University-Industry Collaboration for Innovation and Human by Hi2kXoY

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                University-Industry Collaboration
                       for Innovation and
                 Human Resource Development

                                            Neşe Yalabık
                                   Middle East Technical University
                                           Ankara, Turkey




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    OUTLINE


•   Introduction:Why collaborate?
•   Collaboration Types and Instruments
•   Necessary Conditions for Collaboration
•   R&D and Innovation
•   HEI/Industry Relations in the World
•   Turkey Initiatives
•   Issues and Challenges
•   Conclusions




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        INTRODUCTION: WHY COLLABORATE?


Before 80’s and 90’s, university-industry relations were
undesirable, unnatural and even inappropriate,especially
among students
    It is understood well today that knowledge-intensive
    economies can only compete with:

    Highly qualified,well educated personnel able to
    continue educating in their lifetime

    Innovation systems that are able to transfer the knowledge
    and creativity into successful products

Both requiring tight collaboration between the Higher
Education Institutions (HEI) and Industry.


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                 WHY COLLABORATE?

Motivations for collaborating for Faculty:
  1. Extra income
  2. Seed money for research
  3. Better teaching through industry experience
  4. Satisfaction of their work is used for economic needs of
     Country

Motivations for Industry:
  1. More profits, less taxation
  2. Personnel educated towards their needs


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 COLLABORATION TYPES AND INSTRUMENTS

                    Summer Practices
                                            Coop Programs
   Education       Graduate programs
                                            Lifelong Learning
                   Curriculum Development

                    Ind. or gov. Supported projects
 Basic Research
                     Endowed chairs

                        Incubators
Applied Research                       Joint Research centers
  & Innovation        Technoparks


                   Measurement Labs
    Service
                       Consultation
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       NECESSARY CONDITIONS FOR
            COLLABORATION

• Research and Teaching Capacities of the
  HEI
• An Industry involved in R&D/staff
  development
• Existence of government initiatives
• Government investment on R&D
• Tradition, culture and reward systems



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            R&D and INNOVATION

• Basic Research: ‘Theoretical and experimental
  work to acquire new knowledge without any
  concern of any applications’
• Applied Research & Invention: ‘An original
  conception of a new device, product or process
  and the transformation of the knowledge gained in
  basic research to the solution of a specific
  problem’
• Innovation: ‘The exploitation of new ideas and
  whole process from invention to diffusion’

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                     Roles in Innovation

• Innovation is the complete process of ideas turning to
  products.


    Idea          Technology   Development     Diffusion
                   Transfer



            HEI                        Industry

• How are these steps shared among HEI/Industry?
• How are they funded?
• How are the products licenced?
Are the basic issues..
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     HEI/Industry RELATIONS IN THE WORLD

• HEI/Industry Relations may be traced back to mid 19th
  century
• Used to be mostly concentrated in few countries and
  few regions in the world
• Developed countries: More R&D linkages
• Developing countries: More education related
  activities due to:
   – not enough researchers,
   – not enough tech base but mostly tech transfer from
     developed countries,
   – lacking national initiatives and strategies


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    HEI/Industry RELATIONS IN THE WORLD (cont.)

    As a result of Globalization and rise of Knowledge
    Economy:
•   Knowledge and technology transfer moved forefront in
    policy making
•   New models and approaches were developed in the last 30
    years
•   Spread to all countries and regions
•   All countries are trying to get national strategies and
    systems for innovation and R&D (Government initiatives)
•   An upward trend in developing countries
•   In a study by UNESCO* (2000), 12 universities from 12
    developing countries were examined, showing a
    significant growth not only in numbers but also in the
    scope and type of relations.

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          Examples of New Types of Relations

         Practice Schools: Bridges the gap between theory
         and practice. Longer and more into real projects
         compared to traditional summer practices
         e-learning for Continuous Education: Fast
         developing trend. Facilitates regional development
•   Interdisciplinary Graduate Programs
•   Technology innovation centers, incubators and SME
    developments
•   National Systems of Innovation: Innovation moves from
    a single organization like a firm. New models emerge
•   Economic Development mission by the Universities
•   Growing number and scope of technoparks and science
    parks (more than 450 in all over the world now)

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New Innovation Models

     • Triple-helix: Knowledge-based
       economic model. No rigid roles but
       each may take the role of each other
       in the innovation process.
     • Various ways such as top-down,
       bottom up.
     • Regional and multinational
       approaches
     • “Knowledge spaces”, “innovation
       spaces” where ideas and experiments
       are created by joint ventures
     • Evaluation mechanisms include
       “networking”
     • Networks formed not on a regional
       basis but in knowledge bases

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                 TURKEY INITIATIVES

Before 90’s…
• No significant interaction
• University Revolving Funds - not effective in R&D since no
  industry involved in R&D
• Technology transfer from developed countries
• Limited interaction, mostly in form of education




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                TURKEY INITIATIVES

90’s…
• 1989: Tax deferment law for R&D expenditures
• 1990: KOSGEB. Government Initiative. Technology
  centers in 12 universities
• 1991: TTGV (Turkish Technology Development Fund)
  Non-governmental organization, supported by Worldbank;
• 1998: TIDEB: University-Technology Development Centers
• 2001: Technology Development Areas law
• Today: There are more than 15 technoparks in university
  campuses



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                  TURKEY INITIATIVES

• In a report by EU among 7 countries preparing to enter to
  EU, Turkey is found to be the most prepared country
  institutionally in UIR.
• 'Innovation policy in seven candidate countries: the
  challenges' European Commission, Enterprise DG (2002)
       “only Turkey has an institutional structure with a long
       tradition of policy development in the field of
       innovation. In addition, there are no government
       agencies with a direct remit for innovation policy in any
       of the seven countries except Turkey.”




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              TTGV and TIDEB Activities

• Objective: To support firms in R&D activities in product
  development/improvement to raise the awareness toward
  R&D, by project financing.
• Role of university: Active referees and consultants. More
  support if the firm is in a Technopark
• Member of TAFTIE, a grouping of European organizations
  involved in similar activities.
• Success rate: High, 73% of projects achieved their goals
• 52% of consultants are from universities
• 73% SME’s, 53% 0-10 years old
• TIDEB: similar but government initiative, donation;
  supported by TTGV

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        KOSGEB TEKMER: University Incubators


• Technology Development Centers: active in 12 public
  universities
• Objective: To support young enterpreneurs and start-up
  companies with government funds
• Provides space, university facilities and seed money for
  equipment
• Budget: Approx. 200M US$
• Highly successful operation; ‘graduate’ in 2 years and
  move to Technopark
• Latest trend: Academicians establishing their own firms in
  TEKMER.


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               ISSUES & CHALLENGES

Issues:
   – Academia less supported for basic research
   – Academic culture of western-based “elite” universities
     do not match the needs of the country
   – Academic values threatened
Challenges:
   – Social implications:
      ▪ Trust
      ▪ Professionalism
      ▪ Awareness
      ▪ Commitment
   – New assessment/appraisal criteria in universities
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                   CONCLUSIONS

• “Knowledge and Technology Transfer” is a
  forefront issue in policy making activities for
  economic development and competition

• A trend in forming national innovation systems and
  other means to realize it

• HEI, Government and Industry should form much
  more intervened relations.


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