The Transformation by v63C243r

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									PIA 2501

    HRD: Training and
    Education for
    Development
The “Chicken and Egg”
Question



   Human Resource Development
    versus Economic and Social Change

   Which comes first?
Thus the Issue: (Since 1976)
Which Comes First?

 The Administrative Challenge/capacity

    It is very hard to change public
     sector structures or NGO focus

    NGOs are easier but

    It takes five years to educate a
     manager
Human Resource
Development

   Recruitment

   Discipline/Termination

   Motivation

   Education and Training
Of these Recruitment

                      The Only
                       Game in
                       Town
Recruitment: Three Models

   Patronage and Political
    Appointments vs.

   Representation vs.

   Education (merit) Recruitment

       By   what standards?
Recruitment

   Representation vs. merit

       Problem of the visible positions and
        the use of language

       Professional Services: foreign
        service, military, police, technical-
        professional cadres each represent a
        separate set of issues
The Debate
Representation

   “Representative Bureaucracy”

   Affirmative Action

   Ethnic Arithmetic

   “Africanization” or Malaysianization”
The Transformation
   Affirmative Action and the
    Representation Model

       Active vs. Passive change

       Inducements to move people to the
        private sector

       Contracting Out as an inducement
        model
Recruitment:

   Representation-merit vs. representation,
    continued

   There are both political and economic
    demands made during and after a
    transition
Recruitment

   Political, Merit and Representation
    Issues are all legitimate

   The key issue: Can bureaucratic
    structures be used to promote socio-
    economic change and if so how should
    they be trained

   What is the legitimate role for political
    set aside jobs (Schedule Two in U.S.)
Patronage, But…
HRD: The Transformation
   (1) Issues of discipline, termination

       The life sinecure and problems of dead wood

   (2) The role of participation in the HRD Development
    process: Self-discipline

       Public and private sector professional
        associations, political parties, and trade unions

       Grass Roots and Bottom Up Planning

   3) The public vs. the NGO and the private sectors:
    who wins the HRD struggle?
   Shift of
    Focus
HRD: The Transformation

Motivation:



Theory x vs. Theory y
Motivation

   Theory X:

   Basic Needs: Money

   Time in Motion

   Frederick Taylor, Taylorism and
    Scientific Management
Frederick W. Taylor and the
Hawthorne Factory Floor
Motivation
   Theory Y

   Hawthorne Experiments- Chicago

   Need to feel Human and part of
    social system

   Consulting, Sensitivity Training,
    “Suggestion Boxes”
  Maslov’s Hierarchy of Needs (Theory z)



First Level: Survival Needs--poverty
   culture and political uncertainty-
   Violation of the social contract

Second level: Non-economic
  motivations- Social and egocentric

Third Level: Self-actualization Ego-
  highest level
Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
                        The Full Hierarchy
   Abraham Maslow
HRD Focus: Training vs.
Education

   Education: Pre-Service

       Basic Education

       Higher Education


   Training: In-Service
Higher Education:
The Great Faith Leap
Training vs. Education

   Pedagogy- Childhood Learning

   Andragogy- Adult Centered
    Learning as Training

   Knowledge vs. Skills
Differences: Child to Adult
Terms

   Human Resource Development

       Social Development

       Health

       Education

       Communities and Networks
Terms
   Management Development

       Long term disjointed learning process

       Individual absorbs education and
        training through out his/her career

       Overseas, University Education and
        Training Courses
Professional Education
Models


                    Public
                     Management
                     and
                     Non-Profit
                     Management
                     follow
                     Business
                     School Models
Terms

   Management Education

       Classroom orient education

       Focus on cognitive learning and
        knowledge acquisition

       Not immediately applicable
Terms

   Management Training

       Skills oriented

       Job-Specific and organizationally
        related

       Aimed at increasing individual’s ability
        to do his or her job
Training Methods


   Designer Training vs. Off the shelf

   Facilitator vs. Trainer

   Participatory vs. Lectures
Approaches to Training

   Formal Training

       Lectures

       Case Studies

       Simulation
Approaches to Training

   On-the job Training

       Coaching

       Mentoring

       Job Rotation
   Learning Cycle


    Active                 Concrete
Experimentation           Experiences
                                        Abstract Generalization



            Observation
               And
             Reflection
On-the Job
Behavioral Influences

                         Physical
                         -climate
                          -office
                          -Food


     Personal
                      Environmental               Social
  Characteristics
                     And Interpersonal        -Educational
   -Intelligence
                       -Colleagues              -Ideology
      -Culture
                        -Superiors        -Social and Religious
  Biological, etc
                    -Subordinates, etc.           Norms


                        Behavior
                      Characteristics
Approaches to Training

   Action Training/Organizational
    Development (OD)

       Field Analysis

       Process Observation

       Problem Diagnosis
Field Agents and Training
Approaches to Training
   Non-Formal Training

       Support Groups

       Professional Associations

       Study Circles

       Travel and site Visits
Sources of Training
   International Institutes and Universities

   Local Universities

   Government Institutes

   Private Institutes

   Regional Institutes/Third Country Training
Graduate School of Public and
International Affairs
Problems

   International Boondoggles

   Local Universities- Educate rather
    than train

   The NIPA (National Institute of
    Public Administration) Problem-
    Dead End
Problems

   Bridging Training- Limited

   Nuts and Bolts and Tunnel Vision

   Paper Collection

   Bounded Knowledge
The Transformation

   Human Resource development
    planning: The Importance of a
    BASE LINE planning

   Rule of Thumb: The Wider the
    target the less precise the planning
Base Line Planning

    Macro-planning- Country Wide
    Sectoral Planning-single sector, eg.
     agriculture
    Functional Planning- engineers
    Sub-national Planning- local level
    Institutional planning or
     organizational- single unit
    Skills analysis- focus on individual
Human Resource
Development

   Project vs. program management
    planning

       Implementation, institutional capacity
        and assessment

       Focus of HRD Efforts
Human Resource Development,
Development Management, Planning
and Policy

   The Focus of Education

   Public administration vs. development
    administration

       Potential for development administration

   The role of NGOs and PVOs social
    movements, unions and cooperatives
Problems

   Expatriate Consultants- Lack Knowledge

   All trainers- Rote Training, Off the Shelf

   Ethnocentric Skills (U.S. or U.K.)
    dominate

   Francophone or Spanish- Secondary
    Human Resource Development:
    Who Pays


   International Involvement:
    Scholarships, Training, Institutional
    Development

   Part of Donor Activities: Technical
    Assistance and Training
Books of the Week


   Albert Memmi, Colonizer, Colonized



   Daniel Bergner, In the Land of
    Magic Soldiers
Albert Memmi and Daniel
Bergner
Oprah’s Book of the Week?

   Discussion of Books
PIA 2501



   TEN MINUTE BREAK
Supplementary Material




   HRD/Training
  Education and Training:

Knowledge Base

     The problem of: bounded knowledge no
      short cuts to education

     The key to the short-term experience:
      designer training

     Organizational Development

     Public Sector Higher Education System
Temptations of “Bridging”
Training

   Short 3-6 Week Training Program,
    in-country or overseas

   Can substitute for the Experience of
    a University Education

   Training best focused on skills not
    complex systems and knowledge
Temptations of “Bridging”
Training

   Extent to which the administrative
    culture reflects a high degree of
    paternalism

   One needs flexible people, with
    flexible minds
Temptations of Bridging
Training

   The new administrators in
    Transitional states

   First vs. second generation: The
    bridging generation can block the
    next generations
Problem of Bounded
Knowledge


   The Concept

   Need for gradual retirement of
    existing Administrators and a
    staggered bridge
 Problem of Bounded Knowledge
 The time factor
       Professional and technical skills and
        "the art of management"
   Administrative culture
       Issue of debate and discussion within
        the public service (problem of
        conformity)
   Criticism of tunnel vision
       Mentality of the old nuts and bolts
        mechanisms within the context of a
        centralized state
        Education and Training:

   Education:

       Entry Requirements The MPA style
        degree?

       The role of University programs
Education and Training

    The Prospects and Limits of training:
     Problems of management skills
        Basic Techniques and Processes (e.g.
         Computers and Quantitative Skills)
        How much Consciousness Raising?
    Development Management vs.
     Management Development
        The debate over Human Resource
         Development
        Chicken and Egg Redux
Education and Training:

   Education in Public Management,
    Personnel, Financial Management,
    Management Information Systems
    (Masters Degree as a Professional Degree)

       Public Policy Analysis and Issue Areas
       Public Administration
       Political Institutions and Processes
       Macro and Micro Economics
       Development Policy and Management
        (NGOs)
Training and Education

   The role of overseas training and
    education: Problems of technical
    assistance
       Role of donors and the policy process
       Donor provision of planners and
        administrators
       The attractiveness of Bridging
        Training
       The Brain Drain Issue
    Human Resource Development
    Background

   The Problem Nature of the “promote
    socio-economic change
    bureaucracy” Can it?
   Legacy: The nature of the stratified
    Civil Service
     Segregated or class based systems
     Elitist

     Generalist, legal or technical

     Extractive?

     Law and Order
    Human Resource Development


   Role of the state in economic
    development
       Nature of the mixed economy
       Management of public corporations
       Role of regulation trust busting
       Reputation of the African economic
        model
           Asian, European and Latin American
            comparisons (South Africa as a NIC)
The Transformation

   Management Systems: Definitions
    and Types
       Routine administration
       Praetorian administration
       Scaffolding Administration
       Development mobilization
       Administration
           non-routine
Human Resource Development,
Development Management, Planning
and Policy

   The nature of the state decision-
    making process: planning (and =
    Planning vs. budgets)
       Privatization--administration and
        contracts
       Deconcentration vs devolution national
        vs. local
           National
           Regional
           Local
    Human Resource Development-
    Issue


   Institutional Development, The
    Weberian model- Fit of existing
    institutions for development
       Mass of Regulations, routines and the
        hierarchy: SOPs
       Absence of judgment, discretion and
        creativity
       How suitable for Development
    Human Resource Development
    Background
   The civil service "spirit”; problems
    of morale

       Pattern of indigenization, localization
        and equal access

       Replacement of long service, old
        regime or expatriates with
        inexperienced, untrained, often
        "clerical" assistants or politicos with no
        professional skills
      Human Resource Development
      Background

   The civil service "spirit”; problems of
    morale

        Role of the graduates

        Issue of equating authority with age

         Experience vs. the young's feeling of blockage
         from rapid promotion next generation of
         University
Sensitivity to Expatriates

     Sensitivity to continuing influence of foreign
      “expatriates” in technical assistance and
      international organizations

     Symbols of Colonialism or Dependence

     Expatriate mentality and tendency to outside of
      the formal chain of command
    Human Resource Development
    Background Issues
   Negative image of Government Administration
     Need to shift from law and order
      administration to development values

   Willingness to accept non-governmental and
    civil society organizations

   Question:
     Use of bureaucracy development to mobilize
      people for economic change and provide for
      socio-activist, "organic" civil service, not a
      hierarchical, mechanistic one?

								
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