01nishio-eng by wangping12

VIEWS: 4 PAGES: 50

									          2008 Global Focus on Knowledge
                  Lecture Series
Nishio
                 Energy and the Earth
                    Shigefumi Nishio
         Natural Environment and Artificial
                   Environment
            Global Environment Change
               Energy Consumption
                   Sustainability
           Toward the Sustainable Society
                                              Nishio
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
                  Natural Environment and Artificial Environment




               Now, while very convenient societies (artificial
                          environment) based on
                transportation network, energy network, and
                        information network appear,
                      what is happening to the Earth?
Nishio           IIS
Lab.             UT
                                Natural Environment and Artificial Environment
                                                          (150 million km)
                                                                                                                                                    astronomical unit

                                                                                                                              comet
                                                      Venus            Mars
                                Sun                                                                                 Neptune           Kuiper-belt
                                              Mercury          Earth     asteroid
                                                                           belt                            Uranus
                                                                                     Jupiter      Saturn



 The 3rd planet in the solar system = natural environment on the water planet is result of the Earth evolution
                                                         Van Allen radiation belt
                                                                                                                                                                 UV ray
                                 UV ray
                       Cosmic
                        ray
         atmosphere




                                                                                                                                      ozone layer
                                                                           Generation of strong magnetic field
                                                                                Appearance of eukaryotes
                                                     degradation                                                      Rapid increase of oxygen in the air
                                                                                                                                                                  Appearance of
                                                                                                           Amount of oxygen in the air
                                                                                                                                                                  land creatures
                        ocean




                                                    Photosynthesis of cyanobacteria start
                                                         Increase of oxygen in the sea                                                 Photosynthesis of algae
                                                                                                                                                             Adverse current
                                                                                                                                                               to mantle
                                      anaerophyte                                                                                     Appearance of
                                                                                                                                   multicellular creatures
                                                       Ocean floor                          Hamatite deposit

     Magma
                        Mid-ocean ridge
     ocean              4 billion yrs ago                  3 billion yrs ago                   2 billion yrs ago                   1 billion yrs ago
                       [Shigetoku Maruyama・Yukio Isozaki:”The History of Life and the Earth”,(1998),(Iwanami Shinsho),fig1.4 and 6.2 revised]
                           Natural Environment and Artificial Environment
Nishio                                                            The 20th Century
  “Artificial Environment “ such as transportation network, energy network and information network
                                               appeared.




                                                                                         Computation, memory,           Life force = Biological
Running power = Transportation Revolution            Force = Energy Revolution
                                                                                       audiovisual = Information               Revolution
          Airplane, car, railway                       Nuclear reactor, rocket                Revolution
                                                                                                                          Gene engineering




                                     Physical science and technology are as compelling as religions.
  “Importance of landing man to the moon is almost equal to importance of the instance in the evolutionary processes when the f irst
 creature from sea dragged itself on to the land. We are, extending our brain, arms and legs to the maximum. This is the new s tep in
                                                 human evolution.” Wernher von Braun
                                “If there were no God, it would be necessary to invent him. ” Voltaire
                                            “The future is of cars. It releases humans.”Zola

                                            Physical science and technology = segmentation, separation to disciplines

                Enhancement of human physical abilities, and liberty from physical constraints are motive
                      Segmentation of human function → single-function machine as a substitute → layered structure of elements
Nishio     IIS
Lab.       UT
                    Natural Environment and Artificial Environment
                      Energy Supply for Artificial Environment Increased Rapidly
         Changes in Energy Uses and Increase in Energy Use




                                                                                                     ×60




                                                     Food processing


                    [Agency for Natural Resources and Energy,”4 Keywords to Think About Energy and Environment”,(2007),p.10]
Nishio     IIS
Lab.       UT
                     Natural Environment and Artificial Environment
                                        Conditions in 2003
                       USA 24%                    EU 15 countries 16%                      Japan 5%
                      (GDP30%)                        (GDP24%)                            (GDP14%)




                                                                                            China 12%
                                                                                            (GDP5%)
         total amount of energy consumption=1.1 billion tons equivalent in oil =13TW(1/14,000 of solar
                          energy in outer space)
    total amount of energy consumption per a Japanese =5.8kW(regular metabolism of an animal that
                         weighs about 15 tons)
    total amount of energy consumed by a Japanese family =15kW
    total amount of energy consumption per person(compared to Japan):USA 1.94, UK 0.97,
                         Germany1.04
                          EU 0.82, Asia 0.20, the world 0.38⇒ gap in the world
    rate of primary energy:fossil 80%(oil 35%、coal 25%、natural gas 21%), nuclear power 7%,
                         water 2%, combustibles recycling・waste 11%⇒ dependence on exhaustible
                         resources and nuclear power
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
                 Natural Environment and Artificial Environment
               Rapid increase of population and energy consumption in developing countries →
                    rapid increase of oil needs (1.6-1.8 fold increase from 2000 to 2030)
                                      100

                                                                                       World
                                                                                         世界
                                                 80

                                                      More than double in 50 years
                     Population (100 millions)
                              人口 [億人]




                                                 60
                                                                                          Asia
                                                                                          アジア


                                                 40


                                                 20   (1900)                              Africa
                                                                                          アフリカ     [The Energy Data and
                                                                                                   Modeling Cent er, The
                                (1800)                                                             Institute of Energy
                                                                                                   Economics, “Energy and
                                (1650)                                                     欧州
                                (1000)                                                    Europe   Economics Statistics Data”、
                                                  0                                                Energy Conservation
                                                        1960    1980     2000        2020   2040   C ent er, J apan (2 0 0 6) ]
                                                                         西暦
                                                                         year
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
                   Natural Environment and Artificial Environment
               As needs for oil and other fossil resources rapidly increase and resource nationalism
                rises, obtaining fossil resources which are convenient but unevenly distributed is a
                                        political and economic issue now.

  About 2/3 of remaining oil reserve is distributed in Middle-East.ern
  countries.
  About 2/3 of remaining natural gases is distributed in Russia and
  Middle-Eastern countries.
  Saudi Arabia National Saudi Aramco Co. has rights for all oil
  UAE           National ADNOC Co. has 60% of rights for oil
  Iran          National NIOC has right for mining, development and
  production.
  Kuwait        National KOC has right for mining, development and
  production
  Russia        Enhanced national control of rights for natural gases,
  and foreign currency restrictions
  Kazakhstan     Enhanced national control of rights for natural gases,
  and foreign currency restrictions
  2004.11 On the background of rapid increase in energy needs in China,
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Natural Environment and Artificial Environment




                       [C.J.Campbell and J.H.Laherrere, The End of Cheap Oil, Scientific American, March 1998]
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Natural Environment and Artificial Environment




                            [Climate Change 2001 (Synthesis Report), (2001), Cambridge Univ. Press,Fig.2-3より]
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Natural Environment and Artificial Environment




                                                                        [“C.D.Keeling et al., Nature, 375(1995),
                                                                        pp.666-670“,Fig.1]




                            [Climate Change 2001 (Synthesis Report), (2001), Cambridge Univ. Press, Fig.2-3]
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Natural Environment and Artificial Environment
                            Natural Environment and Artificial Environment
 Nishio




                                                                                                                         1977⇒1992(USA




                                                                                          Computation, memory,                Life force = Biological
 Running power = Transportation Revolution      Force = Energy Revolution               audiovisual = Information                    Revolution
           Airplane, car, railway                 Nuclear reactor, rocket                      Revolution
                                                                                                                                 Gene engineering



                                    Physical science and technology are as compelling as religions.
 “Importance of landing man to the moon is almost equal to importance of the instance in the evolutionary processes when the f irst
creature from sea dragged itself on to the land. We are, extending our brain, arms and legs to the maximum. This is the new s tep in
                                                human evolution.” Wernher von Braun
                               “If there were no God, it would be necessary to invent him. ” Voltaire
                                           “The future is of cars. It releases humans.”Zola


                                             Physical science and technology = segmentation, separation to disciplines

                 Enhancement of human physical abilities, and liberty from physical constraints are motive
                       Segmentation of human function → single-function machine as a substitute → layered structure of elements
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Natural Environment and Artificial Environment
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Natural Environment and Artificial Environment
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Global Environment Change



                                           +3K/100years



                                           +2K/100years



                                           +1K/100years



                                           +0K/100years



                                           -1K/100years



                                           -2K/100years
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
                                    Global Environment Change

                                                        Tmax  2898 [K  m]

                                                                                             E  T 4
           Radiation energy




                                                                                            wavelength
               absorption




                              [Masayuki Tanaka,”Warming Earth” (Yomiuri Kagaku Sensho23),(1989),Yomiuri Shimbun,p.21]
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Global Environment Change


                              R 2CS (1  FA )  4R 2 SBTE4
                                 R  radius of the earth
                                CS  1370W m 2
                                 FA  0.3
                                 SB  5.67  10 8 W m 2 K 4
                                TE  255 K  18o C
                                TA  TE  288  255  33K
Nishio     IIS
Lab.       UT
                                              Global Environment Change
                                    Albedo :reflecting rate of the Earth=0.3
                                                                                  Solar radiation (5780K,peak wavelength=about 0.5mm)
                                Atmosphere, surface radiation (70)     Reflection (30)   (100)

                                                   200km                                                  Greenhouse effect gas
                                                                                                           carbon gas,vapor,ozone
                                                                                                          Window in atmosphere: penetrative 0.3-2mm
           Velocity needed for a gas molecule to            atmosphere                                    and belt at 8-14mm
         overcome gravity and jump out to outer space
         is 11km/s from the Earth , 60km/s from
                                                                                         Peak wavelength near solar radiation(0.5m)
         Jupiter, 4km/s from Mercury.
                                                                                             penetrates, and reaches the surface
           Calculated average velocity of gas molecule
         is 145(T/M)1/2 , 610m/s at 500K . Thus,
         atmosphere is formed.
                                                                                         thermosphere: temperature increase by
                                                                                         absorption of solar radiation under 0.2mm
                                                  100km

                                                                                                            Homogenous layer where
                                                            -80℃                                            substances except vapor
                                                                                                 mesosphere and ozone are homogenous
            Surface radiation near peak wavelength penetrates window in atmosphere                          by mixed convection

                                                                (45)
                                                                       Reflection,radiation               stratosphere:temperature
         Radiation form the Earth surface: peak wavelength=10mm                   (25) (25)
                                                                                                             raise by 0.2-0.3mm
                                                                            (88)                 boundaryabsorption of solar radiation
                                                                                         (25)    troposphere:temperature lowers at 0.6K/100m
                       Surface (104),atmospheric convection(29)                   (5)
                                                                                         (45)    surface
                                                         100K          300K         500K           700K
Nishio      IIS
Lab.        UT
                                                      Global Environment Change

                                                                            Land sphere
                                      1) land animals and plants                                    550 bilion ton
                                      2) soil organic compounds and minerals                        1500 billion ton
                                      3) fossil resources                                           1000 bilion tons


                                           Respiration of animals and plants      50 billion ton
           Carbon assimilation             Decomposition of organic compounds     50 billion ton
                                           Decrease by forest disappearance      2 billion ton
           of plants
                  102 billion ton

                                                                                 atmosphere
                                     Before Industrial Revolution(middle 18C), about 600 billion ton(280ppm)
                                     By combustion of fossil fuels and logging tropical rainforests, 750 bilion ton
                                    now(about 350ppm)


         Decrease in dissolved                Fixation by photosynthesis mainly at mid-
         oxygen by increase in sea            latitude area:             92 billion ton
         temperature near equator
         :90 billion ton

                                                                           Marine sphere
 1) 0.1 billion ton are in surface layer of the sea(about 75m from the surface) as carbon dioxide gas, bicarbonate ion, carbonate ion.
 2) About 38 trillion ton in deep sea layer ( separated by temperature stratification from surface layer) (There are huge amount of carbon
 at the bottom of the sea in forms of calcium carbonate precipitation or limestone.)

                     [drawn from J.T.Houghton et al., Climte Change –The IPCC Scientific Assessment, Cambridge Univ. Press, (1990), p.8]
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
                            Global Environment Change

         ・ CO2 concentration in the atmosphere was discovered to be around
         280 ppm in the 1800s by the project of France and Russia to analyze
         excavated ice at Vostok Station in Antarctica(1980. ) CO2
         concentration measurement at the top of Mauna Loa in Hawaii and
         Antarctica by Prof. Kiring at California Institute of Technology
         indicated that it would be as high as 370 ppm in 2000.

         ・ By fixed-point observation and oxygen-isotope ratio analysis,
         (If temperature is high when sea water evaporates, O18/O16 ratio in
         the water is high,. Vapor changes into oxygen by plants
         photosynthesis and be released into air) , it is understood that
         temperature increased twice from 1900.

         ・If 58% of carbon dioxide emitted from fossil fuel combustion and
         cement industries were accumulated in the atmosphere, upward trend
         of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere after 1960 can be basically
         explained.

         ・ However, since carbon dioxide in the sea is released into the
         air when temperature rises, there is a need to find out which is a
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Global Environment Change
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Global Environment Change




                  [Climate Change 2001 (Synthesis Report), (2001), Cambridge Univ. PressFig.SPM-2より]
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Global Environment Change




                [“Climate Change 2001 (Synthesis Report), (2001), Cambridge Univ. Press, Fig.2-3”]
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Natural Environment and Artificial Environment
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Energy Consumption
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Energy Consumption
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Energy Consumption
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
                             Energy Consumption


         Potential energy                          Nuclear energy
                                 Chemical energy

               Motion energy                Electromagnetic ene




               Internal energy                Heat energy
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Energy Consumption
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
                      Energy Consumption



                                           ①




②Total amount of chemical energy cannot be restored from
      motion energy of car and energy of emitted gas
Total amount of energy is conserved, but some are consumed
                    during conversions.
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
                   Energy Consumption




                      TE
                 1
                      T
                 TE  300 K
                   T  3000 K    90%
                   T  1500 K    80%
                   T  1000 K    70%
                   T  600 K    50%
                   T  400 K    25%
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
                             Energy and the Earth Environment


                                           Political, economic aspect
                                                 energy security
                                international strategies for obtaining resources
                              international cooperation for preserving environment
                         (compliant economic efficiency and fairness of responsibilities)
                                 national strategies for technology development




                            Scientific aspect                     Technological aspect
               evolutionary formation of the Earth environmentutilization of flow-type energy
                     global cycle of energy substances           energy high-efficient use
                         observation, prediction of              clean use of fossil fuel
                      the global environment changes
                               energy science                  the next generation vehicle
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
                                  Sustainability




                        Sustainable?
                         Circulatory status
                        possible in substance systems,
         but difficult in energy system where heat energy intervenes
                             Steady status
                             Stable status
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
                                                       Sustainability

                                      8


                                      7


                                      6
                 合計特殊出生率




                                      5
               Total fertility rate




                                      4


                                      3


                                      2


                                      1
                                                   インド
                                                   India      中国
                                                              China
                                                                           日本
                                                                           Japan
                                      0
                                               3                      4                 5
                                          10                        10             10
                                                     一人当たりのGDP(米ドル)
                                                   GDP per capita (US dollars)
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
                             Sustainability

                                 ⑩outer space solar power generation
  Reflection to outer space                          moon
          (54,000)
                       Solar light(178,000TW)
                                                air current
                                               motion energy
                                                    (350)
                                            ⑥wind power, wave

                            Surface radiation
                                (82,000)    evaporating   heat(40,000)
                                                    ⑦water power

                                                tidal energy(3TW)
                                                    ⑧sea tide
               ⑤ground heat
                       ③solar light
          ⑨nuclear power
                       ④solar heat
                                      ⇒ ②biomass
Nishio      IIS
Lab.        UT
                                                              Sustainability


                                 Setting cost        Driving cost         Generating cost             Energy budget(-)
                                  (yen/kW)           (yen/kWh)              (yen/kWh)
                                Kazunari Kainou, “Calculation Model for Power Supply Structure   IEEJ, Vol.126,(2006), pp.222-
                                     and Comparison of Costs for Electricity Generation”,                    224
                                                        RIETI,2003.7
         Combined fire power         20.8                  4.9                    9.3                           6
         [LNG, operating                                                                           Large amount of energy is
         rate50%]
                                                                                                 needed in liquidizing processes
         Fire power[coal,            30.8                  3.3                    8.7                          21
         operating rate 60%]
         Nuclear power[light-        33.8                  3.6                    7.1                          26
         water reactor,                                                                                    pluthermal
         operating rate80%]
         Water power                                                           (13.6)                          50
         Wind                        20.8                 15.5                   23.4                          22
         power[operating
         rate20%]
         Solar                       94.0                  0.1                   65.8                        5~9
         power[operating                                                                             Energy density is low.
         rate12%]
         Energy budget: ratio of electric power produced by generating technologies in durable years and energy input
         to construction of generator sets needed for electric supplies or maintenance of operation ( excluding energy
         input for power generation)
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
                                                                       Sustainability


      If sugar cane is used as a raw material, process of glycation is not needed, and net energy production is possible
   (3.7-fold of needed energy)
      However, sugar cane are produced in limited climate.

                         Raw material                        Manufacturing process                         product            issues

                Sugar cane
                 (sugar)




                                                                          fermentation
                                                                                                                           Competition with foods




                                                                                            distillation



                                                                                                             Bio-ethanol
                         Corn                                                                                                (sugar cane, corn)


                                                           glycation
                      (starch)
                                            preparation




                                                                                                                           Development of cellulose
               Grass, wood                                                                                                        ethanol
                (cellulose)

                                                          yeast

       If corn is used as a raw material, to make 1 ℓ                                        In a case corn is used as a raw material, if glucose fixed to
                                                                                         cellulose that cannot be eaten and lignin are separated, ethanol
   ethanol, heat energy as much as 45% of calorific value                                from glucose and combustible substance (lignin) can be produced
   (about 5000kcal) is needed only in manufacturing                                      at the same time, and effect on food is small. Cellulose ethanol can
   process.                                                                              use whole biomass as a resource, and is the favorite target of
       Considering energy needed to collect raw materials,                               bioethanol.
                                                                                             Enzyme to separate glucose and lignin is needed.
   transport manufactured ethanol (transport by pipeline is
   difficult for water mixes into ethanol) , it is important to
   check net energy are produced enough.                                                   [Kenjin Ueda,”Total Engineering of Energy”,29-4(2007]
Nishio       IIS
Lab.         UT
                                                                            Sustainability
                                                           地球環境問題と自然エネルギー

                                                                   Solar太陽放射:17300
                                                                        radiation


              land practical attaining                            Sea practical attaining                          Land practical potential
                 陸上実用到達放射:800
                     radiation                                     海上実用到達放射:1800
                                                                        radiation
                                                                                                                    陸上実用潜在風力:20
                                                                                                                        windpower




                太陽電池
               Solar battery                  太陽熱
                                              Solar heat              光合成
                                                                     photosynthesis            温度差
                                                                                            Temperature change        水力
                                                                                                                    Water power               風力
                                                                                                                                             Wind power


                                                                    Land biomass                                           2TW        極地風力(南極)
Tropical 熱帯域:大気残存率73% rate 73%
         reef: atmosphere remaining                                 陸生バイオマス                                                  Polar wind power (Antarctica)
             昼間率  33%
                daytime rate           33%                           Sea biomass
                                                                    海生バイオマス                                                           気温勾配:南緯70度以
                                                                                                                             Temperature gradient: large at latitude
                latitude rate
             緯度率  90%                  90%                                                                                                 南で大 south
                                                                                                                                                   70
                total remaining rate   22%                                                                                                        ↓            ↓
             総合残存率22%
Temperate zone: total remaining rate   15%                                                                                                  polar wind generates
                                                                                                                                            極地風の発生
         温帯域:総合残存率15%                                                 Adequate intermediate media
                                                               適切な 中間媒体
Solar battery efficiency               10%                                                                                                                     ↓
         太陽電池効率:  10%                                            Conversion effeciency, exergy content,                                           ↓
Area of desert                       31Mkm2                      変換効率,エクセル ギー割合                                                        cold Qataba region around
         砂漠面積:   31Mkm 2                                                                                                                南極大陸高原周辺部の
                                                                 輸送・貯蔵・対環境性
                                                           Transportation, accumulation, ecological challenges                                 antarctic prairies
         設備被服率:   70%                                                                                                                     寒冷カタバ風地帯
                                                                                                                                    average wind speed: 10-15m/s
               ↓                                                                                                                        平均風速:10ー15m/s
             約20W/m        2                                         5TW                                           2TW                            ↓
                                                                                                                                    geographical use: 1/3
                                                                                                                                   available wind speed: 5-24m/s
                                                                                                                                      地形利用率:1/3
               ↓
                  2
          50万km =700km四方
                                                 海岸近くの砂漠の1%
                                                 1% of desert near sea shore                      カタバ風地帯の1/30
                                                                                             1/30 of Qataba-like regions           diameter of propeller : 28m
                                                                                                                                      利用可能風速:5-24m/s
               ↓
                                                  を太陽電池基地とし
                                                 is used decentrally as solar                is usedを風力発電基地と
                                                                                                     decentrally as wind           constant output: 61MW/km
                                                                                                                                      プロペラ直径:28m
                                                       て分散利用
                                                         battery base                                  して分散利用                                                 ↓ 2
             砂漠面積の約2%                                                                           power generation base                 定格出力:61MW/km 61TW
                                                                                                                                          potential electricity:
            About 2% of desert area
                                                                                                                                            ↓
                                                                                                                                         潜在発電量:61TW
            In Japan: 17 thousand
         日本の例:1.7万km 2 km2
                 =130 km square
              =130km四方
               =as wide as Shikoku
              =四国程度の広さ

                            太陽放射の活用:多様な再生可能自然エネルギーの分散活用
                            Utility of solar radiation: Distributed use of various renewable natural energy
Nishio      IIS
Lab.        UT
                                                                 Sustainability



                                                                                                       International comparison of
                  International comparison of specific energy                     Integrated
                                                                                          specific energy consumption
                  consumption                                                     steelworks
                      (the research in 2003, exponent when Japan =100)                     (energy consumption/GDP)
                                                                                                               Japan     1.00
                                                                                                               UK        1.43
                                                                                                               Germany   1.74
                                                                                                               France    1.87
                                                                                                               USA       2.08
                                                                                                               World     2.65




                                                                              large steelworks   all country
                                      Korea                         USA
                         Japan
                                                                                         China
         Resource: information obtained from individual hearings to Korea Steel
         Committee and China Steelworks Committee

     [METI Department of Environment,”Challenges to Achieve Goals of the Kyoto Protocol” (2005.1)]
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Sustainability




                [経済産業省資源エネルギー庁発行,「エネルギー白書2004」,(2004)より]
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Natural Environment and Artificial Environment
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Toward the Sustainable Society
  Nishio   IIS
  Lab.     UT
                          Toward the Sustainable Society


                 COP(Conference of the Parties):
                 COP-FCCC(Framework Convention on Climate Change)
                              Bio diversity COP-CBD
                      Convention for desertification COP-CCD

     Framework Convention on Climate Change(1992)
                      COP1(1995):The treaty is not enough.
           COP2(1996):Approved to have legal binding force as a protocol
                          COP3(1997):the Kyoto Protocol

                         the Kyoto Protocol(1997)
   Regulating emission of greenhouse effect gas in 2008-2012 on basis of
 reenhouse effect gas was reduced 6% in average in the 1 st commitment per
      Carbon dioxide(92%), methane, nitrogen monoxide (5%) ⇒ -6.4%
(Detail of 6.4% is 3.9% by woods absorption, 2.5% by emission reduct
                     HFC・PFC・SF6(3%) ⇒ 2.0%
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
               Toward the Sustainable Society
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
                          Toward the Sustainable Society
                                   Energy Strategy
                                                                                       Economic Efficiency
         Resource Constraint                                           Cost Constraint




                                          Cost Constraint
             Limit   of    recoverable                                   Increase in using cost
         years     for      stock-type                                 of resources will be a
         resources, and limit of                                       constraint to use those
         remaining amount for flow-                                    energy resources or their
         type resources will be a                                      converting systems.
         constraint to use those
         energy resources or their
         converting systems. Constraint
                       Resource                                   Environment Constraint


          Technology Constraint           Technology Constraint
                                                                       Environment Constraint
             If safety, convenience                                       When atmosphere, ocean,
          and such social designing                                    forest    or    soil    become
          are not enough, it will be                                   irreproducible by use of
          a constraint to use those                                    resources,    will     be    a
          energy resources or their                                    constraint   to    use   those
          converting systems.                                          energy resources or their
                                                                       converting systems.
Nishio    IIS
Lab.      UT
                                    Toward the Sustainable Society
                                    An Energy Strategy: Triple 50
                                        Rise in Industrial Competitiveness

                                                                                  Back Cast from 2030
                                 efficient use increases
                                      35%⇒50%
                                                                                          Renewable
          Ultra high efficient energy                                                    Energy Using
          converting, accumulating                     Efficient use increases
            and using technology                       ⇒Energy supply decreases           Technology
                                                        ⇒dependence on fossil fuel
                          Strategic Policy                 lowers


         self-sufficiency rises use of non-fossil fuel increases
             20% ⇒50%                    19% ⇒50%
                                               dependence on fossil fuel lowers
                                                ⇒self-sufficiency rises           International Cooperation
 Upgrade of Energy Security

                                           Energy carrier utilizing technology
                                          CO2 separation, resumption, isolation
                                                     technologies
Nishio   IIS
Lab.     UT
                             Energy and the Earth Environment


                                        政治経済的側面
                                         Political, economic aspect
                                                 energy security
                                international strategies for obtaining resources
                              international cooperation for preserving environment
                         (compliant economic efficiency and fairness of responsibilities)
                                 national strategies for technology development

          Starting Global Focus on Knowledge Lecture Series “Energy and the Earth”
                            Academia Challenges to Solve These Issues
                      Global and General Structure of Academic Disciplines
                         科学的側面
                          Scientific aspect                       技術的側面
                                                                  Technological aspect
               evolutionary formation of the Earth environmentutilization of flow-type energy
                     global cycle of energy substances           energy high-efficient use
                         observation, prediction of              clean use of fossil fuel
                      the global environment changes
                               energy science                  the next generation vehicle
Nishio    IIS
Lab.      UT
                             Energy and the Earth Environment


                                         政治経済的側面
                                          Political, economic aspect
                        ⑤Prof. Toru Iwami                  ④Prof. Hideaki Shiroyama
                 “Energy and Environment Issues: Governance of Energy and Environment Issues
                 From a Viewpoint of Economics”        science, technology and decision making
                                                       social induction processes of energy related technologies
                 in relation to economical development             international political processes
                   in relation to the world economics         among energy security and global warming
                      as global environment issues



         Global Focus on Knowledge Lecture Series “Energy and the Earth”

                         科学的側面
                          Scientific aspect                       技術的側面
                                                                  Technological aspect

                        ③Prof. Akimasa Sumi                      ②Prof. Kenji Yamachi
                    The Climate System as a Basis          Responsibilities of Technology in
                                                            Energy and Environment Issues
                for Energy and Environment Issues
                                                                    viewpoint of energy
                       the Earth as a water planet           energy resources and technologies
                        Can we predict the future?              long-term technology scenario
                      What are environment problems?               for global warming
Nishio    IIS
Lab.      UT
                                        Energy and the Earth Environment

                           observation                                                                                                                         technology
                                                                                     CO2 resumption,
  Akimasa Sumi                                                   Satellite
                                                                                      accumulation                                                 Kenji Yamachi
                                                                 remote
  "The Climate System as a Basis                                 sensing                                                                           "Responsibilities of
  for Energy and Environment                  水循環変化                                                                    Energy saving
                                                                                                                                                   Technology in Energy and
  Issues"                                                                                    Energy
                                                                                                                                                   Environment Issues"
                                                                                            efficiency
                                        Plants
                                                                                                                     Artificial        Recyclable energy
                                      changes in                                                                   environment
                                                         CO2                                                                              (biomass)
                                       tropical                                              Energy               (transportation,
                                      rainforest                                           conservatio          energy, information
                                                                Water                                                network)              Renewable energy
                                                                                              n law
                                                                planet                                                                       (solar etc. )
                                           Global warming
                              Economic order                                                               thermod Bio revolution
                                                        Earth evolution                  Steam
                                                                             industrializengine            ynamics
                                                                                ation               The 1st
                                                                                                  industrial                           Nuclear power
                                                                             oil                                             Energy
                                              Acid rain                                           revolution
                                                            Carbon cycle                     coal                           revolution
                                                                                 The
                                                                               second                          Oil crisis          International cooperation
                                  Loss of
                               generational                                  industrial
                                                                                        electri                   Information revolution
                                                     Ozone                   revolution              car
                                succession            layer Population explosion         city
                                                                                                                                      The Kyoto Protocol
                                                   destruction
                                                            Resource depletion                     Food issues
                                                                         Mass consumption
                                                                                   Economic development
                                     Carbon tax       Expanding                                                               Strategic policy
                                                       disparity
                                                       in wealth
                                              Emissions                             Low birth rate and longevity
                            economics          trading                             Technological, environmental restraints
                                                                                                                                                 society
    Toru Iwami                                          Energy security                                                                          Hideaki Shiroyama
    “Energy and Environment Issues:                                Flow-type                                                                     "Governance of Energy and
    From a Viewpoint of Economics”                                  society
                                                                                    sustainability                                               Environment Issues"

								
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