DOCUMENTING SOURCES

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					                                            DOCUMENTING SOURCES

A SOCIAL SCIENCE student depends a great deal on the writings of others. When we RESEARCH & WRITE it is
important that we acknowledge all the sources we use.

All ideas, opinions, statistics and quotations that are not our own must be referenced. Plagiarism—the act of passing off
the ideas, opinions, words, or statistics of someone else as if they were our own—is a serious academic offence. To avoid
plagiarism we must always reference the work of others.

Information which must be referenced within our work are:

    1. Direct Quotations

Evan Esar claimed that "Canada's climate is nine months winter and three months in the late fall."

Indeed, "Canadians have been accustomed to define themselves by saying what they are not."

    2. All Opinions or Ideas Not Our Own

Rephrasing a quotation does not mean we do not have to reference it. For instance, the great scholar Northrop Frye once
wrote: "Historically, a Canadian is an American who rejects the Revolution." We might agree with this comment and wish
to express it in our own words: Canadians are very much like Americans but without the Revolutionary heritage.
Although written in our own words, the above idea is not our own; it is Northrop Frye's. We must therefore make proper
reference to the original source.

    3. All Statistics such as:

       2,510 individuals died in the war.
       49.4% of Quebecers voted for separatism in the 1995 referendum.

Information that is common knowledge, however, need not be referenced.

       The war started in 1914.
       Millions were killed during the Second World War.
       Violence erupted during the Winnipeg General Strike.

How do we reference the work of others to avoid plagiarism?

FOOTNOTES & ENDNOTES

A footnote or endnote makes a clear reference to the source of information. Footnotes are numbered sequentially and are
found at the bottom of a page. Endnotes are the same, but are found at the end of your document. Both contain the
following information:

Name of Author, Title, (Place of Publication: Publisher, Year of Publication) page number.

Final Note:

To avoid plagiarism, reference all sources that you have depended on for any information or opinion.

                                                                                                                          5

From: Community and Change: Canada, p. 513
                                                        HOW DO I DOCUMENT SOURCES?

There are several methods used to document sources in a piece of writing. Two of the most common methods are MLA, created by
the Modern Language Association, and the Chicago Manuel of Style . You can use the Internet to find step-by-step guides to
documenting every type of source using either of these methods. The key is to choose a method and stick to it throughout your
work. At the end of your writing, you must include a WORKS CITED (aka bibliography) PAGE.

Again, be consistent. If you choose MLA (refering to source in brackets), use MLA throughout the work including the works cited
page. If you choose to use the Chicago Manuel of Style (use of footnotes), use it throughout. DO NOT MIX THE TWO.

Both methods are equally common and used. Always ask the teacher if there is a preferred method. For the purpose of this
course, YOU MAY CHOOSE. The key is TO DOCUMENT your sources and use A CONSISTENT METHOD OF NOTATION!


The Chicago Manuel of Style:       http://www.chicagomanualofstyle.org/tools_citationguide.html
MLA:       https://library.georgetown.edu/tutorials/research-guides/mla-guide

TO HELP YOU, HERE ARE SOME COMMON USES OF MLA. YOU MAY NEED TO LOOK UP THE CORRECT METHOD FOR OTHER
SPECIFIC TYPES OF SOURCES. AT THE END OF THE DOCUMENT, YOU MUST INCLUDE A WORKS CITED OR BIBLIOGRAPHY.

MLA: PARENTHETICAL DOCUMENTATION (documenting in brackets)

When using MLA documentation style, you need to reference your sources by using a combination of a list of works cited (see below) and
parenthetical notation. Whenever you refer to or use another's words, facts or ideas in your paper, you are required to cite the source.
Generally, brief parenthetical notations consisting of the author's last name and a page reference are sufficient. For example: (Drucker 30).
Note: If you mention the author in your sentence, then you need only cite the page number. And if you cite more than one work by the same
author, include the title of the work in your notation. For example: (Drucker, Management Cases 30).
Examples:

1. ONE AUTHOR

1. The character Folly denies satirizing Christianity when she says, "it is no part of my present plan to rummage through the lives of popes and priests," yet she spends
much of her encomium doing just that (Erasmus 115).

2. TWO OR MORE AUTHORS
1. Max Weber purported that value systems could be studied "without the social scientist's own values distorting such studies" (Keat and Urry 196).
2. According to Russell Keat and John Urry in Social Science as Theory, Max Weber believed that value systems could be studied "without the social scientist's own
values distorting such studies" (196).

3. Max Weber believed that individuals can objectively study values without their own values interfering with their judgment (Keat and Urry 196).
3. CORPORATE AUTHOR

1. Children of Central and Eastern Europe have not escaped the nutritional ramifications of iron deficiency, a worldwide problem (UNICEF 44).

4. NO AUTHOR

1. Marketers of health services and products will find the National Center for Health Statistics' site useful, particularly its statistics on mortality rates. Discovering a
population's leading causes of death "tells the researcher a lot about its underlying health problems" ("Information to Die For" 40).

5. ONLINE RESOURCE

If the work is not paginated, include the name of the author or editor within the context of your sentence (for example, from a discussion list).
           Posting on the VICTORIA listserv, Karen O'Connell mentioned a relevant novel by Wilkie Collins that deals with the 19th-
century use of arsenic as a complexion improver.

If the work is paginated, cite it as you would a print resource.

Marketers of health services and products will find the National Center for Health Statistics' site useful, particularly its statistics on mortality rates. Discovering a
population's leading causes of death "tells the researcher a lot about its underlying health problems" ("Information to Die For" 40).

				
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