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EIA PROCESS

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					Environmental Impact
     Assessment


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 At the end of this lecture you should be able to:
 Define what environmental assessment & EIA is.
 History
 Philosophy
 Understand the process that is involved in EIA
 Outline Duties of approving authorities
 State the contents of EIA
 Why EIA are reviewed and approved
Definition of Environmental
Impact Assessment
 "An environment assessment (EA) is a process or
 set of activities which studies the effects that a
 policy, programme, development project or other
 undertaking may have on the natural or human
 environment.




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Definition of Environmental
Impact Assessment
 Environmental assessment is a planning technique which
  measures or attempts to predict the direct or indirect
  costs of a proposed undertaking in terms of such things
  as environmental degradation, use of energy or
  resources, and social disruption, and weighs these costs
  against predicted benefits from the proposal.
 Environmental assessment also seeks to establish the
  need for the undertaking, the opportunity being
  addressed, the alternatives to and alternative methods of
  carrying out the proposed undertaking, and means of
  mitigating costs and enhancing benefits imposed by an
  undertaking."

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 Is intended as an instrument of preventive
  environmental management.
 It provides a framework and an information basis for
  decision making on activities affecting the
  environment.
History
 Was first introduced in the USA within the
  framework of the National Environment policy Act in
  1969, which became law on January 1,1971
 Was Implemented in Europe in 1985 (Belgium)
 France 1976
Philosophy
 Impact assessment is designed as a preventive
  measure
 It should give environmental considerations equal
  weight with technical and economic aspects
 Environmental consideration should be introduced
  early on in the planning processes
 Broad & public participation should ensure wide
  acceptance of projects implemented
Environmental Impact?
It can be define as:
 Any change to the environment,
   whether adverse or beneficial,
   wholly or partially resulting
   from an organization's activities,
   products or services.

 are changes to the environment
  resulting from an aspect.

 the effect of an activity or
  substance on the environment
 The primary focus of the survey is the “conservation of
 the quality of the various forms of the environment”
Steps in EIA Process
 Steps in EIA
1.Screening
Assess whether the project qualifies for an EIA (=triggers)
2.Inventory
Perform environmental baseline studies. This will provide the
   basis against which to assess any changes to the environment
   over the course of the study and the project.
3.Project Description
A description of the proposed project and, where applicable, of
   the reasonalbe alternatives for its siting and design
As well, a description of the environmental domains likely to be
   affected.
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Steps in EIA Process
4.Prediction of Impacts
An assessment of the likely effects, both positive and
  negative, on the environmental domains and human
  health and well-being.
5.Mitigation and Management
A description of the measures proposed to eliminate,
  reduce, or compensate for adverseenvironmental and
  socioeconomic consequences.
6.Monitoring
Monitoring should be implemented to test impact
  predictions and to check on the effectiveness of the
  mitigation measures from Thompson, 1997, with
  modifications
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Duties of approving authorities
An approving authority must-

(a) examine every development proposal received by it;
 and
(b) determine whether the activity or undertaking in the
 development proposal is likely to cause significant
 environmental or resource management impact.




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Duties of approving authorities
In examining a development proposal, the approving
  authority must take into account-
(a) the nature and scope of the activity or undertaking in
  the proposed development;
(b) the significance of any environmental or resource
  management impact;
(c) whether there exist any technically or economically
  feasible measures that would prevent or mitigate any
  adverse environmental or resource management impact;
  or
(d) any public concern relating to the activity or
  undertaking.
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Duties of approving authorities
 If a development proposal is subject to the EIA
 process, the approving authority must not approve the
 proposal or exercise any power, duty, function or
 responsibility that will permit the activity or
 undertaking to be carried out unless the EIA report
 has been approved.




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Duties of approving authorities
 A Ministry, department, statutory authority or local
 authority that makes its own proposal for development
 activity or undertaking must refer the proposal to the
 EIA Administrator for processing




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Duties of approving authorities
 An approving authority must send a copy of the
 assessed EIA report to the EIA Administrator as soon
 as it has reviewed the report, with the results of the
 review.




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Duties of approving authorities
 EIA Administrator has reason to believe that there is a
 public concern relating to the development proposal,
 the EIA Administrator may require the approving
 authority to submit the EIA report for consideration to
 take into account the public concern




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Environmental impact
assessment process
The environmental impact assessment process for a development
  proposal must be undertaken as follows-

(a) screening

(b) scoping

(c) preparation of an assessment EIA report

(d) reviewing the report

(e) decision on the report

(f) in accordance with any other prescribed procedures.

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Environmental impact
assessment process
 Scoping of a development proposal must be done within
  30 days from the date the proposal is received by the EIA
  Administrator or the approving authority.
 Any terms of reference for the EIA study may, in
  accordance with the prescribed procedures, be prepared
  by the EIA Administrator, approving authority or a
  consultant.
 The EIA report must be prepared by an accredited
  consultant at the proponents cost.
 If an approving authority is involved in the preparation of
  an EIA report, the review and approval of EIA must be
  undertaken by the EIA Administrator or a consultant.
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Contents of EIA reports
 An EIA report must be prepared in accordance with
  the terms of reference produced
 The contents of an EIA report must include matters
  required by the terms of reference, mitigation
  measures and any other prescribed matter.




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Reviewing EIA reports
An EIA report must be reviewed-

(a) by a review committee appointed by the EIA
  Administrator or the approving authority; or

(b) independently by a consultant appointed by the EIA
  Administrator




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Reviewing EIA reports
 When an EIA report is reviewed, the proponent may
  be required to invite public comments on the report at
  the proponents cost, in the manner prescribed by
  regulations
 A member of the public may inspect and view an EIA
  report within 21 days after it is submitted to the EIA
  Administrator or the approving authority.
 A decision on an EIA report must be made within 14
  days after the period in subsection (3) expires.


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Reviewing EIA reports
The EIA Administrator or the approving authority may, for
   the purposes of reviewing an EIA report-
 (a) request any Ministry, department, statutory authority,
   local authority, proponent or other person to submit
   comments in writing on the report;
(b) request copies of any other report, study or document
   mentioned in the EIA report for the purposes of review;
(c) set up a technical advisory committee to provide advice
   on any matter contained in an EIA report;
(d) require a proponent to carry out any further study or to
   submit additional document or information for the
   purpose of ensuring that the report is accurate.
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Approval of EIA reports
After reviewing an EIA report, the EIA Administrator or
  the approving authority may-
(a) approve the report with or without conditions;

(b) recommend any additional study on the report; or

(c) not approve the report.



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Approval of EIA reports
 EIA approval may be subject to the requirement of an
 environmental cash bond to be deposited into the
 Fund as a security to cover the probable cost of
 preventing or mitigating any environmental damage to
 the area and its surroundings.




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Approval of EIA reports
 EIA Administrator or the approving authority reviews an
  EIA report, the EIA Administrator or the approving
  authority must within 7 days from the date of the decision
  on the report notify the proponent of the decision.
 A person who disagrees with a decision of the EIA
  Administrator or approving authority under subsection (1)
  may, within 21 days from the date of the decision, appeal
  to the Environmental Tribunal.
 An approved EIA is only valid for the specific activity or
  undertaking in the development proposal for which it was
  approved, and the approved EIA must not be transferred
  or used for any other purpose other than the purpose for
  which it was approved.

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Environmental management
and monitoring
 1) A proponent must prepare and implement any
  environmental or resource management plan,
  monitoring programme, protection plan or mitigation
  measure that is required as a condition of any
  approved EIA.
 (2) The EIA Administrator or an approving authority,
  may conduct any inspection to determine compliance
  with (1).



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Development proposals that
are subject to an EIA
 The EIA Administrator has the power to process the
  development proposal
 An approving authority has the power to process the
  development proposal




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Public hearings
(1) When the preparation of an EIA assessment is
  completed, a public hearing must be conducted by the
  proponent within the vicinity of the area of the
  proposed development.

(2) Where the Government is the proponent, the
  Ministry responsible for the development must
  establish a committee to be responsible for
  undertaking consultations with all interested parties.


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