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					Geopolitics of Energy

  United States of America

  Russian Federation

  People´s Republic of China




      KS Energy and Sustainable Development, SS 2011
         Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic
                                                                                        USA
     Energy Consumption
                          USA                        8,000 kilo oil equivalent
                          Austria                    4,000 kilo oil equivalent




Source:
U.S. Energy Information Administration

   Geopolitics of energy                 Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic    Pagina 2
                                                                         USA
Energy Production




Source:
U.S. Energy Information
Administration


Geopolitics of energy     Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic    Pagina 3
                                                                       USA
 Import & Export
 • 24% of consumed energy is imported energy




Geopolitics of energy   Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic    Pagina 4
                                                                       USA
   Geopolitical strategies
                                                   The gulf region

 • 2010:         30 % of global oil production
                 55 % of global oil reserves

 • dependence of industrialized
   countries

 • influence on bordering countries
       – containment of russian and chinese
         interests

Geopolitics of energy   Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic    Pagina 5
                                                                       USA
 Geopolitical strategies
                                                     Nabucco-Pipeline

• from Azerbaijan to Austria

• influence balance of forces in the
  Middle-East & Central Asia

• power of Russia could be reduced

• USA tries to improve their relations
  to the participating countries
Geopolitics of energy   Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic    Pagina 6
Energy Consumption                                                   Russian
                                                                     Federation


 • Total energy consumption:
   686,757 kt of oil equivalent

 • Energy consumption per capita:
   4,838 t of oil equivalent

 • Total consumption of electricity enrgy:
   725,460 GWh

 • Total consumption of heat energy:
   4,757,649 TJ

Geopolitics of energy   Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic     Pagina 7
                                                                     Russian
                                                                     Federation
Energy Production
 • Total energy production:
   1,253,922 kt of oil equivalent




Geopolitics of energy   Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic     Pagina 8
                                                                     Russian
                                                                     Federation
Imports & Exports
• 2nd largest exporter of oil
  (largest non-OPEC member) –
  5,43 million bbl/day (2009)

• Largest exporter of natural gas
  – 179,1 billion m³ (2009)

• Russia is energetically self-
  sustained

Geopolitics of energy   Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic     Pagina 9
                                                                      Russian
                                                                      Federation
European reliance on Natural Gas

• Interruptions in gas supplies
  because of disputes between Russia
  and the Ukraine in January 2009
• „North Stream“ and „South Stream“
  pipeline projects should establish a
  direct connection between Russia
  and the EU
• Competition in form of the Nabucco
  pipeline, which circumvents Russia

Geopolitics of energy   Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic     Pagina 10
                                                                       Russian
                                                                       Federation
Russia as an energy superpower
 • High dependence of
   neighbors on russian
   energy exports

 • Russia uses this
   dependence as a policy
   tool to influence its
   neighboring states

 • Race for the Arctic

Geopolitics of energy   Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic     Pagina 11
                                                                     Russian
                                                                     Federation
Cooperation with China
 • Pipeline project valued at $ 25 M
   which connects Russia and China

 • Russia brings oil on the Asian-
   Pacific market

 • Reduction of the reliance on
   European trading partners while
   simultaneously opening new
   markets

Geopolitics of energy   Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic    Pagina 12
  Republic of China
 many ressources

 1.3 billion people

 Energy self sufficent untill 1993

 enormous growth rates, energy production could
 not keep pace

 growing purchasing power through
 industrialisation

 BRICS
Geopolitics of energy   Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic   Pagina 13
                                                                            China




Geopolitics of energy   Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic           Pagina 14
                                                                            China
Brazilian Pipeline
 1050 km pipeline to connect
 south-east and north-east
 Brazil

 export-corridor

 900 million USD loan to
 Brazil, half the sum in Yuan

 repaid in oil




Geopolitics of energy   Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic       Pagina 15
                                                                            China
Venezuela Joint Venture
 contract between Petróleos de Venezuela and China
 National Petroleum Corporation

 exploration, production, oil marketing and transportation

 50.000 barrels/day in 2012
 400.000 barrels/day in 2016 for 25 years




Geopolitics of energy   Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic       Pagina 16
                                                                            China
Angola

 Angola provides 25% of Chinas oil Imports

 China International Fund Ltd
 Imex Bank
         Luand International Airport
         Hydro Power Plants
         Railway
         …

 little influence of IMF, because of chinese Investment




Geopolitics of energy   Martin Guggenberger, Kerstin Schopf, Anton Sentic       Pagina 17

				
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