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IDAHO DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME Stephen P. Mealey

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IDAHO DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME Stephen P. Mealey Powered By Docstoc
					              IDAHO

DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME

    Stephen P. Mealey, Director

        Project W-170-R-21

          Progress Report




         FURBEARERS

          Study III, Job 1



           Prepared by:

         Wayne E. Melquist
  State Nongame Wildlife Manager
     Fur Program Coordinator


   August 1, 1996 to July 31, 1997


             April 1998
            Boise, Idaho
Findings in this report are preliminary in nature and not for publication without permission of
the Director of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game.

The Idaho Department of Fish and Game adheres to all applicable state and federal laws and
regulations related to discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, age, sex, or
handicap. If you feel you have been discriminated against in any program, activity, or facility
of the Idaho Department of Fish and Game, or if you desire further information, please write
to: Idaho Department of Fish and Game, 600 S. Walnut, Box 25, Boise, ID 83707; OR the
Office of Human Resources, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior,
Washington, DC 20240.
                                                   TABLE OF CONTENTS


STUDY OBJECTIVES..................................................................................................................1

PROCEDURES ..............................................................................................................................1

ABSTRACT ....................................................................................................................................2

METHODS .....................................................................................................................................4
    Mandatory Harvest Report ...............................................................................................4
    Idaho Trapper Survey .......................................................................................................4
    Bobcat Check-ins, Jaws, and Export Tags ......................................................................4
    Nontarget Catches ..............................................................................................................5

STATEWIDE RESULTS ..............................................................................................................6
     Trapping License Sales ......................................................................................................6
     Trapper Days Afield ..........................................................................................................6
     Mandatory Harvest Reports .............................................................................................6
     Mandatory Bobcat Tagging and Harvest Reports ..........................................................7
     The 1996-97 Idaho Trapper Survey .................................................................................8
     Reported Nontarget Catches ...........................................................................................10
     Trapping and Transplanting ..........................................................................................11
     Furbearer Depredation....................................................................................................11
     Management Implications ...............................................................................................11

LITERATURE CITED ...............................................................................................................12

APPENDIX 1 ................................................................................................................................22

APPENDIX 2 ................................................................................................................................25

APPENDIX 3 ................................................................................................................................31




FURPR97                                                               i
                                           LIST OF TABLES



Table 1.   Trapping license sales and usable harvest reports received from trappers
           for the 1985-86 through 1996-97 trapping seasons ...........................................13

Table 2.   Estimated trapper days afield, 1993-94 through 1996-97, based on
           trappers' reports received. ..................................................................................13

Table 3.   Statewide harvest and pelt value of furbearers trapped during the 1996-
           97 season, based on 463 trappers who reported they trapped .........................14

Table 4.   Bobcat and lynx pelts checked in at regional and subregional offices by
           trappers and hunters and tagged with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
           export tags, 1986-87 through 1996-97 ................................................................15

Table 5.   Bobcat harvest report for the 1996-97 season according to IDFG region
           and method of take...............................................................................................15

Table 6.   Sex and age distribution of Idaho bobcats harvested during the 1995-96
           and 1996-97 seasons based on physical examination for sex and canine
           tooth examination and cementum analysis ........................................................16

Table 7.   Sex and age of harvested bobcats, based on examination of canines and
           cementum analyses, 1989-90 through 1996-97 ..................................................17

Table 8.   Ages of harvested female bobcats determined by cementum analyses,
           1985-86 through 1996-97 .....................................................................................18

Table 9.   Fisher and otter caught accidentally by trappers and turned in to the
           Department for a payment of $5.00 each, 1990-91 through 1996-97 ..............19




FURPR97                                                  ii
                                             LIST OF FIGURES


Fig. 1. Bobcat age distribution for 413 animals harvested in the 1995-96 season and
              948 animals harvested during 1996-97 ...............................................................20

Fig. 2. Distribution of trapping effort, according to county, based on trapper response
               when asked which county or counties they normally trapped in (n=567) ......21




FURPR97                                                 iii
                               PROGRESS REPORT
                            SURVEYS AND INVENTORIES


STATE:        Idaho              JOB TITLE:                Furbearer Survey
PROJECT:      W-170-R-21
SUBPROJECT:   1-7                STUDY NAME:               Statewide Fur Harvest Survey
STUDY:        III
JOB:          1
PERIOD COVERED: August 1, 1996 to July 31, 1997


                                 STUDY OBJECTIVES

1.    Estimate the size, structure, and trend of harvested furbearers.

2.    Determine hunter and trapper attitudes and preferences and inform trappers/hunters
      of the biology and status of furbearers.

                                     PROCEDURES

1.    Analyze the mandatory trapper reports to estimate trends in furbearer harvest and the
      dollar value of species.

2.    Continue to collect bobcat harvest information through the mandatory export tag
      program.

3.    Estimate the sex and age structure of the bobcat harvest from analysis of lower jaws
      and tooth sectioning. Construct population models for bobcats.

4.    Conduct surveys to determine the population status of selected furbearers.

5.    Prepare an annual report on furbearer harvest.

6.    Conduct public meetings to inform the public and obtain information on
      hunter/trapper acceptance of season regulations.

7.    Make presentations on furbearer biology to the public.




FURPR97                                     1
                                        ABSTRACT

Trapping licenses sold during the 1996-97 season totaled 779, which included 639 residents,
133 junior residents (through 17 years of age), and 7 nonresidents. This represents the largest
number of licenses sold since the 1989-90 fur season, when 1,288 were sold. These figures tend
to reflect the vagaries of an industry influenced by changing fashions and highly fluctuating
fur prices (i.e., trapper numbers tend to fluctuate with fur prices and demand). For the 1996-
97 season, 441 (95%) of the 463 license holders who indicated they trapped provided
information on trapping effort on the mandatory trapper report and survey form. These
trappers, on the average, spent 42.7 days afield setting and checking traps and scouting
trapping areas; they averaged 4.9 hours afield per day. Harvest reports were submitted by 590
(76%) of the 779 licensed trappers for the 1996-97 season. The fur harvest, based on
463 reporting trappers who trapped, was 36,124 pelts, almost 15,000 more than the previous
trapping season. Of this total, 29,735 pelts (82%) were sold for a value of $311,451.60.
Trappers sold their pelts for an average of $10.47 each, compared to $8.68 each in 1995-96.
The 463 trappers harvested an average of 78 pelts per trapper and sold an average of 64 pelts.
Trappers earned an average income of $672.68 (total value of animals sold divided by an
average of 64 pelts sold per trapper). The estimated harvest for all trappers, including those
that did not submit a report, was 46,313 animals taken, with an estimated statewide pelt value
of $399,296.92. The most frequently caught species continues to be the muskrat, followed by
the beaver, red fox, coyote, and raccoon. Price per pelt ranged from an average of $122.88 for
bobcats ($68.69 in 1995-96) to $2.25 for weasels. Average muskrat prices increased from $3.16
in 1995-96 to $3.89 in 1996-97. In total statewide value of pelts sold, the top five furbearers
continue to be the muskrat, beaver, bobcat, coyote, and red fox. Pelt values for most
furbearers, including badger, beaver, bobcat, coyote, marten, mink, muskrat, and raccoon,
were up in 1996-97. Average pelt values for red fox were down 5% from the previous year,
while weasel prices were down 648%. Bobcat trappers and hunters checked 1,018 animals
from a 2-month December and January season (421 bobcats were checked in 1995-96 when the
season was just the month of December). The lynx season was closed in 1996-97; no accidental
captures were reported. The largest number of bobcats harvested continues to come from
southern Idaho, with the Department’s Southwest and Magic Valley Regions accounting for
47% of the harvest. However, the Panhandle and Clearwater Regions accounted for 34%.
Bobcats less than 1 year of age constituted 26% and 25% of the 411 and 948 animals trapped
during the 1995-96 and 1996-97 seasons, respectively. Age and sex data from the harvest
indicate that trapping and hunting seasons have not been detrimental to bobcat populations or
resulted in overharvesting. Monitoring of red fox populations has been discontinued.
Observations by field personnel, trappers, and hunters, and evaluation of accumulated data
suggest that furbearer populations are either static or increasing, but not decreasing. As part
of the mandatory trapper reporting process, trappers were asked a series of questions in an
effort to assist the Department in better understanding furbearer populations in Idaho and
how best to manage them. Based on the response of 548 trappers, the average age of trappers
is 43 years, with a range of 8-82 years old. The average number of years this sample of
trappers had trapped was 17.6, with one trapper having trapped for 70 years. Even though


FURPR97                                       2
these trappers had trapped for multiple years, many had not trapped 1 or more of the previous
4 years. Trappers often purchase trapping licenses, but do not trap for 1 or more reasons.
Pelt prices, weather conditions, and perhaps fuel prices and other factors influence the number
of individuals who trap from year to year. Bobcat trappers (n=149) who responded to our
survey set 2,401 traps for bobcats, or an average of 16 traps per trapper. On the average, each
bobcat trapper (n=148) had his or her traps set for an average of 29 days. The average
number of bobcats trapped per trapper (n=191) in the last 10 years was 20. According to the
response of 436 trappers, 52% felt the bobcat population in the area they trapped was stable,
while 42% felt the population was increasing. Only 8% of the respondents felt the bobcat
population was decreasing. The majority of trappers (69%) recommended retaining the 2-
month season. We asked trappers a series of questions regarding the presence of sign for
selected furbearers in their trapping area. Seventy percent of 524 respondents indicated they
had seen otter sign in the area they trapped; 12% of 447 respondents indicated they had
observed fisher sign; 16% of 450 respondents reported seeing sign of Canada lynx; and 13% of
450 respondents had observed wolverine sign in the area they trapped. In reference to the
amount of sign observed for these species, 71% believed that otter sign was either plentiful or
common where they trapped. Trappers considered the fisher, lynx, and wolverine to be rare in
the areas they trapped. Only for the otter did the majority of trappers (66%) consider the
amount of sign to be increasing during the past 10 years. More than half (54%) of the 567
survey sample indicated there should be a season on otter, 7% felt there should be a season on
fisher, 5% indicated they felt a wolverine season was appropriate, and 12% of the respondents
indicated there should be a lynx season once again. Trappers reported 197 nontarget animals
trapped during the 1996-97 season. The Department's goals and objectives for furbearers are
being met for season structure and maintaining populations and distribution. Some
management programs are not being met due primarily to inadequate funding and Legislative
resistance to a mandatory trapper education program. Department regional furbearer
coordinators continue to maintain a liaison with trappers, other agencies, organizations, and
user groups. They continue to serve an important role in furbearer management and in
meeting the goals and objectives of the furbearer management plan.




FURPR97                                       3
                                         METHODS

Mandatory Harvest Report

By Idaho law, licensed trappers are required to report to the Department the number of wild
animals they catch, kill, and pelt during the open season and the amount received for the sale
of these pelts. This report must be submitted by July 31 for the previous trapping season.
Until the 1996-97 season, this information appeared on the back of the trapping license. Once
the Department switched to point-of-sale machines for the purchase of licenses, this option was
no longer available. A new mandatory trapper report, combined with a trapper survey, was
created for the 1996-97 season. This self-addressed and stamped folding card was sent to
trappers during spring 1997 so they could conform to Idaho law. Mandatory trapper reports
are used to estimate the statewide harvest of furbearers by licensed trappers, the distribution
of the harvest, and the market value of the state's furbearer harvest. For the 1996-97 trapping
season, 567 harvest reports received from 590 trappers were used to estimate the statewide fur
harvest.

Idaho Trapper Survey

Because it was necessary to mail mandatory trapper report forms to licensed trappers in order
for them to report their harvest, we took this opportunity to include a trapper survey as part
of the report card (Appendix 1). The purpose of the survey was to gather information to better
understand, justify, and defend the harvest of furbearers in Idaho. There were 13 questions
asked in the survey. Because the Commission extended the bobcat season a month beginning
in the 1996-97 season to include both December and January, 6 of the 13 questions focused on
bobcats. Other questions were designed to give us some insight as to the distribution and
population trends of river otters, fisher, lynx, and wolverine in Idaho. The secretive nature of
these species makes it difficult to obtain good data on their status. Questions on how many
days the trapper spent afield scouting and setting and checking traps, and how many hours, on
the average, the trapper spent afield each day were included. These questions were initially
included in the mandatory report beginning with the 1993-94 trapping season, and are used to
gather information on trapping effort. Results of this information was then projected to
estimate the statewide trapping effort both in total hours and days afield.

Bobcat Check-ins, Jaws, and Export Tags

By Commission regulation, trappers and hunters are required to have all bobcats tagged with
export tags by the Department within 10 days after the close of the trapping/hunting season.
During the period 1977-78 through 1980-81, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service export tags were
made available to trappers and hunters, but they were not mandatory. Trappers and hunters
are also required to turn in to the Department the lower jaw from all bobcats taken and to
report the sex of the animal, harvest location, date harvested, and method of take (trapping,
calling/hunting, with hounds, incidental hunting). This regulation has been in effect since the


FURPR97                                        4
1981-82 season. During the 1979-80 and 1980-81 seasons, it was not mandatory to turn in
jaws, but the Department issued export tags only when jaws were submitted. During the
1996-97 season, trappers and hunters had their bobcats tagged and made their reports at
Department regional and subregional offices. It is unlawful to possess raw, untagged bobcat
pelts after 10 days following the close of the season, and to sell, offer for sale, purchase, or offer
to purchase any raw bobcat pelt which does not have an official state export tag attached.

Beginning with the 1990-91 trapping season, the Fish and Game Commission established a
statewide annual harvest quota of 3 lynx. It also required trappers and hunters to report lynx
kills to the Department within 24 hours and to turn in the entire carcass. Prior to the 1996-97
season, the Fish and Game Commission voted to close the season on lynx and not allow any
type of harvest.

Lower jaws of bobcats harvested during 1986 through 1989 were processed by the
Department's laboratory where canines were removed and sex and age (to year) were
determined for each animal over 1-1/2 years of age following procedures established by
Johnson, et al. (1981). Beginning in 1990, adult and juvenile female bobcat and lynx canines
with closed root canals were aged by Matson's Laboratory, Milltown, Montana. Juveniles
with open root canals and adult males were aged by the Department's laboratory. Canines
from all adults have been aged by Matson’s Laboratory since the 1995-96 season.

Mandatory harvest report data continue to be used to estimate the total statewide bobcat
harvest by administrative region and big game management unit. Tooth data have been used
to evaluate the sex and age composition of the harvest. Collectively, these data are useful in
evaluating the effects of the harvest on the statewide bobcat population.

Nontarget Catches

By Commission rule, any trapper who catches a nontarget species (any species for which the
season is closed) that is dead shall: (1) prior to removing the animal, note on the back of the
trapping license the species of animal caught, the date, and shall sign his or her name;
(2) remove the animal from the trap and take it into possession; and (3) notify the Department
through the local conservation officer, subregion, or regional office within 72 hours to make
arrangements for Department personnel to retrieve the animal. The regulation has been in
effect since the 1988-89 season. Since the 1990-91 trapping season, the Department has paid
trappers $5.00 for each accidentally-caught fisher and river otter they turned in to the
Department. Beginning in the 1996-97 season, trappers may receive $5.00 for each
accidentally-caught lynx. Most nontarget animals turned in are sold at the Department’s
annual auction. Money from the sale of these animals was deposited into the general account
in 1989 and 1990. However, since 1991 the proceeds have been earmarked for use in trapper
education.




FURPR97                                           5
                                  STATEWIDE RESULTS

Trapping License Sales

Trapping licenses sold during the 1996-97 season totaled 779, and included 639 residents,
133 junior residents (through 17 years of age), and 7 nonresidents (Table 1). This represents
the largest number of licenses sold since the 1989-90 fur season, when 1,288 were sold. These
figures tend to reflect the vagaries of an industry influenced by changing fashions and highly
fluctuating fur prices (i.e., trapper numbers tend to fluctuate with fur prices and demand).
For the 1996-97 season, 441 (95%) of the 463 license holders who indicated they trapped
provided information on trapping effort on the mandatory trapper report and survey form.
These trappers, on the average, spent 42.7 days afield setting and checking traps and scouting
trapping areas; they averaged 4.9 hours afield per day.

Trapper Days Afield

For the 1996-97 season, 441 (95%) of the 463 license holders who indicated they trapped
provided information on trapping effort on the mandatory trapper report and survey form
(Table 2). These trappers, on the average, spent 42.7 days afield setting and checking traps
and scouting trapping areas; they averaged 4.9 hours afield per day. Statewide, all active
trappers spent an estimated total of 25,962 days and 127,212 hours afield. In comparison to
the 1995-96 trapping effort, hours per day and days per year were up during the 1996-97
season.

Mandatory Harvest Reports

Harvest reports were submitted by 590 (76%) of the 779 licensed trappers for the 1996-97
season. The information submitted on these reports was used to compile the reported and
estimated statewide harvest and market value of the different furbearer species taken,
including the badger, beaver, bobcat, civet (western spotted skunk), coyote, marten, mink,
muskrat, raccoon, red fox, striped skunk, and weasel. Trapping and hunting season dates for
furbearers for 1996-97 appear in Appendix 2.

The fur harvest, based on 463 reporting trappers who trapped, was 36,124 pelts, almost 15,000
more than the previous trapping season (Table 3). Of this total, 29,735 pelts (82%) were sold
for a value of $311,451.60. Trappers sold their pelts for an average of $10.47 each, compared
to $8.68 each in 1995-96. The 463 trappers harvested an average of 78 pelts per trapper and
sold an average of 64 pelts. Trappers earned an average income of $672.68 (total value of
animals sold divided by an average of 64 pelts sold per trapper). The estimated harvest for all
trappers, including those that did not submit a report, was 46,313 animals taken, with an
estimated statewide pelt value of $399,296.92.




FURPR97                                       6
The most frequently caught species continues to be the muskrat, followed by the beaver, red
fox, coyote, and raccoon. Price per pelt ranged from an average of $122.88 for bobcats ($68.69
in 1995-96) to $2.25 for weasels. Average muskrat prices increased from $3.16 in 1995-96 to
$3.89 in 1996-97. In total statewide value of pelts sold, the top five furbearers continue to be
the muskrat, beaver, bobcat, coyote, and red fox. Pelt values for most furbearers, including
badger, beaver, bobcat, coyote, marten, mink, muskrat, and raccoon, were up in 1996-97.
Average pelt values for red fox were down 5% from the previous year, while weasel prices
were down 648% from $14.59 per pelt in 1995-96.

Mandatory Bobcat Tagging and Harvest Reports

Bobcat trappers and hunters checked 1,018 animals from a 2-month, December and January
season; 421 bobcats were checked during 1995-96 when the season was only December
(Table 4). The lynx season was closed in 1996-97; no accidental captures were reported. The
largest number of bobcats harvested continues to come from southern Idaho, with the
Department’s Southwest and Magic Valley Regions accounting for 47% of the harvest (Table
5). However, the Panhandle and Clearwater Regions accounted for 34%. Trapping (56%) is
the most popular method of taking bobcats, followed by the use of hounds (28%).

Bobcat age and sex distribution data based on the analysis of 413 bobcat teeth for 1995-96 and
948 teeth for 1996-97 are displayed in Table 6 and Fig. 1. Harvested bobcats ranged in age
from young-of-the-year or juvenile (depicted as “0") to 15 years. The average age of all
bobcats harvested during the 1995-96 season was 2.78 years and 3.11 years for 1996-97. For
both the 1995-96 and 1996-97 seasons, the average age of harvested males was a year older
than females. During the 1995-96 season, the 4-year-old age group appeared overrepresented,
while the 3-year-old age class was underrepresented in 1996-97. As expected from a healthy
population, the harvest is skewed towards the younger-aged cohorts (Fig. 1), with juveniles
(age class “0") constituting 106 (26 %) and 236 (25%) of the 1995-96 and 1996-97 totals,
respectively. While males comprised 56-58% of the total sample for each of the 2 years,
52-57% of the juvenile harvest were females. However, 31 (1995-96 season) and 52 (1996-97
season) additional animals in the “0" age group were of unknown gender.

Sex and age data collected from harvested bobcats since the 1989-90 season indicate the state's
population is healthy and productive (Table 7). As separate cohorts, adult males and juveniles
generally make up a larger percentage of the harvest than females. The only anomaly appears
to be the 1993-94 season when females comprised the largest segment of the harvest (44%) and
juveniles and subadults (animals less than 2 years old) were underrepresented in the harvest
(14%). The 1995-96 and 1996-97 seasons had harvest ratios more in line with previous years,
however. While the bobcat harvest increased from 421 in 1995-96 to 1,018 in 1996-97, the data
suggest that the current 2-month trapping/hunting season is not detrimental to the survival of
the bobcat in Idaho and that the state's population is not being overharvest ed.




FURPR97                                        7
Juveniles continue to represent the largest age group of female bobcats harvested, based on the
past 10 years of harvest data, indicating suitable recruitment (Table 8). While there have been
slight increases in the percentage of 4-year-old and older bobcats in the total harvest, these
increases do not appear significant. After analyzing 9,079 records for bobcats harvested from
1981 through 1991, Sargeant (1991) concluded that "increasing trends in proportion of older
female bobcats during the 1980s and the continued high incidence of juvenile animals in the
harvest combine to suggest that Idaho bobcat populations are in little danger of overharvest,"
and "...while pelt prices remain low, further restrictions in seasons or methods of take will
probably not be necessary.” Undoubtedly, some local populations in highly accessible areas
may be more vulnerable to trapping and hunting than are those in more remote areas, as
suggested by Koehler and Hornocker (1989). While there are many remote areas in Idaho that
act as “refugia” and contribute to metapopulations where bobcat numbers have been reduced
due to harvest pressure, the Department will continue to monitor characteristics of the harvest
to avoid overexploitation.

The 1996-97 Idaho Trapper Survey

As part of the mandatory trapper reporting process, trappers were asked a series of questions
in an effort to assist the Department in better understanding furbearer populations in Idaho
and how best to manage them (see Appendix 1). While trapping pressure appeared light in
some counties, trapping was widely distributed throughout the state (Fig. 2).

Based on the response of 548 trappers, the average age of trappers is 43 years. Five trappers
reported their age as 8 years, while 2 trappers indicated they were 82 years old. The average
number of years this sample of trappers had trapped was 17.6, with one gentleman having run
a trapline for 70 years. Even though these trappers had trapped for multiple years, only 393
(72%) indicated they had an Idaho trapping license for the 1995-96 season; 282 (51%) for the
1993-94 season; 243 (44%) for the 1992-93 season; and 230 (42%) for the 1991-92 season. As
indicated previously, many trappers purchase trapping licenses, but often do not trap. Pelt
prices, weather conditions, and perhaps fuel prices and other factors influence the number of
individuals who trap from year to year.

Because the Department increased the bobcat season from 1 month (December) to 2 months
(December and January) beginning in the 1996-97 season, we included several questions about
bobcat trapping in the survey. Bobcat trappers (n=149) who responded to our survey set
2,401 traps for bobcats, or an average of 16 traps per trapper. On the average, each bobcat
trapper (n=148) had his or her traps set for an average of 29 days. The average number of
bobcats trapped per trapper (n=191) in the last 10 years was 20. If we assume that each of
these trappers trapped bobcats every year for the past 10 years, which is unlikely, then each
trapper would have harvested an average of 2 bobcats per year.




FURPR97                                       8
According to the response of 436 trappers, 52% of the trappers felt the bobcat population in
the area they trapped was stable, while 42% felt the population was increasing. Only 8% of
the respondents felt the bobcat population was decreasing.

When asked about the 2-month bobcat season, 459 trappers responded. The majority of
trappers (69%) recommended retaining the 2-month season, 19% felt it should be longer, and
7% felt it should be shorter. Twenty-two trappers (5%) suggested a variety of season changes,
including (in italics):

       Two month except roaded areas.
       Open November 1.
       Early season--before 4' of snow.
       Longer season, but put a limit on bobcat taken.
       Six-week season.
       November and December.
       November through January.
       December 15 - January 31.
       January.
       January and February.
       Quota of 5 cats.
       Quota of 3 or 4, not to exceed 4 cats per year, at least in Lemhi County.
       Limit on number taken, but must keep those taken early as they have trap damage.

We asked trappers a series of questions regarding the presence of sign for selected furbearers
in their trapping area. Seventy percent of 524 respondents indicated they had seen otter sign
in the area they trapped; 12% of 447 respondents indicated they had observed fisher sign;
16% of 450 respondents reported seeing sign of Canada lynx; and 13% of 450 respondents had
observed wolverine sign in the area they trapped.

Trappers were asked their opinion on the amount of sign observed for these species in their
trapping area. Respondents selected between “plentiful,” “stable,” and “rare.” The “stable”
option should have been “common” instead. Nevertheless, we assumed that trappers
understood this to be between plentiful and rare. For the otter, 46% of 455 respondents
believed that sign was plentiful where they trapped. An additional 25% indicated they were
stable (common), while 29% considered otter sign to be rare. Dry-land trappers would
obviously find little otter sign. Based on the amount of sign observed, trappers considered the
fisher (88% of 283), lynx (83% of 293), and wolverine (92% of 290) to be rare in the areas they
trapped.

When asked whether or not they felt the amount of sign observed during the past 10 years for
these same species was increasing, stable, or decreasing, only for otter did the majority of
trappers (66% of 401 respondents) consider the amount of sign to be increasing. Based on
200 respondents, fisher sign has either increased (13%), is stable (48%), or decreased (40%).
For the lynx, 10% of 210 respondents felt that sign was increasing, while 51% indicated the

FURPR97                                       9
amount of sign was stable, and 39% felt that lynx sign had been decreasing during the past 10
years. Wolverine sign, based on 203 respondents, was thought to be increasing (11%), stable
(50%), and decreasing (39%).

Finally, trappers were asked which of these species they believe there should be a trapping
season for. More than half (54%) of the 567 survey sample indicated there should be a season
on otter, 7% felt there should be a season on fisher, and 5% indicated they felt a wolverine
season was appropriate. Even though the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service will propose the lynx
for listing as either threatened or endangered under the Endangered Species Act, 12% of the
respondents indicated there should be a lynx season once again.

At the end of the survey, trappers were given the option of providing comments and
suggestions regarding seasons, rules, or other matters related to trapping furbearers in Idaho.
Comments were made in the space provided on the survey form by 209 of the respondents.
While the comments were quite diverse, the most frequent suggestion was for some kind of
otter season. Following is an example of the variety of comments provided:

Have a trapper report card provided with the trapping license because records get lost after
the season ends, deer stops mandatory on all snares, appreciation for the opportunity to trap
in Idaho, changes in the opening date, preventing and limiting Oregon trappers to 5 bobcats
per year as Idaho trappers are limited in Oregon, concern for trap disturbance and theft by
anti-trappers and hunters, trappers and the Department need to work together to ensure the
future of trapping, compliments on managing the fur resource in Idaho, a desire to open fox
trapping in Valley County, open a trapping season on mountain lion, a need for trapper
education and/or support 4-H trapper program, trapping is a great way to spend time with
your kids, limit bobcat harvest to 10 per person, the trespassing law promoted by Idaho Fish
and Game is considered terrible, shorten fox season, shorten bobcat season, hound hunters
have nearly wiped out bobcats in some areas, otter ate all the fish, muskrat populations down
in several areas, there could be 2-4 lynx taken in Boundary County--more than 4 could hurt
the population, increase or decrease seasons or limits as needed, close more roads during the
hunting and trapping seasons, send the mandatory report out in April or May, trapping is a
wise use of a renewable natural resource and should be promoted as a humane management
tool, should be a season on wolves, beaver and muskrat seasons start too early when the pelts
are not prime. Finally, one respondent stated, “I enjoy the opportunity to get out, but haven’t
had the time the last few years.” This was a common theme among several respondents--too
many other activities, many of which have replaced trapping as part of their past-time.

Reported Nontarget Catches

Trappers reported 197 nontarget animals trapped during the 1996-97 season. A nontarget
animal is one for which the season is closed at the time of capture, or there is no open season.
Nontarget species reported trapped include beaver (2), bobcat (9), cougar (1), deer (7), dog (8),
domestic cat (15), duck (18), ermine or weasel (2), fox (2), golden eagle (1), magpie (4), owl (1),


FURPR97                                         10
bushy-tailed woodrat (2), pheasant (2), porcupine (6), rabbit (1), river otters (71), robin (1)
skunk (6), squirrel (27), and wolverine (3). Nontarget animals with minimal injury were
released at the site of capture by the trapper. Dead animals were turned in to the Department
where marketable items were sold at the annual auction. Trappers were paid $5.00 each for 35
otters submitted to the Department for reimbursement. Since the 1990-91 trapping season, 204
otters have been turned in to the Department for reimbursement (Table 9).
During spring 1997, the Department sold, at public auction, furbearing animals accumulated
during the previous year. These were nontarget catches, animals killed to solve depredation
problems, and animals found dead. Funds were received from the sale of confiscated traps
and pelts or parts of 1 badger, 2 beaver, 19 bobcat, 1 coyote, 2 fox, 1 muskrat, 1 raccoon, and
71 otter. Since 1991, nearly $14,000 have been deposited in the fish and game account from
furbearer-related items sold at the Department’s annual auction. These funds are earmarked
for use in trapper education-related activities and materials.

Trapping and Transplanting

To summarize the 3-year project to reestablish pine marten in southeast Idaho during 1993-95,
59 marten (38 males and 21 females) were translocated to Game Management Units 77 and 78.
 The translocated marten were originally captured in the Salmon area by a contract trapper
using box-type livetraps supplied by the Department. The animals were transported to a mink
ranch near Franklin, Idaho, and released at several locations using a “soft release” technique.
All the marten were marked with ear tags; however, several had lost the tags by the time they
were released.

A January to April 1995 project, using bait stations with infrared-activated cameras to
investigate whether wolverines inhabited the area, produced 19 photos of marten at 5 locations
in the area of the 1993 and 1994 releases. The original plan called for monitoring again in
1999, using track counts and/or cameras.

Furbearer Depredation

Beavers continue to be live-trapped in several regions to solve damage complaints. If feasible,
these animals were translocated to other areas in attempts to improve riparian habitat or
increase the local beaver population. Department conservation officers frequently issue
Furbearer Depredation Control Permits (Form WL-2) to individuals as a valuable tool in
handling beaver and other furbearer damage complaints quickly and efficiently. Beginning in
January 1995, Department administrative regions were required to keep accurate records on
the number of permits issued, the number of animals removed, and then to report this
information by species and county to the Bureau of Wildlife by January 10 of each year. This
information has been summarized for 1996 and is included, by region, in Appendix 3. Beaver
were, by far, the most common species in which kill permits were issued, followed by muskrat,
red fox, and raccoon.



FURPR97                                       11
Management Implications

In 1990, Department regional furbearer coordinators (RFCs) were appointed in each region
and the McCall office in compliance with the 1991-95 Furbearer Management Plan. The
function of the RFCs is to serve as a liaison with the Idaho Trappers Association, trappers and
other user groups, and other agencies on trapping and furbearer issues. The RFCs are either
regional wildlife biologists, regional habitat biologists, conservation officers, or wildlife
technicians. These RFCs continue to play an important role in maintaining good working
relations with trappers and other agencies and are helping the Department meet its furbearer
management goals and objectives.

Observations made by Department personnel, trappers, and hunters during this reporting
period suggest that the state's trapping and hunting seasons have not adversely impacted
furbearers or predators (coyote, weasel). Variable and unpredictable pelt prices continue to
influence trapper/hunter participation and, consequently, the harvest of furbearers. Available
information also suggests that current furbearer populations are either static or increasing,
but not declining.

We believe the Department is meeting its 1991-95 furbearer management plan goals and
objectives regarding furbearer season structure, maintaining populations and distribution,
and some management programs. Conversely, some strategies proposed in the plan, including
development of habitat management guidelines, mandatory trapper education, and monitoring
of some species, have not been implemented. Work on these strategies will continue in the
following year, although the Idaho Legislature has resisted passage of a mandatory trapper
education program.

                                   LITERATURE CITED

Johnson, N. F., B. A. Brown, and J. C. Bosomworth. 1981. Age and sex characteristics of
      bobcat canines and their use in population assessment. The Wildl. Soc. Bull.
      9 (3): 203-206.

Koehler, G. M. and M. G. Hornocker. 1989. Influences of seasons on bobcats in Idaho.
      J. Wildl. Manag. 53 (1): 197-202.

Sargeant, G. S. 1991. Ten-year harvest summary for Idaho bobcats January 1981 to January
      1991. Unpublished report. 44 pages.




FURPR97                                       12
Table 1.    Trapping license sales and usable harvest reports received from
            trappers for the 1985-86 through 1996-97 trapping seasons.
                                                      Reporting      Estimated
                 Licenses Sold          Reports       Trappers Who   Active
Year       Residents Nonres. Total      Received (%) Trapped (%)     Trappersb

1985-86      1,370       23     1,393         1,071   (77)
1986-87      1,473       24     1,497         1,112   (73)
1987-88      1,564       30     1,594         1,338   (86)
1988-89      1,266       22     1,288         1,045   (81)
1989-90        921       17       938           722   (77)
1990-91        636        7       643           508   (79)
1991-92        678        8       686           478   (70)
1992-93        666        7       673           525   (78)
1993-94a       588        8       596           489   (82)     425   (87)   518
1994-95        738       10       748           547   (73)     432   (79)   591
1995-96        631        7       638           445   (70)     362   (81)   518
1996-97        772        7       779           590   (76)     463   (78)   610
a
    Number of active trappers were not estimated prior to the 1993-94 season.
b
    Estimated active trappers is determined by multiplying the number of licenses
    sold by the percent of trappers who reported that they actually trapped, based
    on the total number of reports received.




Table 2.   Estimated trapper days afield, 1993-94 through 1996-97, based on
           trappers' reports received.
______________________________________________________________________________
                                                           Projected
         Reporting Trappers                         Statewide Time Afield
         Trappers    Reporting   Average Time     Estimated
             Who       Time     Afield/Trapper     Active     Total   Total
Year      Trapped    Afield (%) Hrs/Day Days/Yr   Trappers    Hours   Days

1993-94     425     285 (67)      5.0     36.4       519   93,432   18,871
1994-95     432     330 (76)      4.4     35.5       591   92,314   20,981
1995-96     362     271 (75)      4.1     38.4       517   80,139   19,546
1996-97     463     441 (95)      4.9     42.7       608  127,212   25,962
______________________________________________________________________________




FURPR97                                 13
Table 3.        Statewide harvest and pelt value of furbearers trapped during the 1996-97 season, based on 463 trappers who
                reported they trapped.
                 Trappers                                                               Estimated      % of
                 Reporting   Animals    Pelts/       Animals      Money       Price/    Statewide     Total    Rank by       1995-96
    Species      a Harvest    Taken     Trapper     Sold (%)     Received      Pelt    Pelt Valueb    Value     Value          Rank

     Badger             48        280         6       154 (55)     3,077.63    19.98      3,945.68       1.0             9             9

     Beaver            258      3,626        14     2,855 (79)    61,988.11    21.71     79,471.94      19.9             2             3

     Bobcat             98       538a         5       472 (88)    57,997.80   122.88     74,356.15      18.6             3             5

     Civet               8         30         4         3 (10)        12.00     4.00          15.38     <0.1         13            13

     Coyote            194      2,293        12     1,876 (82)    43,470.55    23.17     55,731.47      14.0             4             4

     Marten             35        452        13       318 (70)     7,065.00    22.22      9,057.69       2.3             8             7

      Mink             132        744         6       578 (78)     8,321.27    14.40     10,668.29       2.7             7             8

    Muskrat            275     23,678        86    20,414 (86)    79,366.55     3.89    101,751.98      25.5             1             2

    Raccoon            182        964         5       716 (74)    10,475.79    14.63     13,430.50       3.4             6             6

    Red Fox            197      2,715        14     2,180 (80)    38,844.00    17.82     49,800.00      12.5             5             1

     Skunk              92        681         7        95 (14)       613.25     6.46         786.22      0.2         10            11

     Weasel             30         67         2        50 (75)       112.50     2.25         144.23     <0.1         11            10

     Other               8         56         7        24 (43)       107.00     4.46         137.18     <0.1         12            12

     Actual
     Totals
      (78%)             --     36,124        78    29,735 (82)   311,451.60    10.47             --      100

    Estimated
     Totals
     (100%)             --     46,313        --         38,122   399,296.92       --    399,296.71        --
a
      Of the 1,018 bobcats tagged by Department personnel, 569 were reported as trapped.
b
      Estimated totals and statewide pelt value were determined based on the assumption that trappers reporting a harvest
      represented 78% of the actual harvest if all active trappers had submitted a harvest report.



FURPR97                                       14
Table 4.  Bobcat and lynx pelts checked in at regional and subregional offices
          by trappers and hunters and tagged with U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service
          export tags, 1986-87 through 1996-97. The lynx harvest season was
          closed following the 1995-96 season.
______________________________________________________________________________
                                               Pelts Tagged
Year                                Bobcat                      Lynx

1986-87                             1,034                       0
1987-88                             1,035                       0
1988-89                               952                       0
1989-90                               738                       1
1990-91                               523                       0
1991-92                               640                       2
1992-93                               754                       0
1993-94                               533                       0
1994-95                               794                       0
1995-96                               421                       0
1996-97                             1,018                       0
______________________________________________________________________________




Table 5.       Bobcat harvest report for the 1996-97 season according to IDFG region
               and method of take.


                                                       METHOD OF TAKE (%)
                    TOTAL                                         With        Incidental
   REGION          HARVEST         Trapping       Calling        Hounds        Hunting     Misc.*

 Panhandle          149     (15)          46                 2        89              10            2

 Clearwater         124     (12)          31                14        64              15            0

 Grangeville         67     (07)              7              3        57               0            0

 Southwest          177     (17)         139                 9        20               9            0

 Garden City         48     (05)          27                 6            3           12            0

 McCall              18     (02)          11                 0            3            4            0

 Magic Valley       236     (23)         181                 6        15              33            1

 Southeast           54     (05)          22                 6            7           19            0

 Upper Snake         28     (03)          18                 3            5            2            0

 Salmon             117     (11)          87                 1        21               8            0

 TOTAL            1,018              569(56)           50(05)     284(28)        112(11)     3(<01)
*Misc. = Road kill or unknown.




FURPR97                                           15
Table 6.         Sex and age distribution of Idaho bobcats harvested during the 1995-96
                 and 1996-97 seasons based on physical examination for sex and canine
                 tooth examination and cementum analysis. Percent of totals are in
                 parentheses.

                         TOTAL NUMBERS            NUMBER OF MALES       NUMBER OF FEMALES
        AGEa           1995-96      1996-97      1995-96   1996-97      1995-96   1996-97
                           b            c
             0              106         236           36        80           39        104
             1                 53       110           26        58           27         52
             2                 48       137           23        73           25         64
             3                 51           71        29        42           22         29
             4                 59       109           41        74           18         35
             5                 35       101           22        70           13         31
             6                 27           73        17        47           10         26
             7                 16           38         7        28            9         10
             8                 12           26         9        18            3             8
             9                  2           19         1        15            1             4
         10                     1           11         1            7         0             4
         11                     1            4         0            2         1             2
         12                     1            6         1            5         0             1
         13                     0            3         0            1         0             2
         14                     1            2         1            2         0             0
         15                     0            2         0            1         0             1
    Totals                  413         948      214(56)   523(58)      168(44)    373(42)
    Avg. Age:              2.78        3.11
    Avg. Age (M):          3.28        3.71
  Avg. Age (F):      2.25       2.69
a
   Age reflects age at last birthday, using April as the approximate date of
   birth.
b
   Total age 0 is more than the sum of male and female because it includes 31 of
   unknown gender.
c
   Total age 0 is more than the sum of male and female because it includes 52 of
   unknown gender.




FURPR97                                          16
Table 7.  Sex and age of harvested bobcats, based on examination of canines and
          cementum analyses, 1989-90 through 1996-97a. Percent is based on the
          total number of teeth examined.
______________________________________________________________________________
                                                         Juvenilesb
           Teeth      Adult             Adult            & Subadults
  Year    Examined   Females    (%)     Males    (%)     (<2 Years)      (%)

1989-90     725       184       (25)    293      (40)        248        (34)
1990-91     418        92       (22)    148      (35)        178        (43)
1991-92     581       126       (22)    247      (42)        208        (36)
1992-93     754       168       (22)    268      (36)        318        (42)
1993-94     504       223       (44)    211      (42)         70        (14)
1994-95     776       218       (28)    253      (33)        305        (39)
1995-96     413       102       (25)    150      (36)        159        (38)
1996-97     948       217       (23)    385      (41)        346        (36)
______________________________________________________________________________
a
    Milk canines and those with open root canals were aged as juveniles, male
    canines with closed root canals were aged as adults, female canines with
    closed root canals were sectioned and the annuli counted, sex based on canines
    with closed canals was determined by measurement (Johnson, et al. 1981). Sex
    of juveniles was not determined.
b
    Age reflects age at last birthday, using April as the approximate date of
    birth.




FURPR97                                 17
Table 8.   Ages of harvested female bobcats determined by cementum analyses, 1985-86 through 1996-97a.
           Percentages are in parentheses.
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
                                                     Ageb                                          Total
Year           0         1         2         2           3         4          5           6+      Sample

1985-86                               213 (51)   89 (21)     33 ( 8)    34 (08)   30 (07)    23 (05) 422
1986-87                               220 (47)   51 (11)     72 (15)    44 (09)   35 (07)    50 (11) 472
1987-88                               312 (61)   43 (08)     38 (07)    27 (05)   31 (06)    65 (13) 516
1988-89                               338 (70)   54 (11)     16 (03)    15 (03)   23 (05)    38 (08) 484
1989-90                               171 (49)   70 (20)     40 (11)    17 (05)   10 (03)    40 (11) 348
1990-91                               107 (54)   35 (18)     27 (14)     9 (05)    5 (02)    16 (08) 199
1991-92                               117 (51)   42 (18)     24 (11)    14 (06)    8 (04)    24 (10) 229
1992-93                               159 (49)   70 (21)     36 (11)    18 (06)   15 (05)    29 (09) 327
1993-94                                89 (34)   66 (26)     42 (16)    24 (09)    7 (03)    30 (12) 258
1994-95                               152 (41)   53 (14)     58 (16)    48 (13)   17 (05)    41 (11) 370
                  c
1995-96            39 (23)  27 (16)    66 (39)   25 (15)     22 (13)    18 (11)   13 (08)    24 (14) 168
                d
1996-97          104 (28)   52 (14)   156 (42)   64 (17)     29 (08)    35 (09)   31 (08)    58 (16) 373
__________________________________________________________________________________________________________
a
    Between 1991-92 and 1994-95, half the juveniles with open root canals were assumed to be females.   During
    previous years, the sex reported by trappers and hunters was used.
b
    Age reflects age at last birthday, using April as the approximate date of birth.
c
    There were 31 additional juveniles of unknown gender.
d
    There were 52 additional juveniles of unknown gender.




FURPR97                                18
Table 9.  Fisher and otter caught accidentally by trappers and turned in to the
          Department for a payment of $5.00 each, 1990-91 through 1996-97.
______________________________________________________________________________
                                  Region Where
Species                         Animal Was Trapped*
Turned In          1      2     3     4     5     6     7     Unk.    Total

Fisher

1990-91                  1                                             1
1991-92                  1                                             1
1992-93                  1                                             1
1993-94                                                                0
1994-95                  3                                             3
1995-96                  1                                             1
Total                    6                                             7

Otter

1990-91             1    4     3     2     1     3     6              20
1991-92             6    1     6    11     3     4     5              36
1992-93             2    4     5     2           4     4       2      23
1993-94            10    5     5     2     1     1     8              32
1994-95            10    9     5     1     1     1     4              31
1995-96             3    1     7     4           4     8              27
1996-97             7    1     8     4           6     9              35
Total              39   25    39    26     6    23    44       2     204
______________________________________________________________________________

* Regions: 1=Panhandle, 2=Clearwater, 3=Southwest, 4=Magic Valley, 5=Southeast,
  6=Upper Snake, 7=Salmon




FURPR97                               19
FURPR97   20
Fig. 1.   Bobcat age distribution for 413 animals harvested in the 1995-96 season and 948 animals
          harvested during 1996-97. Age was based on canine tooth examination and cementum analysis.




FURPR97                                         21
FURPR97   22
Fig. 2.   Distribution of trapping effort, according to county, based on trapper response when asked
          which county or counties they normally trapped in (n=567).




FURPR97                                         23
                          APPENDIX 1



          MANDATORY TRAPPER REPORT FORM WITH SURVEY




FURPR97                       24
FURPR97   25
FURPR97   26
                    APPENDIX 2



                   1996 AND 1997

          FURBEARER HARVEST REGULATIONS




FURPR97                 27
FURPR97   28
FURPR97   29
FURPR97   30
FURPR97   31
FURPR97   32
                           APPENDIX 3



  SUMMARY OF FURBEARER DEPREDATION KILL PERMITS ISSUED IN EACH
  IDFG ADMINISTRATIVE REGION, NUMBER OF ANIMALS AUTHORIZED FOR
          REMOVAL, AND NUMBER OF ANIMALS REMOVED, 1996.




FURPR97                        33
Appendix 2-1. Summary of furbearer depredation kill permits issued in the Panhandle
              Region, number of animals authorized for removal, and number of animals
              removed, 1996.

                                               SPECIES

                 BADGE             BOB-   MARTE          MUSKRA     RACCOO    RED
     COUNTY        R     BEAVER    CAT      N     MINK     T           N      FOX

 B    PERMITS
 O     ISSUED                  5
 U
 N    ANIMALS
 D   AUTHORIZE
 A       D                    32
 R
 Y   ANIMALS
     REMOVED                   9

 B    PERMITS
 O     ISSUED                  1
 N
 N    ANIMALS
 E   AUTHORIZE
 R       D                    15

     ANIMALS
     REMOVED                   0

 K    PERMITS
 O     ISSUED                  6                                1         1
 O
 T    ANIMALS
 E   AUTHORIZE
 N       D                    38                               12         1
 A
 I   ANIMALS
     REMOVED                   6                                6         1

 S    PERMITS
 H     ISSUED                  1
 O
 S    ANIMALS
 H   AUTHORIZE
 O       D                     2
 N
 E   ANIMALS
     REMOVED                   0

 B    PERMITS
 E     ISSUED
 N
 E    ANIMALS
 W   AUTHORIZE
 A       D
 H
     ANIMALS
     REMOVED



FURPR97                                   34
          TOTALS:a
          PERMITS
           ISSUED

         ANIMALS
        AUTHORIZE
            D

         ANIMALS
         REMOVED
a
    The total number of animals removed is for 34 permits; information was not available on 8 of the permits when this report
    was prepared.




FURPR97                                                      35
Appendix 2-2. Summary of furbearer depredation kill permits issued in the Clearwater
              Region, number of animals authorized for removal, and number of animals
              removed, 1996.


                                                SPECIES
                                     BO                                         RE
                                     B-                                          D
                  BADG     BEAV      CA     MART     MIN    MUSKR      RACC     FO
     COUNTY        ER       ER        T      EN       K      AT        OON       X

 C   PERMITS
 L    ISSUED                     1
 E
 A   ANIMALS
 R   AUTHORI
 W     ZED                       4
 A
 T   ANIMALS
 E   REMOVE
 R      D                        0

 I PERMITS
 D  ISSUED                       1     1
 A
 H ANIMALS
 O AUTHORI
      ZED                        2     1
     ANIMALS
     REMOVE
        D                        2     0

 N   PERMITS
 E    ISSUED
 Z
     ANIMALS
 P   AUTHORI
 E     ZED
 R ANIMALS
 C REMOVE
 E    D




FURPR97                                    36
 L PERMITS
 A  ISSUED    1
 T
 A ANIMALS
 H AUTHORI
      ZED     2
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D      0

    TOTALS:
    PERMITS
     ISSUED   3   1
    ANIMALS
    AUTHORI
      ZED     8   1
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D      2   0




FURPR97               37
Appendix 2-3. Summary of furbearer depredation kill permits issued in the Southwest Region
              (excluding the McCall Subregion), number of animals authorized for removal,
              and number of animals removed, 1996.


                                                SPECIES
                                     BO
                                     B-
                  BAD      BEAV      CA    MART      MIN     MUSK      RACC       RED
   COUNTY         GER       ER        T     EN        K      RAT       OON        FOX

 A PERMITS
 D ISSUED
 A
   ANIMALS
   AUTHORI
     ZED
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D

 B PERMITS
 O ISSUED
 I
 S ANIMALS
 E AUTHORI
     ZED
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D

 C PERMITS
 A ISSUED
 N
 Y ANIMALS
 O AUTHORI
 N   ZED
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D




FURPR97                                    38
                                     SPECIES
                           BO
                           B-
              BAD   BEAV   CA   MART    MIN    MUSK   RACC   RED
   COUNTY     GER    ER     T    EN      K     RAT    OON    FOX

    PERMITS
     ISSUED
    ANIMALS
    AUTHORI
      ZED
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D

 E PERMITS
 L ISSUED
 M
 O ANIMALS
 R AUTHORI
 E   ZED
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D

 G PERMITS
 E ISSUED
 M
   ANIMALS
   AUTHORI
     ZED
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D

 O PERMITS
 W ISSUED




FURPR97                         39
                                      SPECIES
                            BO
                            B-
               BAD   BEAV   CA   MART    MIN    MUSK   RACC   RED
     COUNTY    GER    ER     T    EN      K     RAT    OON    FOX
 Y ANIMALS
 H AUTHORI
 E   ZED
 E
   ANIMALS
   REMOVE
      D

 P   PERMITS
 A    ISSUED
 Y
 E   ANIMALS
 T   AUTHORI
 T     ZED
 E   ANIMALS
     REMOVE
        D

 W   PERMITS
 A    ISSUED
 S
 H   ANIMALS
 I   AUTHORI
 N     ZED
 G
 T   ANIMALS
 O   REMOVE
 N      D

     TOTALS:
     PERMITS
      ISSUED
     ANIMALS
     AUTHORI
       ZED


FURPR97                          40
                                     SPECIES
                           BO
                           B-
              BAD   BEAV   CA   MART    MIN    MUSK   RACC   RED
   COUNTY     GER    ER     T    EN      K     RAT    OON    FOX
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D




FURPR97                         41
Appendix 2-4. Summary of furbearer depredation kill permits issued in the McCall Subregion
              (Southwest Region), number of animals authorized for removal, and number of
              animals removed, 1996.


                                                SPECIES
                                     BO
                                     B-
                  BADG     BEAV      CA     MAR     MI     MUSK      RACC        RED
   COUNTY          ER       ER        T     TEN     NK     RAT       OON         FOX

 A PERMITS
 D ISSUED                        8                                          1          1
 A
 M ANIMALS
 S AUTHORI                 Unlimit                                   Unlimit    Unlimite
     ZED                        ed                                        ed           d
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D                        16                                          0          0

 I PERMITS
 D ISSUED                        1
 A
 H ANIMALS
 O AUTHORI
     ZED                         6
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D                         2

 V PERMITS
 A ISSUED                        4                                          1          3
 L
 L ANIMALS
 E AUTHORI
     ZED                        30                                        20          15




FURPR97                                    42
 Y




     ANIMALS
     REMOVE
        D          12          15     5

 W   PERMITS
 A    ISSUED        2
 S
 H   ANIMALS
 I   AUTHORI   Unlimit
 N     ZED          ed
 G
 T   ANIMALS
 O   REMOVE
 N      D           0

     TOTALS:
     PERMITS
      ISSUED       15           3     4
     ANIMALS
     AUTHORI
       ZED        36+         20+   15+
     ANIMALS
     REMOVE
        D          30          15     5




FURPR97                  43
Appendix 2-5. Summary of furbearer depredation kill permits issued in the Magic Valley
              Region, number of animals authorized for removal, and number of animals
              removed, 1996.


                                              SPECIES
                                   BO
                                   B-
                  BAD     BEAV     CA    MART      MIN    MUSK      RACC       RED
   COUNTY         GER      ER       T     EN        K     RAT       OON        FOX

 B PERMITS
 L ISSUED                      8                                          1
 A
 I ANIMALS
 N AUTHORI
 E   ZED                      35                                          1
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D                       7                                          0

 C PERMITS
 A ISSUED                      1
 M
 A ANIMALS
 S AUTHORI
     ZED                      15
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D                       0

 C PERMITS
 A ISSUED                      1                                2
 S
 S ANIMALS
 I AUTHORI
 A   ZED                       3                               32
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D                       3                               10




FURPR97                                  44
                                      SPECIES
                            BO
                            B-
               BAD   BEAV   CA   MART    MIN    MUSK   RACC   RED
     COUNTY    GER    ER     T    EN      K     RAT    OON    FOX

 E PERMITS
 L ISSUED
 M
 O ANIMALS
 R AUTHORI
 E   ZED
     ANIMALS
     REMOVE
        D

 G   PERMITS
 O    ISSUED            2                   1
 O
 D   ANIMALS
 I   AUTHORI
 N     ZED             19                   1
 G   ANIMALS
     REMOVE
        D              15                   1

 L   PERMITS
 I    ISSUED            1
 N
 C   ANIMALS
 O   AUTHORI
 L     ZED              6
 N   ANIMALS
     REMOVE
        D               2

 M PERMITS
 I  ISSUED              1




FURPR97                          45
                                      SPECIES
                            BO
                            B-
               BAD   BEAV   CA   MART    MIN    MUSK    RACC   RED
     COUNTY    GER    ER     T    EN      K     RAT     OON    FOX
 N   ANIMALS
 I   AUTHORI
 D     ZED              3
 O
 K   ANIMALS
 A   REMOVE
        D               1

 T PERMITS
 W ISSUED               2
 I
 N ANIMALS
   AUTHORI
 F   ZED               12
 A
 L ANIMALS
 L REMOVE
 S    D                 1

     TOTALS:
     PERMITS
      ISSUED           16                   1       2      1
     ANIMALS
     AUTHORI
       ZED             93                   1      32      1
     ANIMALS
     REMOVE
        D              29                   1      10      0




FURPR97                          46
Appendix 2-6. Summary of furbearer depredation kill permits issued in the Southeast Region,
              number of animals authorized for removal, and number of animals removed,
              1996.
                                                 SPECIES
                                     BO
                                     B-
                 BADG      BEAV      CA    MART      MIN     MUSK       RACC       RED
   COUNTY         ER        ER        T     EN        K      RAT        OON        FOX

 B PERMITS
 A ISSUED
 N
 N ANIMAL
 O     S
 C AUTHOR
 K   IZED
    ANIMAL
       S
    REMOVE
       D

 B PERMITS
 E ISSUED
 A
 R ANIMAL
       S
 L AUTHOR
 K   IZED
    ANIMAL
       S
    REMOVE
       D

 B PERMITS
 I  ISSUED                                                                    1
 N
 G ANIMAL
 H     S
 A AUTHOR
     IZED                                                                     1



FURPR97                                     47
                                       SPECIES
                             BO
                             B-
               BADG   BEAV   CA   MART    MIN    MUSK   RACC     RED
  COUNTY        ER     ER     T    EN      K     RAT    OON      FOX
 M ANIMAL
        S
     REMOVE                                             Unknow
        D                                                    n

 C PERMITS
 A ISSUED
 R
 I ANIMAL
 B     S
 O AUTHOR
 U   IZED
     ANIMAL
        S
     REMOVE
        D

 F   PERMITS
 R    ISSUED
 A
 N   ANIMAL
 K      S
 L   AUTHOR
 I    IZED
 N   ANIMAL
        S
     REMOVE
        D

 O PERMITS
 N ISSUED
 E
 I ANIMAL
 D     S
 A AUTHOR
     IZED

FURPR97                           48
                                      SPECIES
                            BO
                            B-
              BADG   BEAV   CA   MART    MIN    MUSK   RACC   RED
  COUNTY       ER     ER     T    EN      K     RAT    OON    FOX
    ANIMAL
       S
    REMOVE
       D

 P PERMITS
 O ISSUED
 W
 E ANIMAL
 R     S
   AUTHOR
     IZED
    ANIMAL
       S
    REMOVE
       D

    TOTALS:
    PERMITS
     ISSUED
    ANIMAL
       S
    AUTHOR
     IZED
    ANIMAL
       S
    REMOVE
       D




FURPR97                          49
Appendix 2-7. Summary of furbearer depredation kill permits issued in the Upper Snake
              Region, number of animals authorized for removal, and number of animals
              removed, 1996 (continued).

Appendix 2-7. Summary of furbearer depredation kill permits issued in the Upper Snake
              Region, number of animals authorized for removal, and number of animals
              removed, 1996.


                                              SPECIES
                                    BO
                                    B-
                 BAD     BEAV       CA   MART     MIN    MUSK      RACC       RED
     COUNTY      GER      ER         T    EN       K     RAT       OON        FOX
 B
 O
     PERMITS
 N    ISSUED                  12                                         3
 N
 E
 V
     ANIMALS                106
 I   AUTHORI                   2
 L
 L     ZED                unlist.                                        6
 E
     ANIMALS
     REMOVE
        D                     19                                         4

 B PERMITS
 U ISSUED
 T
 T ANIMALS
 E AUTHORI
     ZED
     ANIMALS
     REMOVE
        D

 C PERMITS
 L ISSUED                      2
 A
 R ANIMALS
 K AUTHORI
     ZED                      75




FURPR97                                  50
Appendix 2-7. Summary of furbearer depredation kill permits issued in the Upper Snake
              Region, number of animals authorized for removal, and number of animals
              removed, 1996 (continued).

                                              SPECIES
                                    BO
                                    B-
                 BAD     BEAV       CA   MART     MIN    MUSK      RACC       RED
     COUNTY      GER      ER         T    EN       K     RAT       OON        FOX
     ANIMALS
     REMOVE               unkno
        D                    wn

 F   PERMITS
 R    ISSUED                  17
 E
 M   ANIMALS                100
 O   AUTHORI                   1
 N     ZED                unlist.
 T   ANIMALS
     REMOVE
        D                     58
 J   PERMITS
 E
 F    ISSUED                   6
 E
 R
 S
     ANIMALS
 O   AUTHORI
 N
       ZED                    45
     ANIMALS
     REMOVE
        D                      5

 M PERMITS
 A ISSUED                      4
 D
 I ANIMALS
 S AUTHORI
     ZED                      33




FURPR97                                  51
Appendix 2-7. Summary of furbearer depredation kill permits issued in the Upper Snake
              Region, number of animals authorized for removal, and number of animals
              removed, 1996 (continued).

                                                   SPECIES
                                        BO
                                        B-
                     BAD      BEAV      CA    MART      MIN     MUSK      RACC   RED
     COUNTY          GER       ER        T     EN        K      RAT       OON    FOX
    O ANIMALS
    N REMOVE
         D                        10

    T PERMITS
    E ISSUED                       2
    T
    O ANIMALS
    N AUTHORI
        ZED                       20
       ANIMALS
       REMOVE
          D                       10

       TOTALS:a
       PERMITS
        ISSUED                    21
       ANIMALS
       AUTHORI
         ZED                      93
       ANIMALS
       REMOVE
          D                        9                                  1

a
    The information is incomplete and the counties were not identified.




FURPR97                                       52
Appendix 2-8. Summary of furbearer depredation kill permits issued in the Salmon Region,
              number of animals authorized for removal, and number of animals removed,
              1996.


                                               SPECIES
                                    BO
                                    B-
                  BAD     BEAV      CA    MART      MIN    MUSK       RACC      RED
   COUNTY         GER      ER        T     EN        K     RAT        OON       FOX

 C PERMITS
 U ISSUED                       6
 S
 T ANIMALS
 E AUTHORI
 R   ZED                       52
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D                       17

 L PERMITS
 E ISSUED                      20
 M
 H ANIMALS
 I AUTHORI
     ZED                      259
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D                       71

    TOTALS:
    PERMITS
     ISSUED                    26
    ANIMALS
    AUTHORI
      ZED                     311
    ANIMALS
    REMOVE
       D                       88


FURPR97                                   53
Submitted by:




Wayne E. Melquist
State Furbearer Coordinator




 Approved by:

 IDAHO DEPARTMENT OF FISH AND GAME




 John Beecham
 Wildlife Game and Research Manager
 Federal Aid Coordinator




 Steven M. Huffaker, Chief
 Bureau of Wildlife



FURPR97                               54

				
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