ERP Implementation A Complete Guide by weboriez

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Mr. Ijaz Haider Malik , Mr. Umar Malik , Despite of the many reasons, the biggest challenges are choosing the right solution with the right vendor and its effective implementation according to the requirements of the business. In fact, in 42% of the cases when new business applications are under consideration, the ERP is the default decision without even looking anywhere else[2]. Rapid changes in businesses have thrown away the idea of bespoke and fusion solutions. The biggest fear of an enterprise for the ERP implementation is the failure rate: 51% have experienced their ERP implementation as unsuccessful [1]. It becomes more painful as the ERP implementation is the most expensive in the field of IT. Generally, the ERP is considered as the back bone of an organization. But, the ERP is in fact the combination of backbone, reflex system and the back part of the brain i.e., organization’s main support, assurance to comply with the processes and business rules and centralized storage of data. There are three basic stages for an ERP implementation: pre-implementation, during and post implementation. All ERP implementation stages are equally difficult and full of challenges. Any loose brick can bring the whole implementation down. As the post stage is dependent on the prior stages, hence the importance sequence is pre, during and Post Implementation. To keep up with the growing customer demands and fast changes in business trends, the enterprise must have the flexibility and agility to change quickly. And this could only be possible if the ERP solution is implemented successfully: aligned with the business requirements along with the seamless information flow between the modules and across departments. In this space age, everything is sought with extreme sense of urgency and there is no room for duplication of data inputs and serial processing [11].

ERP implementations in the South Asian countries, are comparatively different, harder and financially very expensive than the other parts of the worlds. This is because of different socio-economic conditions, working style of businesses, their operation methods and low currency comparative to international currencies. Most of the well renowned ERP solutions and their licenses are in foreign currencies such as Dollar, Pound or Sterling. When, a third world country would like to implement an ERP solution, investment becomes many folds due to the currency difference. But, the post implementation cost is lesser than the international market due to the cheaper labor cost. With the growing market of mobile operators in Pakistan, PTCL as a landline operator needs the cutting edge technology as its products and operations. Though, the ERP implementation has high cost but without it, gap between expenses and revenue could not be widened: profit only comes with less cost and high revenue. Making a decision for the ERP implementation is a huge and tough task for the management. But, the tougher is its proper implementation and post implementation monitoring and maintenance.

1.0 Introduction
A proper ERP solution has become a vital need of this era for the enterprises due to the market globalization and day by day growing competition. For the very fact, the ERP solution has become mandatory for an enterprise to run the business in an effective and efficient way. But, before going for the implementation of an ERP solution, an enterprise has gone through immense hard-hitting times: choosing the right solution, planning, selection of implementation team and managing the change. Whether it is an ERP implementation or reimplementation, it should be well thought as its life spreads over many years.

2.0 Pre Implementation
a) An ERP Solution Required or Not? Before the ERP implementation, the first question is to whether the organization does require new ERP solution or not? And, the answer does not come easy. It needs an immense amount of work to come up with final facts and figures. Writing the ERP Initial Documentation needs combination of the business experience and in depth knowledge of the ERP implementations. Once facts and figures appear on the paper, budget approval from the Board of Directors along with a convincing presentation is another hard part for the management. Without proper approved budget, the implementation is just a dream with no wings. b) Scope of Work Scope of work should be clear with achievable objectives. A normal ERP implementation has the following modules: Finance & Accounting, Material Management and Human Capital Management. Though, organizational scope can be more or less than the above mentioned. Almost all ERP Solutions offer individual modules or combination of more than one as per clients’ requirements. The organization can opt for the modular scope. Even from some solutions, the organization may select desired sub modules and leave the rest. Many ERP installations failed due to undefined scope of work and project goals. c) Steering Committee An ERP implementation can not be successful without the support from the highest management. For the very reason, the steering committee should be formed with “C” level management members. Few members from the board of directors in the committee may also be helpful for the easy release of the budget whenever required. The steering committee enables the project management team with proper mandate and to overrule the red tape issues which can be the bottlenecks for the ERP implementation. Not only the steering committee pushes the business towards the ERP

implementation, but also it is evaluating the implementation team and its progress towards the end. While forming a steering committee, the CEO of the organization must realizes that it should be of apt size with the best suited members. Sometimes, a huge sized steering committee cannot make decisions due to diverse members. d) Preparedness An ERP implementation’s success depends upon the preparedness before the implementation. The business requirements and business rules should be properly documented and signed off from stake holders and senior potential users. The implementation with inadequate documentation is an open invitation to failure. The legacy systems’ plus and minus points should also be documented so that the plus can be a part of implementation and the minus points can be avoided. Also record and document legacy application users’ comments as they are the actual users and they might give inside of the application to be required. Processes should be identified and they should be intact. Identify the pain points and touch points. Most of the time, the feedback from the actual users gets ignored with a thought that the ERP application is only for the use of management but actually it is for every one in an organization. e) Pre Evaluation After the budget approval, next is to select the apt ERP Solution. Almost all ERP systems available are good at some things, yet not so good at other. [3]. Selecting and implementing the most appropriate software package to support a company’s business processes is itself considered a best practice[5]. With the internet and fast intelligent search engines an enterprise can browse through hundreds and thousands of the web sites for best suited ERP Solutions and vendor profiles. Every ERP solution provider is claiming that they are the best ERP solution providers. According to Boston-based AMR research about vendors ,”they will try their best to dazzle you with spectacular product demos

and enticing promises of a smooth sailing deployment”. But, thanks to reviews and white papers, a wide horizon of comparison between different ERP solutions has been reduced to top five: SAP AG, Oracle E-Business, J D Edwards, People Soft and Baan. According to some, it is just among two big giants: SAP and Oracle EBusiness Suite. Even, the major competition is between two big giants, it is a cumbersome activity for an enterprise to choose the right Solution. ERP solutions are so expensive that one wrong decision not only makes the implementation project a failure but sometimes also destroys the business itself. Ratio of ERP implementation’s success is much lower than failure. In most of the cases, enterprises take one to two years just to decide the apt solution according to their requirements. An Organization should not believe on Vendor’s provided evidences and implementation references. The Organization should also dig out figures and facts of the particular ERP solution at their own. And, should contact the references provided by the vendor to find out the exact problems they have faced and are facing with this solution. All organizations are different even if they are in the same business. Requirements and business processes are always different and so is the ERP implementation and solution. Though, the best practices might be followed to gain the best out of an ERP implementation. Along with the ERP solution, an organization should evaluate the business partners who are implementing the solution in your region. May be during the evaluation you find out that though the solution is excellent but the business partners of vendor have bad repute, financially unsound or are have inept resources for implementation. These really matter during the implementation.

Following should be considered while selecting an ERP selection: o Ease Of Use The first and vital feature of an ERP solution should be its ease of use. As if ease of use is missing it would have been very difficult to convince the end users to leave their legacy systems and start using the new application. In addition, ease of use brings efficiency in work and requires less resources to use it. o Cost Cost is the major factor of an ERP Implementation. Cost of implementation and support should not impact business to run its normal operation. Cost of an ERP implementation has different aspects and faces. Few of them are: license cost, support, maintenance, HR, hardware and infrastructure cost. Most important is the post implementation cost for maintenance and operation. As post implementation period is much larger than the implementation. 59% of implementations cost more than that initially assumed[8]. Customization Major difference between bespoke and ERP off the shelf solution is customization. If ERP solution configuration module is not strong enough to support the business and its changes then successful implementation could not be possible. ERP solution should provide flexible and comprehensive and easy to use configuration solution. Configuration solution should accommodate business changes and new requirements without going into development. Though, development feature should also be there to cater exceptional cases. But,


configuration solution should be strong, flexible and easy to use to cater most of the business changes. o Efficiency If an ERP solution is giving business everything but not efficiency, it means it is not a good ERP solution. As without efficiency, business could not achieve its targets and business requirements. The biggest differences between manual and automated system are efficiency and accuracy. Efficiency can be measured by number of transaction processed per second Accuracy Reliability comes from accuracy. If solution has issue with accuracy then it is not considered for ERP implementation. Accuracy of ERP solution can be measured with number of accurate results per number of transactions or queries. Accuracy is considered as the basic salient feature of an ERP solution and with it, the concept of ERP methodology could not be achieved. Comprehensive & Flexible Standard Reports End product and crux of an ERP solution is the reporting solution which can provide management the right reports at the right time to make timely correct decisions for the organization. If the standard reports cover sixty to seventy percent of an organization’s requirements, it should be considered as a good ERP Solution. Otherwise, more efforts will be required to develop the reports which result in an increase in cost and time of implementation. If the reporting solution is not flexible in terms of parameters, display options and

export to other applications such as Excel, CSV, PDF or text then there is a problem for the business. Reports are the source for information and hence authorization control at the low level is very important. Without proper authorization control on reports, it might put an organization at risk.



Integration ERP means modules integration and flow of data and information from one module to another module without effecting efficiency and accuracy. If ERP solution modules are not well integrated or there are issues with integration between modules then it should not be considered as the ERP Solution. As the strength of ERP is the integration of modules and data flows. Multi Currency ERP solution should support Multicurrency feature and it should be across the application. As few solutions only provide the option on few interfaces with limited functionalities. The ERP implementation should be well thought and it should at least cover five to seven years. Even, an organization does not need a multicurrency option, it should be part of implementation so that in future this could not be a bottleneck. Graphs ERP solution should have an option to see reports in graphical mode for the management to see figures and trends in less time. Graphical reports should be flexible to change the view as per requirement.





Business Intelligence ERP solution should provide its own Business Intelligence. The major advantage of ERP solution is to the Management to make quick decisions and for this very reason BI module availability in ERP Solution is definitely a plus. Using third party BI, slows down the main application and have more complexities and issues unlike if ERP solution has its own real time BI module. Support After implementation, support is very important while considering the ERP solution selection. After the successful implementation, there are chances that the application could not run along with the business if after implementation support is not good from the vendor or consultants. Often vendors or business partners put their all efforts to make the implementation successful but they vanish from the scene once their implementation contract is over. After implementation support though often mentioned in RFP but when time comes organizations found out the support was virtual and actual support. It is best practice to check the real support experience from the existing clientele of the vendor and consultants. Security An ERP solution should have a tight Security embedded into it and should have it at a granular level. In this era, security is considered to be the top most priority of the organizations. Business data is the most important asset of an organization. Comprehensive authorization mechanism is required to every organization which will enable

the management to provide apt access to their users according to their role. Security not only at the user’s authorization level but must also at the system level: protection from hackers or malicious computer applications. o Other considerations Most of the organizations fell into the traps of vendors and consultants. It is a marketing gimmick of vendors and consultants to come up with highly colored presentation with lots of good references of big brands. Organizations should not completely rely on vendors or consultants but they should check the actual truth by contacting the references provided by vendors or consultants. This will not only make their decision more practical but also would help them to negotiate prices with them. Following should be evaluated against the ERP solution: Age in market (number of years). Stability in market. Average Human Resources required for each module. Average cost of Human Resources required for operations, development and its support. How easy to find resources: human and other. Number of platforms it can support: Unix, Linux , Windows etc Cost of Infrastructure required and how easy to get that in market. Frequency of new releases and how easy to upgrade it? Frequency of bug fixing patches. Does it follow industry and business standards like ISO, CMMI etc?



Following should be evaluated against the vendor and consultant: Their Financial Strength Number of clientele Number of satisfied clients Proposal submitted by vendor should be reviewed legally and technically. They should offer transfer of technology (Knowledge transfer) They should not sublet contract to other companies. They should have their own seasoned professionals for all modules. f) Project Planning Once the ERP solution is selected, project planning is the major task to be performed between implementers and the organization. Project plan is the track of activities with date stamps, resource allocation from both the sides along with risks and dependencies. If project plan is followed with right pace, it gets the organization success in the implementation and open unlimited business opportunities. Project planning should follow the standards like PMP or Prince2. Project plan should have activities according to priorities. Risk should be covered in the project planning and steps should be taken to avoid risks and mitigation of risks. Regardless of your size and perceived resources, an ERP implementation is not something that should be approached without a great deal of careful planning [9]. g) Process Refinement (AS-IS , TO-BE) Documenting the AS-IS Business processes is the crucial activity of the process identification and its refinement. This could be achieved by conducting different sessions with the business stake holders. As enterprise has a large number of employees so it is not possible to discuss ASIS processes with everyone. The best approach is to select the teams from each domain. Once draft version of AS-IS documents are ready, the second should be arranging the workshop to further clarify the AS-IS processes with the stake holders. After proper sign off from stake

holders, conduct other workshops to document the TO-BE processes. To-Be processes should be evaluated with the help of technical staff before proper sign off from the stake holders. Once the To-Be processes are signed off, processes will be handed over to consultants / technical team for further action. Focus on your business strategy and not just software selection and implementation [9]. ERP implementation could not bring benefits to an organization unless its processes are optimized before implementation. To-Be processes should be well thought out to cover the requirements of the business for next ten years. To understand the changes of next ten years, rate of change should be doubled or multiplied with the ratio of changes during last ten years. As ERP solutions grows with the company and its future strategies. History is the best predictor of the future[12]. h) Implementation Team Selecting or hiring the professional implementation team with apt skills and experience is a must have. Team should be combination of technical and functional members. Skills that are critical to the implementation include project management, process improvement, requirement’s definition, data conversion, testing, separation of duties analysis, and post go live analysis [10]. Proper trainings should be conducted for implementation teams. Teams should not work in silos and work under one umbrella so that integration can be done effectively. Moving away from Functional silos and creating effective cross functional processes that are truly integrated via an ERP system is not an easy task [9]. i) SDC ( Environment )

Software Development Center should be established with the proper resources like PCs, Laptops and Printers with proper infrastructure. This SDC will be helpful during and after implementation.

j) Employees Buy-in. Without employees buy-in, successful implementation is close to impossible. If management decide to go for the ERP implementation without buy-in from its employees, issue starts popping up from day one till the day of the final failure.ERP implementation is for the whole enterprise and not only for the management and that’s why it is termed as ERP and not “Management Planning”. Only 13% of respondents characterize themselves as “very satisfied” with their company’s software implementation and 38 % of respondents indicated “lack of employee buy-in” as the biggest challenge facing the ERP implementation teams[8]. Organization should also assure its employees that job losses will be minimum otherwise there will be a considerable resistance from employees. k) Interfaces for third party integration It should also be considered that ERP solution must provide easy to implement integration interfaces for third party applications. Most of the off shelf ERP solutions provide XML or web service interfaces. ERP solutions that do not provide integration interface costs lot of time, resources and money to develop interface every time organization would like to share the data with ERP Solution. l) Declare Implementation as a Project

j) BPM If ERP Solution supports Business Process Management it will be an additional edge on other ERP solutions as it enables employees to effectively manage the processes with dynamic approach: designing, configuring, executing, monitoring, and analyzing.

3.0 During Implementation
Once it has been decided that which ERP solution to implement, implementation has begun with all it challenges and activities. During implementation if proper monitoring and execution plan has not been taken on, it could take the implementation towards the failure without noticeable to the management. During implementation, the biggest factor is time. As loosing the time will impact budget and without budget implementation won’t be possible. a) Data Collection First the most difficult of all is to collect the data. To avoid “Garbage in garbage out”, Data collection team of experienced members should be formed. And, in the implementation plan activities of data collection with proper time lines should be mentioned. The vital part of data collection is to design the data collection templates. Data collection template should be well thought of. Following should be considered while designing the data collection templates: easy to understand, user friendly, validation checks to avoid wrong entries, examples, and minimize data entry with lookups and drop down options. Also provide data dictionary for each column. Before sending to users get the evaluated template from easily approachable users. Template should be communicated via highest managements email so that users take them seriously. Avoid sending same template again and again with modifications as it will reduce the effect. If possible conduct workshops to give template

As ERP implementation is a big task, implementation should be declared as a Project. Project should have project management team with execution mandate. According to PMP and Prince2, “Project should have a definite start and end”. Same implies to ERP Implementation. As per Wikipedia, ”Project Management is the discipline of planning, organizing, and managing resources to bring about the successful completion of specific project goals and objectives. It is often closely related to and sometimes conflated with program management.”

overviews. No templates should be accepted with proper sign off from the sender: sense of ownership. If these issues are tackled with proper planning and strategy, it will save considerable cost and time. The biggest challenge is to convert legacy data into new format and also check for redundancy and duplication (data cleansing). Most of the cases legacy data do not provide the complete data required for the new implementation. In those cases special permissions and decisions are required from the steering committee. Communication teams Communication team should be formed to communicate every possible achievement or hurdle to all the stake holders in order to develop a sense of ownership among all. Also it gives confidence to all that they are part of the implementation. Communication team should build strategies to avoid the scenarios where ERP implementation becomes scapegoat for non performers. As it is a normal practice to blame the solution if something goes wrong and mostly common with new implementations. b) Support Team No matter how much trainings are conducted during the implementation, end users always need support to use the new implemented solution. There should be three levels support: first, second and third level. In First level, representatives who are good in operating the system and should guide the end users how to use the application effectively. If first level support could not solve the problem they should forward the problem or issue to second level support. Second level support should be of team leads of different modules. If second level support could not solve the issue or problem it should be forwarded to third level support. Third level support should be of consultants or internal technical teams.

Third Level Support Second Level Support First Level Support

c) Quality Team “A quick migration to an ERP system without time for testing and validating the systems is not wise nor advisable,”[7]. There should be proper quality testing and assurance teams. Quality begins with the initiation of the implementation. To reduce the cost of implementation, some organizations ignore the formation of dedicated teams for quality testing and quality assurance. But, after implementation low quality cost the organization many folds then investing the money on quality during implementation. Despite other quality assurances, the most important for quality team is to keep check on the unnecessary development of reports. Without quality the objectives of successful implementation could not be achieved. Quality should be checked and assured at every process and step of implementation. Some of them are: documentation, AS-IS and TO-BE processes, configuration, development. d) Documentation with Configuration The prime focus of implementation and Project Management office is on configuration, testing, and deploying the ERP solution in the best possible manner. However, the importance of proper documentation and it configuration is placed aside And logic presented by the PMO office or the implementation team is that documentation slows down the entire project. But, it is proved that lack of documentation cost more in implementation than maintaining proper documentation.

4.0 Post Implementation
After implementation, organizations celebrate the GO-LIVE, they forget about the fact that post implementation is as important as implementation. No matter how successful is the implementation, if not used or maintained properly it causes more harm to the organization then the implementation it self. e) Change Management People do not accept change easily. The biggest post implementation problem is the resistance to the change. Organizations which do not form a strategy for change management could not get the benefits from the ERP solution. End users would like to remain in their comfort zone: using legacy applications with which they are familiar with. Cultural change and insecurities are the biggest threats. f) Support ERP implementation is the outcome for huge financial investment and exhaustive hard work of teams. Organizations do not realize that ongoing support of ERP solution is the major part of the total ERP cost. ERP support cost depends on the size of the solution, number of users, nature of business, vendor (Oracle, SAP, etc) and frequency of system’s modifications. g) Human Resource Retention HR retention is the most difficult of all after post implementation. Internal staff not only gained the technical expertise but also in depth business knowledge which enabled them to get highly paid job very easily in the market. To retain the HR, different strategies can be adopted: incentives, salary increase and clarity to their future growth. h) Competency Center Formation of competency center will enable the teams for continuous improvements through extensive training for competency of staff and

end users. Competency center will reduce the cost of after implementation support from third party. Enabling organizations’ own staff will definitely reduce cost and time for new changes, development and improvements in the system.

Successful ERP implementation comes with a bouquet of advantages. Visibility across the company figures saves time, resources and money. With one centralized database and integrated modules, fast and accurate information helps the management to make decisions and act quickly on decisions. Easy and automated fore casting, reduces the stock keeping and investment. Enhanced empowerment of employees through increased information sharing [4], Real time processing enables the organization for fast business moves, Reduces operations, paper environment, pain points and bottlenecks. Optimized processes and cycles which reduces resources and cost factors. The purpose of ERP technology is to support the company’s strategic opportunities [9]. In a 2001, survey by information technology toolbox, 59% of 1124 respondents, by a margin of 3 to 1, saw their highest return on investment(ROI) coming from ERP [12].

6.0 Disadvantages
Every picture has two sides and so does the ERP implementation. With flowers come thorns: disadvantages: huge investment on ERP implementation and its maintenance, too much reliability on the system and limitation ERP solution brings with it as inheritance. Some limitations of off shelf ERP solutions, also limit the business to grow in a particular direction.

7.0 Basic Causes of Failure
Cause of failure may vary from organization to organization, business type to business type, ERP solution to ERP solution. But, basic failure reasons remain the same: not prepared for implementation, rely on available resources regardless of their skills and experience, opt for

a wrong solution, budget constraints to buy low cadre solution, management was not on board, wrong choice of business users, decisions making in close rooms, teams working on different islands and are not on the same page, solving problems on fire fighting mode, high expectations raised. Also sometimes cause of failure is the management who is so busy in other operations and consider ERP implementation is the sole responsibility of IT.

8.0 Basic reasons of Success

Selection of apt solution, right technical and business team, management on board, whole organization taken into confidence and their buy in, proper and exact requirement gathering, best approach, processes in place, best plan, PMO office in place with proper mandate of execution, exhaustive trainings to all type of users, dedicated team for implementation, looking for KPIs after implementation. Kimberling said "I think that's where a lot of companies fall short," he said. "Their finish line is the go-live, and there's very little that gets done after the fact."

9.0 Conclusions
ERP implementation is different from conventional IT Software Projects.ERP implementation involves process reengineering and optimization. It brings a new culture and a fresh breath to an organization if implemented in the right way. It takes an average of two and a half years from project initiation to achieve a quantifiable return on investment for an ERP system. Ninety percent of those quantified benefits are the result of a cost reduction, according to the study [6]. ERP implementation if would have been done with proper planning and long thought out process brings its benefits. But, if planning or processes are not in place, it would be a disaster for the organization. Studies showed that ERP implementation could only be possible if well planned along with organizations well placed processes.

10.0 Acknowledgements
We would like to acknowledge Mr. Wasif Ihsan who has provided us the support and cooperation during our case study. References:
[1] The Robins-Gioia Survey 2001. [2] Supply Chain Digest, Springboro, OH, 2005] [3] Successful ERP Implementation required planning by Robert W.Stanisky-2000 [4] A Case Study of ERP Implementation Issues by Dr. Tom Bramorski University of Wisconsin USA [5] Paul Wahl SAP America [6] Meta Group study [7]Dr. John T. Whiting

[8] Panorama Consulting Group Dec 05-Nov 08 [9] Successful ERP Implementation the first time by R. Machael Donovan. [10] Global ERP Implementation Challenges by KPMG’s Global Energy Institute – 2008 [11] Implementation issues in ERP by R.Appuswamy Deakin University, Australia [12] Epicor® - 11 criteria for selecting The Best ERP system replacement



Proper planning of project Role of PMO Was there sufficient Management support? Were there any conflicts with the consultants? Is there any integration with other applications? How effective was the inter-departmental… How many revisions to the base lined schedule? How well you achieve the objective of your ERP? Increase in revenue Increase in Sale Increase in productivity Paperless environment Collaboration with other departments Transparency improvement Were Trainings Effective How much you have gained from Trainings People do not understand ERP advantages How effective reports were? Integration Issues with other applications? Team Preparedness After Implementation Support Cross-functional process orientation with high… Advantage after implementation Disadvantages after implementation One Two Four 5-Highest 0- Lowest 3-Midium






TABLE 1.1 : Questionnaire Survey (Graph with Trends)

TABLE 1.2 : Questionnaire Survey


0- Lowest

Proper planning of project Role of PMO Was there sufficient Management support? Were there any conflicts with the consultants? Is there any integration with other applications? How effective was the inter-departmental communication? How many revisions to the base lined schedule? How well you achieve the objective of your ERP? Increase in revenue Increase in Sale Increase in productivity Paperless environment Collaboration with other departments Transparency improvement Were Trainings Effective How much you have gained from Trainings People do not understand ERP advantages How effective reports were? Integration Issues with other applications? Team Preparedness Efficient support to end user during Implementation After Implementation Support Cross-functional process orientation with high visibility Advantage after implementation Disadvantages after implementation

0 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 1 0 2

2 2 0 0 2 2 0 1 2 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 1 1 2 1 1 0 0 1 7

0 0 0 2 0 1 2 2 3 3 2 2 1 0 2 2 1 2 3 5 2 1 1 1 3

4 4 4 6 5 1 7 2 4 5 4 3 4 3 5 4 6 1 4 3 1 4 4 3 2

7 7 5 4 3 10 3 6 4 2 4 8 5 7 3 4 3 6 4 5 6 5 7 6 0

1 5 5 1 4 0 2 3 1 1 3 0 3 4 4 4 3 4 1 0 4 3 1 3 0





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