The Enlightenment Thinkers by bfqJnf9J

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									The Enlightenment Thinkers
The Enlightenment
  A change in outlook using reason as the
   key to human progress.
  Thinkers were inspired by Galileo and
   Newton.
  The method of observation and logic is
   used to approach problems of human
   life.
  Ideas will be based on rational thought
   and understanding.
The Enlightenment
   In France, thinkers called philosophes (or
    “philosophers”) would gather in informal
    meetings called salons.




      There, they would exchange and debate ideas.
The Basic Questions

     Enlightenment thinkers wanted to learn
      more about human life using these
      questions:
 1)   What natural law governs the way people should
      live?
 2)   How well do our institutions agree with natural law?
 3)   Does natural law give all people certain rights?
 4)   What is the best form of government?
Philosophers
                                              Philosophers did not
                                               always agree about the
                                               answers to these
                                               questions.
                                              Some supported
                                               absolute rule by the
                                               king.
                                              Others argued that the
•They all shared a trust in reason and         people should have a
observation as the best way of understanding   say in their own
and progress.
                                               government.
The Five Thinkers

         Thomas Hobbes
                              John Locke



  Baron de Montesquieu


                                           Voltaire
            Cesare Beccaria
Thomas Hobbes
    His Question: What is the
     basis of social order?
    His Observation: Human
     beings were naturally cruel,
     selfish, and greedy.
    In 1651, he published a book
     called Leviathan. He wrote
     that people are driven by a
     restless desire for power.
     Without laws or other social
     controls, people would
     always be in conflict.         Absolute Rule by Kings
Thomas Hobbes

  Governments were created to protect people
   from their own selfishness.
  People are selfish by nature and can not be
   trusted to make decisions that were good for
   society as a whole.
John Locke
                         His Observation: He denied
                          the divine right of kings to
                          rule.
                         In 1690, he published Two
                          Treatises of Government. His
                          book justified a strong
                          parliament which protects
                          human rights.
                         He argued that the purpose
                          of government was to protect
                          people’s natural rights.
                         These rights include the right
                          to life, liberty, and property.
     Natural Rights
John Locke
    In exchange for our rights, people give the government
     the power to make and enforce laws.

    The true basis of government was a social contract
     (or agreement), among free people.

    His theory is that a governments authority is based on
     the consent of the people. If the government fails to
     respect people’s rights, it can be overthrown.
Baron de Montesquieu
    His Observation: Too much
     power in the hands of any
     one person or group will led
     to tyranny.
    French author, in 1748, he
     published The Spirit of Laws.
    He argued that the best way
     to protect human rights is to
     divide power among three
     branches of government.
    Each branch of government
     checks (limits) the power of
     the others.
                                     Separation of Powers
Baron de Montesquieu

     The Three Branches of Government
     1)   Legislative branch – makes the laws
     2)   Executive branch – enforces the laws
     3)   Judicial branch – interprets the laws
Voltaire
    His Observation: Freedom of
     thought and expression is the
     only way to fight oppression.
    He was a French writer and
     participant in Paris salons.
    He supported religious
     tolerance – allowing people to
     believe religion in their own
     way.
    Strong supporter of free         “I disapprove of what you say,
     speech.                          but I will defend to the death
                                      your right to say it”
Cesare Beccaria
                                   His Observation: He studied
                                    criminology, the scientific
                                    study of crime and
                                    punishment.
                                   He objected the harsh
                                    practices that were common
                                    in his day and called for
                                    changes in criminal law to
                                    protect the rights of the
                                    accused.
                                   Torture was common and
                                    people found guilty of crimes
                                    were often sentenced to
   “Punishment should fit the       death.
   seriousness of the crime”
Cesare Beccaria
                  On Crimes and Punishments
  He argued that laws exist to preserve society and order and that
   punishment did not have to be brutal.
  A person accused of a crime should receive a fair and speedy
   trial.
  Torture should never be used.
    Capital punishment (putting someone to death) should never be
     used.
    Punishment should fit the seriousness
     of the crime.
Women of the Enlightenment
    Enlightenment thinking
     influenced many
     throughout Europe and
     inspired revolutions in
     America and France.
    Although women of the
     1700’s did not have the
     same rights or status as
     men, there were a small
     few who played an
     important role by helping
     to spread ideas about
     rights and equality to
     women.

								
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