.
The following sections will address each of these techniques in relation to develop-
ment near Sioux Falls Regional Airport.


Sioux Falls Regional Airport is surrounded by a variety of land uses. As shown on
the aerial photograph in Exhibit 2, much of the areas surrounding the airport are


                                                                             Diversion Channel                                                                               BNSF Railroad
                                                                                                                                                            Minnesota Ave.

                                                                                                                  Hangar St.

                                                                                                                               Jaycee Ln.
                                                                                                        Or                                                                                                             LEGEND
                                                                                                             r.                                                                                                      2025 DNL Noise Contour
                                                                       Dr                                                                                                                                            Noise Sensitive Area

                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Undeveloped Area

                                                           al G






                                     NORTH                                                                                                                      r

                                                                                                                                                                                 Elmwood Municipal Golf Course

                   0          1200           2400

                          SCALE IN FEET

                       PHOTO DATE: 4-22-06

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       Exhibit 2
                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2025 AIRCRAFT NOISE EXPOSURE
developed with industrial and recreational uses. To the west and south of the air-
port there are several manufacturing and warehouse facilities. Adjacent to the air-
port on the southeast is a golf course owned by the City of Sioux Falls. As previ-
ously stated, the FAA considers golf courses to be wildlife attractants, which can
pose safety issues for the airport. In particular, the large grassy areas and open wa-
ter found on golf courses are attractive to Canadian geese and some species of gulls.
There are no water features located along the centerline of Runway 3-21 which
would be attractive to birds.

The guidance specifically states that new golf courses should not be constructed
within 10,000 feet of airport operations areas. However, the FAA recommends that
existing golf courses must develop a program to reduce the attractiveness of the
sites to species that are hazardous to aviation safety.

The areas north and northwest are primarily undeveloped and include a few scat-
tered dwellings. The area southeast of the airport is developed with light-
industrial, commercial, and residential uses.

Encroachment of non-compatible uses can present problems for the future develop-
ment of an airport. Sioux Falls Regional Airport is bounded on three sides by the
Big Sioux River and associated diversion channel. These features help to create a
buffer to segregate new noise-sensitive uses from the airport and limit their con-
struction in areas which could be impacted by noise.

Regulating land uses near an airport should be done in a manner that prevents
noise-sensitive land uses from being constructed. This is of particular importance
for areas which are currently undeveloped as they could be developed with noise-
sensitive development in the absence of appropriate land use management tech-
niques. Exhibit 2 identifies those undeveloped areas located within the projected
2025 noise exposure contours. These areas are currently planned or zoned for uses
which are considered compatible with airport operations. A detailed discussion of
the noise exposure contours can be found on pages 5-7 – 5-12 of the Sioux Falls Re-
gional Airport Master Plan. These areas are of primary concern when considering
future development.


As discussed in Chapter Five, there are several dwellings southwest of the airport
currently located within the 65 DNL noise contour. Due to forecast operational
changes, these dwellings are not impacted by the 2025 noise exposure contours. As
indicated on Exhibit 2, there are multiple dwelling units located southeast of the
airport within the projected 2025 65 DNL noise contour. As previously discussed,
65 DNL is the federal threshold for noise compatibility for residential land uses.
Presently, the need for a Part 150 study is not justified (since these properties do not

fall within the near term 65 DNL noise contour). Changes in operations, or an in-
crease in louder aircraft operations, could trigger the need for more thorough noise
evaluation. The following paragraphs explain the expenditure programs available
under the AIP program.

Property Acquisition

Acquisition and clearance of noise-sensitive land uses impacted by high noise levels
is one method of ensuring noise compatibility around an airport. The intent of ac-
quisition is to remove residents from severely noise-impacted areas and to prevent
incompatible uses from being developed near the airport. This can be an effective
way to ensure complete noise compatibility around an airport, although it can be
very expensive. This program does not appear to be applicable to existing or pro-
jected conditions in the vicinity of Sioux Falls Regional Airport.

Sound Insulation

Dwellings and other noise-sensitive buildings can be acoustically treated, or sound-
insulated, to reduce interior noise levels. Sound insulation typically can improve
the outdoor-to-indoor noise level reduction of a structure by five to ten decibels.
Sound insulation may involve thermal insulation and weatherproofing, the baffling
of vents, the installation of solid-core wood doors or foam-core steel doors, the instal-
lation of acoustical windows with special noise attenuation characteristics, the in-
stallation of new interior walls along existing walls, and the installation and use of
year-round air conditioning and ventilation systems.

The FAA will assist in funding sound insulation of noise-sensitive buildings within
the 65 DNL contour if the buildings cannot achieve an outdoor-to-indoor noise level
reduction of 20 decibels or more. This program does not appear to be applicable to
the Sioux Falls Regional Airport environs.

Noise and Avigation Easements

Noise and avigation easements give an airport the right to direct aircraft over prop-
erty, creating related annoyances. These easements run with the land and serve as
a limited means of notifying prospective property owners of overflights and the po-
tential impact of airport noise. The purchase of noise and avigation easements
within the runway approaches and 65 DNL is eligible for federal funding assistance
through the noise set-aside of the Airport Improvement Program. The Sioux Falls
Regional Airport Authority has acquired avigation easements in the past for each of
the runway approach areas as noted on the Airport Layout Plan.


Per FAA guidance, the airport should work with the adjacent golf course to develop
a program to continually monitor for animal species that are hazardous to aviation
safety. If hazardous wildlife is detected, corrective actions should be immediately
implemented. Currently, the golf course does not have any water features aligned
with the Runway 3-21 centerline. The golf course and airport should continue to
restrict bird hazards in the runway approach areas.

As previously discussed, a majority of the existing land uses near the airport are
compatible with airport operations. Efforts should be made to maintain the existing
development pattern with the techniques discussed later in this appendix. How-
ever, there are a number of residential properties within the forecast 2025 noise ex-
posure contours. Although noise levels at these properties are not above 65 DNL
currently, noise exposure could increase as airport operations increase. Aircraft
noise should be evaluated periodically to determine if noise is a problem for these
properties. If a problem is identified, a Part 150 study could be undertaken to ana-
lyze the noise conditions and to develop a strategy for reducing or minimizing im-
pacts. This could include noise measurements to validate the noise exposure con-
tours and community involvement efforts to increase participation in the develop-
ment of noise reduction strategies. The feasibility of property acquisition, sound in-
sulation, and noise and avigation easements would be fully evaluated as part of the
Part 150 study.


The municipal zoning ordinance is the primary mechanism through which a local
government controls land development. Land use jurisdiction in the area surround-
ing the airport is primarily governed by the City of Sioux Falls. There are parcels
currently located outside the Sioux Falls city limits which are adjacent to the air-
port property. These areas are subject to the joint Sioux Falls/Minnehaha County
Zoning Ordinance. Table A presents each of the zoning districts established by the
City of Sioux Falls and within the joint zoning ordinance. Uses listed in the table
are those which, by Part 150, AC 150/5200-33A, or Part 77 would be considered non-
compatible if located within the noise exposure contours, within 10,000 feet of an
airport operations area, or would penetrate the Part 77 surfaces. Allowing these
uses to be constructed near the airport could present land use compatibility issues
for the airport and safety concerns for airport users.

Zoning Ordinance Summary
City of Sioux Falls

                              Part 150 Compatibility Issues              AC 150/5200-33A        Part 77
                       Permitted                                          Compatibility
        Zone              Uses              Conditional Uses                   Issues
Agricultural, AG     Single-family   Elementary or high school, non-     Sanitary landfill,   Antenna sup-
                     farm dwell-     farm dwelling, family day care,     agriculture          port struc-
                     ing, church     additional farm dwelling                                 ture, tele-
                                                                                              tions tower,
Rural Residential,   Single-family   Church, elementary and high         Private lake         Antenna sup-
RR                   detached        schools, dwelling units for mem-                         port struc-
                     dwelling        bers of religious orders, family                         ture
                                     day care, group home, nursing
Residential, RS-1    Single-family   Churches, elementary and high       Private lake         Antenna sup-
                     detached        schools, family day care, group                          port struc-
                     dwellings       home, nursing home, dwellings                            ture
                                     for members of religious orders,
                                     day care canter, assisted living
Residential, RS-2    Single-family   Churches, elementary and high       Private lake         Antenna sup-
                     detached        schools, family day care, group                          port struc-
                                     home, nursing home, dwellings                            ture
                                     for members of religious orders,
                                     dwelling, single-family attached,
                                     Assisted living center, day care

TABLE A (Continued)
Zoning Ordinance Summary
City of Sioux Falls

                                  Part 150 Compatibility Issues              AC 150/5200-33A     Part 77
                          Permitted                                           Compatibility
       Zone                  Uses                Conditional Uses                  Issues
Residential, RD         Single-family    Churches, elementary and high       Private lake      Antenna sup-
                        detached         schools, family day care, multi-                      port struc-
                        dwelling, sin-   ple dwelling, single-family at-                       ture
                        gle-family       tached dwelling, dwellings for
                        attached         members of religious orders,
                        dwelling         nursing home, group home, day
                                         care center, assisted living cen-
Residential District,   Single-family    Group home, family day care,        Private lake      Antenna sup-
RA-1                    detached         boarding or rooming house,                            port struc-
                        dwelling, sin-   dwellings for members of reli-                        ture, tele-
                        gle-family       gious orders, day care center                         communica-
                        attached                                                               tions tower
                        and high
                        schools, nurs-
                        ing home,
                        church, as-
                        sisted living
Residential District,   Single-family    Group home, family day care,        Private lake      Antenna sup-
RA-2                    detached         day care center                                       port struc-
                        dwelling, sin-                                                         ture, tele-
                        gle-family                                                             communica-
                        attached                                                               tions tower
                        and high
                        schools, nurs-
                        ing home,
                        church, as-
                        sisted living
Residential district,   Single-family    Churches, elementary or high        Private lake      Antenna sup-
MH                      detached         schools, family day care, day                         port struc-
                        manufactured care center, single-family de-                            ture
                        home             tached dwelling
General Office, O       Elementary       Family day care, multiple dwell-    Private lake      Antenna sup-
                        and high         ing, single-family attached                           port struc-
                        school,          dwelling, college or post high                        ture, broad-
                        church, sin-     school, group home, multiple                          cast tower,
                        gle-family       dwelling, boarding or rooming                         telecommu-
                        detached         house, day care center, dwellings                     nications
                        dwelling         for members of religious orders                       tower

TABLE A (Continued)
Zoning Ordinance Summary
City of Sioux Falls

                                    Part 150 Compatibility Issues                AC 150/5200-33A         Part 77
                            Permitted                                             Compatibility
         Zone                  Uses                Conditional Uses                    Issues
Institutional District,   Nursing          College or post high school, hos-     Private lake         Antenna sup-
S                         home, ele-       pital, group home, family day                              port struc-
                          mentary or       care, single-family attached                               ture, broad-
                          high school,     dwelling, multiple dwelling,                               cast tower,
                          church, as-      Boarding or rooming house, Day                             telecommuni-
                          sisted living    care center, Dwellings for mem-                            cations tower
                          center           bers of religious orders
Neighborhood              None             Day care center, churches             None                 None
Commercial, C-1
General Commercial,       Drive-in          Family day care, hotel/motel,        Private lake         Antenna sup-
C-2                       theatre           group home, college or post high                          port struc-
                                            school, day care center,                                  ture, broad-
                                            churches, multiple dwelling                               cast tower,
                                                                                                      cations tower
Central Business          Hotel/motel,      Second floor dwellings, family       Private lake         Antenna sup-
District, C-3             churches,         day care, rooming/boarding                                port struc-
                                            house, group home, college or                             ture, broad-
                                            post high school, day care center,                        cast tower,
                                                                                                      cations tower
Planned Commercial        Group home,       Hotel/motel, churches, day care      Private lake         Antenna sup-
District, C-4             college or post   center                                                    port struc-
                          high school                                                                 ture, broad-
                                                                                                      cast tower,
                                                                                                      cations tower
Light Industrial          None              Day care center                      Private lake         Antenna sup-
District, I-1                                                                                         port struc-
                                                                                                      ture, broad-
                                                                                                      cast tower,
                                                                                                      cations tower
General Industrial,       None              None                                 Sanitary landfill,   Antenna sup-
I-2                                                                              private lake         port struc-
                                                                                                      ture, broad-
                                                                                                      cast tower,
                                                                                                      cations tower
Recreation/ Conser-       None              None                                 Golf course, pri-    Antenna sup-
vation District, RC                                                              vate lake            port struc-
                                                                                                      ture, broad-
                                                                                                      cast tower,
                                                                                                      cations tower
Planned Unit Devel-       As stated         As stated within the Final Plan      As stated within     As stated in
opment, PD                within the                                             the Final Plan       the Final Plan
                          Final Plan


The table includes all zoning districts that can be applied to the properties sur-
rounding the airport. It should be noted that there are a number of compatible land
uses that are allowable in each of these zoning districts. The listed land uses are
only those considered to be non-compatible with airport operations.

Exhibit 3 presents the existing zoning classifications for the parcels surrounding
the airport and the projected 2025 aircraft noise exposure contours for the airport.
As indicated on the exhibit, there are areas within the 65 DNL noise contour that
are zoned for Recreation/Conservation, Light Industrial, General Commercial, Resi-
dential District, and Agricultural land uses.

Within the Recreation/Conservation district, the land uses which pose compatibility
issues include golf courses, private lakes, antenna support structures, broadcast
towers, and telecommunications towers. No noise-sensitive land uses are allowed in
this district. Non-compatible land uses permissible in the Light Industrial district
include day care centers, private lakes, antenna support structures, broadcast tow-
ers, and telecommunications towers. Within the General Commercial district,
drive-in theatres, family day care centers, hotels and motels, group homes, colleges,
day care centers, churches, multiple dwellings, private lakes, antenna support
structures, broadcast towers, and telecommunications towers could pose compatibil-
ity issues. Non-compatible uses permitted in the Residential District include single-
family attached and detached dwellings, churches, elementary and high schools,
family day care centers, multiple dwellings, dwellings for members of religious or-
ders, nursing homes, group homes, day care centers, assisted living centers, private
lakes, and antenna support structures. The following uses permitted in the Agri-
cultural district could pose compatibility issues for the airport: single-family farm
dwellings, churches, elementary or high schools, non-farm dwellings, family day ca-
res, additional farm dwellings, sanitary landfills, the farming of agricultural crops,
antenna support structures, telecommunications towers, and broadcast towers.
Private lakes have been included as non-compatible uses as they have similar char-
acteristics to the land uses identified in AC 150/5200-33A as being a wildlife attrac-

In a broader view, within the City of Sioux Falls zoning ordinance itself, there is no
zoning district which specifically relates to airports and their associated activities.
Currently, airports are a conditional use within the Agricultural zoning district
which requires that any land use proposal at the airport must be granted a condi-
tional use permit prior to approval. This is cumbersome for the airport and results
in delays for on-airport projects. A revised zoning district would allow the City to
more efficiently plan and develop land uses within the airport boundary.

As stated previously, the zoning ordinance does include an overlay zone which regu-
lates the height of structures in relation to the Part 77 imaginary surfaces. A dis-


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           E FALLS P
                                                                      E 58TH ST


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            E ELM
                                                                                              E 56T
                                 N 4TH AVE                                                                                                    N 4TH AVE                                                                                                                                                          N 4TH AVE

                                                                                                                                                                                                        E BENSON RD

                                                                                                                                                                                                                           E 40TH ST N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    N 3RD AVE                                                         R
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                RT                                             N

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         E BIRCH ST

                                          E HINKS LN
                                                                                  N 4TH AVE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          NN                                                      VE                                                                                                           N 2ND AVE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         N 2ND AVE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                E WALNUT ST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                R          SI
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              D       E

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              E MCCLELLAN ST R
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       N 1ST AVE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                AV

                                                                                  N 4TH AVE                                                  N 2ND AVE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  N 1ST AVE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         N 1ST AVE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               N 1ST AVE
                   N FURNITURE CIR        E HINKS CIR                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        N PHILLIPS AVE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              N PHILLIPS AVE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             W WALNUT ST

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     W BENNETT ST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            W RUSSELL ST
                                                                                                                                                                                      W WEATHER LN
                                                                                                      N MINNESOTA AVE
                                                                                                                                                          N                                                           N JOHN ORR DR

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         BROOKINGS ST

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         W HANGER ST
                                                                                                                                                                        OR                                                                                                          LN
                                                                                                                                                                             R                                                                                                 EE
                                                                                                                              DR                                                 DR                                                                                   A   YC
                                                                                                                          D                                                                                                                                        NJ

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            W BLACKHAWK ST


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       W B RO

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    MCCLELLAN S T
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  W MCCL EL LA N ST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 N SPRING AVE


                                                                                                       W NATIO
                                                                                                                                                                                                                          N AVIATION AVE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           N DULUTH AVE                                                                                                    Agriculture

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              W BENNETT ST

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      W BAILEY ST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Rural Residential

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        W RICE ST
                               TCH                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 A
                        N DI                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           AV                                                                                                                                                  Residential (RS-1)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Residential (RS-2)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    NF A                                                                                                    N

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                VE                                                                                                            AV                                                                                                                                                           Residential (RD)

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       N                                         N                                E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            E                                         C                                                                                                                                               N PRAIRIEResidential (RA-1)
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        P RAIRIE AVE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     VE                                   AV

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             N                 E                                                                                                                                                                           Residential (RA-2)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     AV                                                                                                                                                    N WALTS Manufactured Housing
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                             WALTS AVE






                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       AV                                                                                                                                                                                                  Institutional

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Neighborhood Commercial

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               H                                      N
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   AV                                     F                                                                                                                                                                                                                General Commercial
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        E                                        E
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Central Business District

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           W RUSSELL ST

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    W BAILEY ST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     70                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    Planned Commercial

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      N COVELL AV

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Light Industrial


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      DOW RUMMEL



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 DU                                                                                                                                                                                                                                        General Industrial


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    75                                                                                                ST


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       W MULBERRY ST


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                AL                                                                                                                                                         E AVE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      N LAKE AV E

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Design Review Overlay

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               N                                        E



                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           Planned Development


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         E                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 UNZONED
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       N WEST AVE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           County Commercial
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          75                                                        N




                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     N LYNDALE AVE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    W RICE ST

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    W BAILEY ST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     N HOLLY AVE
                                                        W 60TH ST N

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  N ELMWOOD A

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 W MCCLELLAN ST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          W BROOKINGS ST
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          N LINCOLN AVE
                                                                                                                                                                                                     W BENSON RD

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          N GARFIELD AVE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  N WILLIAMS AVE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      N KIWANIS A

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       L L ST
                                                                                                                                                          N WESTPORT AVE

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       W BAILEY ST
                                                                                                                               W 54TH ST N

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               0                  1200                       2400

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      N HUDSON A

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              SCALE IN FEET
                                                                                                                                                               N LONGVIEW AVE                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         N HARLEM AV

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     Exhibit 3
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         2025 AIRCRAFT NOISE
                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      EXPOSURE WITH ZONING
cussion of Part 77 surfaces can be found on Pages 5-13 – 5-14 of the Sioux Falls Re-
gional Airport Master Plan.


The City of Sioux Falls should consider maintaining the existing zoning designa-
tions for the parcels surrounding the airport. For those parcels zoned Recrea-
tion/Conservation, Light Industrial, Residential, Agriculture, and General Commer-
cial, the city should be aware that non-compatible uses are allowed within those
districts and actions should be taken to prevent such land uses from being devel-

Consideration could be given to adopting an overlay zone based on the long range
noise contours. The overlay zone could limit the development of non-compatible
land uses near the airport by prohibiting the land uses identified in Table 1 from
being developed within the 65 DNL noise contour.

Additionally, the City of Sioux Falls should consider adopting a new zoning district
specifically for the airport. Creating a separate zoning district for the airport would
more clearly define the allowable uses for this property and relieve the airport from
the additional permitting steps currently required. A copy of the proposed zoning
district amendment can be found in Appendix E.


Communities use long range planning to define their vision for development of land,
municipal facilities, and transportation systems. The following sections will provide
an overview of the comprehensive land use plan and transportation plan for the
City of Sioux Falls.

Comprehensive Plan

A community’s comprehensive plan establishes policies for the development and
improvement of the community in the future. It provides the basis for the local zon-
ing ordinance, which contains the regulations that govern the use and development
of land. The comprehensive plan has two components, text and map. The text of
the plan outlines the policies guiding future development within the community,
while the map identifies the type and location of future development.

The City of Sioux Falls adopted the Year 2015 Comprehensive Development Plan in
2003 to guide the future development of the community. The plan evaluates the ex-
isting infrastructure, demographics, neighborhoods and municipal facilities, and

growth potential, and ultimately provides a vision for the future development of the
City of Sioux Falls. The following sections present those portions of the City of
Sioux Falls Year 2015 Comprehensive Development Plan which pertain to aircraft
noise compatibility.

Within the growth analysis section of the comprehensive plan, airport land use
compatibility is identified as an environmental constraint. The following text from
the plan indicates that the City of Sioux Falls understands the impact that airport
noise can have on land development and that steps need to be taken to prevent
noise impacts:

      “Airport noise can affect land development decisions and is a consideration
      for future development patterns.”

Within the comprehensive plan the City of Sioux Falls is subdivided into smaller
growth areas for a detailed discussion of planning issues and development consid-
erations. The area northwest of the airport is located within the Northwest Growth
Area. This section of the plan provides an overview of the type of development en-
visioned for this portion of the community. Following are excerpts from the Plan-
ning Issues and Development Considerations for the Northwest Growth Area.

    Planning Issues

    There is the potential for conflict between future commercial and industrial
    uses and two existing residential subdivisions north of the airport. Further
    residential development at this location would be incompatible due to the air-
    port approach zone.

    Development Considerations

    Avoid expansion of the residential subdivisions Martindale Tracts and Skyline
    Heights, located north of the airport. Urban utilities will be required before ex-
    pansion of Reppert’s subdivision occurs.

As stated in the text, the planning issues and development considerations sections
each identify areas which should not be developed due to airport compatibility con-

The second component of a community’s comprehensive plan is the development
map. The map is a graphic depiction of how and where development should occur in
the community. Exhibit 4 illustrates the long range development map for the City
of Sioux Falls overlaid with the 2025 noise exposure contours.

As indicated on the map, much of the area north and west of the airport is planned
for industrial and park or open space land uses. According to Part 150 guidelines,



                                                                                                                                          2025 DNL Noise Contour

                                                                                                                                          Existing City Limits

                                                                                                                                          Drainage & Wetlands

                                                                                                                                          Single Family Residential

                                                                                                                                          Existing Rural Residential

                                                                                                                                          Multi-Family Residential

                                                                                                                                          Industrial/Economic Development


                                                                                                                           RUSSELL ST
                   60TH ST N

                                                                           70                                                             Office/Industrial

                                                                                                                                          Parks & Open Space
                                                                          75                                                              Rivers and Lakes
                                                                                                IN                                        100-Year Floodplain
                                                                                                     ST                                        WEST AVE
                                                                                                       RI               Source: City of Sioux Falls Planning,
                                                                     75                                   AL                    Future Land Use Plan City of Sioux
                                                                                                               AV               Falls and 2015 Growth Areas
                                                                                                                        Map Date: August 22, 2006



                               WESTPORT AVE   0       1200                2400

                                                  SCALE IN FEET

                                                                                                                                                              Exhibit 4
                                                                                                                                        2025 AIRCRAFT NOISE EXPOSURE
                                                                                                                                                WITH FUTURE LAND USE
these land uses are considered to be compatible with airport noise. Southeast of the
airport, there is an area that is currently developed with residential units and
planned for single-family residential development. This area is located within the
2025 noise exposure contours.

Transportation Plan

The City of Sioux Falls has adopted a long range transportation plan to address
transportation issues in the metropolitan area on a 25-year planning horizon. The
document primarily addresses land transportation issues such as streets and high-
ways. There is a brief section that generally addresses aviation systems in the met-
ropolitan area. It identifies the role of each of the airports in the region and also
addresses compatibility concerns for the land surrounding the airport. As stated in
the text:

    Staff should review the master plan when making transportation-related deci-
    sions that may impact the airport as well as continue to have Airport Authority
    representation on the TAC. Issues that should be considered: transportation
    improvements for travelers to and from the airport; the land uses associated
    with the airport, land uses outside of the airport environs and their relation-
    ship to the height limitations, and noise impacts.

The transportation plan provides support for promoting airport land use compatibil-
ity in the areas surrounding the airport.


As indicated in the text portions of the City of Sioux Falls comprehensive plan and
long range transportation plan, the community has a firm understanding of the
consequences of allowing noise-sensitive development near Sioux Falls Regional
Airport. The plans should be used as support to prevent non-compatible develop-
ment near the airport.

The comprehensive plan map shows largely compatible development for the areas
surrounding the airport. The map supports the prohibition of re-zoning properties
to non-compatible land uses. To further support compatible land use planning, the
City of Sioux Falls should consider amending the comprehensive plan to include the
2025 noise exposure contours prepared as part of the 2006 Airport Master Plan for
Sioux Falls Regional Airport.


Subdivision regulations apply in cases where a parcel of land is proposed to be di-
vided into lots or tracts. They are established to ensure the proper arrangement of
streets, adequate and convenient public spaces, efficient movement of traffic, ade-
quate and properly located utilities, access for firefighting apparatus, and the or-
derly and efficient layout and use of land.


Subdivision regulations can be used to specify requirements for airport-compatible
land development by requiring developers to plat and develop land so as to mini-
mize noise impacts or reduce the noise sensitivity of new development. The regula-
tions can also be used to protect the airport proprietor from litigation for noise im-
pacts at a later date. The most common requirement is the dedication of a noise or
avigation easement to the airport proprietor by the land developer as a condition of
development approval. Easements typically authorize overflights of property, with
noise levels attendant to such operations. They can also require developers to in-
corporate noise insulation during construction.

The City of Sioux Falls has adopted subdivision regulations within Appendix A of
the City Ordinance. According to the regulations, there are no specific references to
airport-compatible development or avigation easements.


The City of Sioux Falls could consider revising the subdivision regulations to re-
quire avigation easements for those areas exposed to noise above 65 DNL as out-
lined by the 2025 noise exposure contours. As previously discussed, the areas near
the airport are not planned for residential development, but if the situation arises
that a developer proposes a residential development near the airport, this modifica-
tion to the subdivision regulation would require the issuance of an avigation ease-
ment. A model subdivision amendment can be found as an attachment to this ap-


Building codes regulate the construction of buildings by establishing standards for
materials and construction techniques to protect the health, safety, and welfare of
residents. Additionally, they address structural concerns, ventilation, and insula-
tion, each of which influences the noise attenuation capabilities of a building.

Building codes commonly apply to both new construction and major alterations to
existing structures.

Building codes can require sound insulation in the construction of noise-sensitive
uses in areas subject to high aircraft noise levels. Requirements for sound insula-
tion are customarily related to noise exposure levels with increasingly stringent
standards for areas of greater noise exposure. Most sound insulation code stan-
dards describe in detail the required improvements needed to achieve a given level
of noise reduction.

The City of Sioux Falls has adopted the 2003 International Building Code for non-
residential structures and the 2003 International Residential Code for dwelling
units. Neither of these codes has provisions for sound insulation in relation to air-
craft noise.


At least three approaches may be taken to establish specific sound insulation stan-
dards. These include the utilization of prescriptive standards, flexible standards,
and performance standards. These standards are discussed in the following sec-

Prescriptive Standards: The existing building code could be amended to set forth
specific construction standards intended to achieve a given level of noise reduction.
It would be the duty of the local building inspectors to ensure that the correct mate-
rials are used and construction is done properly. After installation and a successful
inspection, the building is presumed to be able to achieve the targeted level of noise

Flexible Code Standards: These standards described the required “sound trans-
mission class” (STC) rating of all building components. STC is a system for rating
the effectiveness of partitions, floors, ceilings, windows, and doors in attenuating
the transmission of sound. The ratings are determined through standardized labo-
ratory tests of sound transmission at various frequencies. Greater STC ratings
yield increased sound reduction. A builder would be free to use any materials de-
sired as long as evidence is provided that the required STC rating has been met.

Jurisdictions desiring to undertake such an approach should retain assistance of a
qualified acoustic engineer when developing the standards. The objective of the
regulations should be to specify the STC ratings of various building components
needed to achieve an overall noise level reduction of 25 to 30 decibels, depending on
the noise contour where the proposed development is located.

Performance Standards: A performance-based standard would focus on the final
result to be achieved by the construction. The standard would describe the required
outdoor-to-indoor noise reduction. The builder could use any materials as long as
the plans and final construction meet the established standard. This would require
the assistance of an acoustic engineer in designing the building and checking con-
struction. It would also require testing the building after construction. The per-
formance standards could be defined in the zoning ordinance.

The advantage of this approach is that the builder has the flexibility to design the
building as he deems best. It also avoids the complexity of drafting, adopting, and
administering special sound insulation building code amendments. In addition,
verification of compliance with the requirements is the responsibility of the builder
and his engineer. The disadvantage is that the City of Sioux Falls would have to
verify the certifications made by the builder and engineer. Builders also may also
lack confidence in regulations which are subject to case-by-case verification and ap-


As the undeveloped areas identified on Exhibit 2 are not planned or zoned for
noise-sensitive land uses, it is unlikely that modifications to the building code would
be necessary.


The City of Sioux Falls has many of the necessary land use management techniques
in place to ensure that land use compatibility issues do not impede the growth and
development of Sioux Falls Regional Airport. In an effort to maximize protection of
the airport and the surrounding community, the consideration should be given to
the following:

   •   Implement a program for continually monitoring for hazardous wildlife at the
       adjacent golf course.

   •   Monitor noise conditions at the airport to determine the need for a Part 150
       Noise Compatibility Study. Currently, a Part 150 study is not justified based
       on the noise contours for the existing and five-year period. A significant
       change in operations, particularly an increase in nighttime operations, could
       trigger the need for a Part 150 study. The Part 150 study is voluntary, but
       provides a comprehensive review of noise impacted properties and possible

•   Adoption of a new zoning district that specifically addresses the airport and
    associated land uses (see Appendix E).

•   Adoption of an overlay zone that prohibits noise-sensitive land uses within
    the 2025 noise exposure contours.

•   Use the current comprehensive plan and transportation plan to support the
    denial of applications to re-zone property within the 2025 noise exposure con-
    tours to allow noise-sensitive land uses.

•   Revise the subdivision regulations to require avigation easements for those
    areas exposed to noise above 65 DNL as outlined by the 2025 noise exposure

•   Amend the comprehensive plan to include an exhibit with the 2025 noise ex-
    posure contours.

Sioux Falls Regional Airport Authority                                        Appendix E
                                         AN ORDINANCE OF THE CITY OF SIOUX FALLS, SD,
                                            AMENDING THE REVISED ORDINANCES OF THE
                                         CITY BY REVISING THE ZONING ORDINANCE AND
                                             CREATING AN AP, AIRPORT ZONING DISTRICT
                                                        WITHIN THE CITY OF SIOUX FALLS
                                    ORDINANCE NO.



Section 1. That the Revised Ordinances of Sioux Falls, SD, are hereby amended by adding a
chapter to be numbered 15.38 to read:

Chapter 15.38 AP Airport Zoning District.

It shall be the intent of this district to encourage and support the continued operation and vitality
of Sioux Falls Regional Airport by allowing certain airport-related commercial/industrial and
recreational uses in accordance with state law and Federal Aviation Administration regulations.

Section 2. That the Revised Ordinances of Sioux Falls, SD, are hereby amended by adding a
section to be numbered 15.38.010 to read:

Section 15.38.010 Scope of Regulations.

The regulations set forth in this chapter or set forth elsewhere in this title when referred to in this
chapter are the district regulations of the AP, Airport Zoning District.

Section 3. That the Revised Ordinances of Sioux Falls, SD, are hereby amended by adding a
section to be numbered 15.38.020 to read:

Section 15.38.020 Permissible Permissive Uses.

A.   A building or premises shall be permitted to be used for the following purposes in the AP,
     Airport Zoning District:

     (a) Airport facilities, to include runways, aprons, taxiways, weather monitoring facilities,
         control tower, navigational and communications facilities, airfield lighting and signs,
         and associated structures.
     (b) Runway protection zones.
     (c) Airport passenger terminal, with associated ticket sales, restaurant/lounge and food
         services, retail sales and services, car rental services, other incidental services, and
         associated short-term and long-term parking lots.
     (d) Aircraft servicing, manufacturing, and retrofitting facilities.
     (e) Airport services.
     (f) Aircraft hangars, servicing, and repair facilities.
     (g) Air cargo reserve.

     (h) Airport administration and maintenance facilities.
     (i)   Air cargo/freight terminals, operations, and activities.
     (j)   General aviation services and facilities, including aircraft tie-down and parking areas,
           support and maintenance shops, concessions, aviation fuel storage, and dispensing
     (k) Aircraft sales and leasing facilities and services.
     (l)   Aerospace and aviation-related training facilities.
     (m) Air National Guard facilities.
     (n) Reserve areas for any of the above uses.

     o) Public Utility Facility

     p) Warehouse

B.   Conditional Uses:

     a) Office

     b) Retailing

     c) Bus Terminal

     d) Car wash

     e) Electrical Substations

     f) Plant Nursery or Tree Farm

C.   The uses shall be developed within the area which is specifically delineated within the latest
     version of the Sioux Falls Regional Airport Master Plan.

E.   Any changes to the Sioux Falls Regional Airport Master Plan shall require review by the
     Airport Authority and a public hearing before the Sioux Falls Planning Commission and
     City Council.

Section 4. That the Revised Ordinances of Sioux Falls, SD, are hereby amended by adding a
section to be numbered 15.38.030 to read:

Section 15.38.030 Prohibited Uses.

A building or premises shall be prohibited to be used for the following purposes in the AP,
Airport Zoning District:

      (a) Any buildings or structures other than that necessary for airport operations.
      (b) Any use that may cause a navigational hazard, such as smoke, dust, lighting, etc.
      (c) Any new development where there would be a density of one hundred (100) or more
          persons per acre, either as employees, patrons, visitors, owners, or occupants.
      (d) Places of public or semi-public assembly with a capacity of 100 or more persons.
      (e) Residential uses.

Section 5. That the Revised Ordinances of Sioux Falls, SD, are hereby amended by adding a
section to be numbered 15.38.040 to read:

Section 15.38.040 Accessory Uses.

Accessory uses and buildings permitted in the AP, Airport Zoning District are accessory
buildings and uses customarily incident to any permitted uses in this district.
Section 6. That the Revised Ordinances of Sioux Falls, SD, are hereby amended by adding a
section to be numbered 15.38.050 to read:

Section 15.38.050 Parking Regulations.

All parking, loading, and stacking within the AP, Airport Zoning District shall be regulated in
conformance with the provisions of Chapter 15.55.

Section 7. That the Revised Ordinances of Sioux Falls, SD, are hereby amended by adding a
section to be numbered 15.38.060 to read:

Section 15.38.060 Sign Regulations.

Signs within the AP, Airport Zoning District shall be regulated in conformance with the
provisions of Chapter 15.57.

Section 8. That the Revised Ordinances of Sioux Falls, SD, are hereby amended by adding a
section to be numbered 15.38.070 to read:

Section 15.38.070 Density, Area, and Height Regulations.

The minimum lot requirements within the AP, Airport Zoning District shall be as follows:

(a)     Lot dimensional requirements shall not be applicable to the AP Airport Zone and shall be
        subject to approval by City Council.
(b)     Building height shall not exceed FAA criteria.
(c)     Lots fronting on taxiways shall comply with all FAA regulations and criteria for
        dimensional requirements for taxiway design.

Section 9. That the Revised Ordinances of Sioux Falls, SD, are hereby amended by adding a
section to be numbered 15.38.080 to read:

Section 15.38.080 Airport Approach Zones.

Cross reference existing Chapter 15.54.

Section 10. That the Revised Ordinances of Sioux Falls, SD, are hereby amended by adding a
section to be numbered 15.38.090 to read:

Section 15.38.090 Airport Influence District.

A.   Description. The airport influence district is composed of lands located within an area
     affected by noise or safety hazards associated with aircraft operations at general aviation

B.   Easement. Within the airport influence district, an avigation and hazard easement shall be
     conveyed to the city and the airport by any person subdividing lands or initiating
     construction of any structure on already subdivided lands within the airport influence
     district. The city and the respective involved general aviation airport shall be the grantees of
     such avigation easement. Such avigation easement shall be an easement for right-of-way for
     unobstructed passage of aircraft above the property. Such easement shall waive any right or
     cause of action against the city and the airport arising from noise, vibrations, fumes, dust,
     fuel particles, and other effects caused by aircraft and airport operations.

C.   Notice. Vendors of real property located within the airport influence district shall provide
     the following notice of prospective purchasers and, unless such notice was previously
     recorded, cause such notice to be recorded with the clerk and recorder of the appropriate

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