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					 1                                          CHAPTER 1
 2                                        INTRODUCTION
 3
 4
 5   The State Water Project (SWP) provides drinking water to approximately two-thirds of
 6   California’s population and is the nation’s largest state-built water development project. The
 7   SWP extends from the mountains of Plumas County in the Feather River watershed to Lake
 8   Perris in Riverside County. It is linked with the Central Valley Project that extends from
 9   southern Oregon in the Sacramento River watershed to the Mendota Pool. The watershed of the
10   SWP is vast; encompassing the 27,000-square-mile Sacramento River and 13,000-square-mile
11   San Joaquin River watersheds and at times, the 13,000-square-mile Tulare Basin watershed.
12   There are numerous activities in the watershed that can affect drinking water quality. In addition,
13   the watersheds of Del Valle, San Luis, Pyramid, Castaic, Silverwood, and Perris reservoirs
14   contribute potential contaminants to the SWP system. There are also a few locations along the
15   Governor Edmund G. Brown California Aqueduct (California Aqueduct) where Coastal Range
16   drainage enters the system during flood events. Groundwater and surface water from other
17   sources are introduced to the California Aqueduct as a means of supplementing water supplies.
18   The Barker Slough watershed influences water quality for the North Bay Aqueduct (NBA),
19   possibly to a greater extent than any other local watershed within the SWP. With a watershed of
20   this size and complexity, the SWP Watershed Sanitary Survey is, by necessity, more complex
21   than sanitary surveys completed for smaller watersheds.
22
23
24                         HISTORY OF THE SWP SANITARY SURVEY

25   The California SWP Watershed Sanitary Survey, 2011 Update (2011 Update) is the fifth sanitary
26   survey of the SWP. The 1990 Sanitary Survey of the SWP was the first sanitary survey
27   conducted in the state for the California Department of Health Services, the predecessor of the
28   California Department of Public Health (CDPH), to comply with the Surface Water Treatment
29   Rule requirement for a watershed sanitary survey (Brown and Caldwell, 1990). There was no
30   guidance on how to conduct a sanitary survey so the SWP Contractors worked closely with
31   CDPH, the Department of Water Resources (DWR) and the consultant team to develop the
32   scope. The 1990 Sanitary Survey focused on reviewing available water quality data and
33   providing an inventory of contaminant sources in the Sacramento, San Joaquin, and Tulare
34   watersheds and along the aqueducts, with minimal effort on the contaminant sources in the SWP
35   reservoir watersheds. The SWP Sanitary Action Committee, formed to follow up on the
36   recommendations contained in the 1990 Sanitary Survey, produced the SWP Sanitary Survey
37   Action Plan (State Water Contractors, 1994). A number of the recommendations from the 1990
38   Sanitary Survey were addressed between 1990 and 1996.
39
40   The 1996 Update focused on the recommendations from the 1990 Sanitary Survey and major
41   changes in the watersheds between 1990 and 1996 (DWR, 1996). In addition, the 1996 Update
42   provided more details on contaminant sources in the watersheds of Del Valle, San Luis, Pyramid,
43   Castaic, Silverwood, and Perris reservoirs; the NBA Barker Slough watershed; and the open
44   canal section of the Coastal Branch.
45



     Draft Report                                    1-1                                    January 2012
     California State Water Project                                                             Chapter 1
     2011 Watershed Sanitary Survey Update                                                    Introduction


46   The 2001 Update provided more details on contaminant sources in the watersheds of the SWP
47   reservoirs and along the aqueducts (DWR, 2001). It also contains a detailed analysis of indicator
48   organism and pathogen data from the SWP. A major objective of the 2001 Update was to
49   provide the SWP Contractors with information needed to comply with the CDPH Drinking
50   Water Source Assessment Program requirements.
51
52   Rather than simply updating all of the information from the previous three sanitary surveys, the
53   2006 Update provided an opportunity to concentrate on the key water quality issues that
54   challenge the SWP Contractors (Archibald Consulting et al., 2007). CDPH requested that the
55   2006 Update address the Jones Tract levee failure and emergency response procedures, efforts to
56   coordinate pathogen monitoring in response to the Long Term 2 Enhanced Surface Water
57   Treatment Rule, and a review of significant changes to the watersheds and their impacts on water
58   quality. The SWP Contractors developed the State Water Project Action Plan (State Water
59   Project Contractors Authority, 2007), which identified priorities and courses of action for
60   following up on the recommendations from the 2006 Update.
61
62
63                            SCOPE AND OBJECTIVES OF 2011 UPDATE

64   The SWP Contractors, DWR, and CDPH formed a Sanitary Survey Subcommittee to develop the
65   scope of work for the 2011 Update. The Sanitary Survey Subcommittee determined that the
66   issues addressed in the 2006 Update should be revisited to update the information from the 2006
67   report. The subcommittee also identified several new issues to be addressed in the 2011 Update,
68   including habitat restoration and carbon sequestration projects in the Sacramento-San Joaquin
69   Delta (Delta), the intertie between the California Aqueduct and the Delta Mendota Canal, and
70   subsidence along the aqueduct. A significant effort was also devoted to updating information on
71   non-Project inflows to the California Aqueduct. Another key aspect of the 2011 Update is that all
72   available water quality data collected on the Delta and SWP facilities were analyzed rather than
73   simply analyzing the last five to ten years of data.
74
75   The 2011 Update focuses on evaluating the sources of the water quality problems that the SWP
76   Contractors face and recommending actions that the SWP Contractors can take that will protect
77   source water quality for the SWP. The objectives of the 2011 Update are to:
78
79          Satisfy the CDPH requirements to update the sanitary survey every five years.
80
81          Highlight and focus on the SWP Contractors’ key source water quality issues.
82
83          Conduct an analysis of all of the water quality data that has been gathered on the Delta
84           and the SWP facilities to identify spatial and long-term trends.
85
86          Develop an Action Plan to guide the SWP Contractors’ efforts to protect and improve
87           water quality for the next five years.
88
89




     Draft Report                                   1-2                                      January 2012
      California State Water Project                                                          Chapter 1
      2011 Watershed Sanitary Survey Update                                                 Introduction


 90                                       REPORT ORGANIZATION

 91   This report is organized in the following manner:
 92
 93   Chapter 1 – Introduction
 94
 95   Chapter 2 – System Environment
 96
 97   This chapter contains a discussion of changes in drinking water and source water protection
 98   regulations during the five years since the 2006 Update was prepared. A summary of the various
 99   programs aimed at restoring the Delta ecosystem and improving water supply reliability is also
100   included.
101
102   Chapters 3 through 12 – Water Quality in the Watersheds and the State Water Project
103
104   These chapters address concerns over water quality constituents having the capacity to cause
105   drinking water standards to be violated or to reduce the quality of drinking water supplies
106   conveyed through the SWP. Although there are potentially numerous constituents in drinking
107   water sources, the key water quality challenges facing the SWP Contractors that treat water from
108   the SWP are balancing the formation of disinfection by-products, due to high concentrations of
109   organic carbon and bromide in the source water, with removing and inactivating pathogens such
110   as Giardia and Cryptosporidium; high nutrient concentrations that lead to algal blooms, taste and
111   odor problems, and operational problems; and high levels of total dissolved solids that create
112   challenges with blending, groundwater recharge, and wastewater recycling. The water quality
113   chapters are organized as follows:
114
115          Chapter 3 – Water Quality Background and Summary
116          Chapter 4 – Organic Carbon
117          Chapter 5 – Salinity
118          Chapter 6 – Bromide
119          Chapter 7 – Nutrients
120          Chapter 8 – Taste and Odor Incidents and Algal Toxins
121          Chapter 9 – Turbidity
122          Chapter 10 – Pathogens
123          Chapter 11 – Organic Chemicals and Trace Elements
124          Chapter 12 – Constituents of Emerging Concern
125
126   Chapter 13 - Key Water Quality Vulnerabilities of the Sacramento – San Joaquin Delta
127
128   The key Delta contaminant sources that are addressed in this chapter are increased wastewater
129   and urban runoff as a result of urbanization of the Central Valley, land use changes due to
130   ecosystem restoration activities in the Delta, agricultural crop changes in the Delta, and
131   recreational usage of the Delta.
132




      Draft Report                                   1-3                                   January 2012
      California State Water Project                                                           Chapter 1
      2011 Watershed Sanitary Survey Update                                                  Introduction


133   Chapter 14 – Key Water Quality Vulnerabilities of the State Water Project
134
135   Previous sanitary surveys of the SWP have documented the potential contaminant sources in the
136   watersheds. As a result, the SWP Contractors have initiated a number of programs to improve
137   water quality. This chapter contains a discussion of recent activities affecting water quality and
138   the efforts to improve water quality in the NBA, the South Bay Aqueduct, along the California
139   Aqueduct and in the watersheds of the storage reservoirs.
140
141   Chapter 15 – State Water Project Facility Operations Vulnerabilities
142
143   The SWP Facility Operations Vulnerabilities chapter contains a discussion of how operational
144   changes in the Delta and drought have affected water quality exported from the Delta to the SWP
145   Contractors.
146
147   Chapter 16 – Findings and Recommendations
148
149   Key findings from the previous chapters and recommended actions are described in this chapter.
150
151
152                                           ACTION PLAN

153   Each chapter of the report lists potential actions that the SWP Contractors can take to improve
154   water quality. The Sanitary Survey Subcommittee will consider these actions and develop an
155   Action Plan that will be a separate companion document to the 2011 Update. The Action Plan
156   will be a living document that will be updated as progress is made. The Action Plan will then be
157   able to guide development of the scope of work for the next update of the sanitary survey.
158
159
160                                           REFERENCES

161   Archibald Consulting, Richard Woodard Water Quality Consultants, and Palencia Consulting
162   Engineers. 2007. California State Water Project Watershed Sanitary Survey 2006 Update.
163   Prepared for the State Water Project Contractors Authority.
164
165   Brown and Caldwell. 1990. Sanitary Survey of the State Water Project. Prepared for the State
166   Water Contractors.
167
168   California Department of Water Resources. 1996. California State Water Project Sanitary Survey
169   Update Report 1996. Prepared for the State Water Contractors.
170
171   California Department of Water Resources. 2001. California State Water Project Watershed
172   Sanitary Survey Update Report 2001. Prepared for the State Water Contractors.
173
174   State Water Contractors. 1994. State Water Project Sanitary Survey Action Plan.
175
176   State Water Project Contractors Authority. 2007. State Water Project Action Plan.




      Draft Report                                   1-4                                    January 2012

				
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