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DQAF July 2003 INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND Statistics

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					                                                   DQAF July 2003




               INTERNATIONAL MONETARY FUND

                           Statistics Department




            Data Quality Assessment Framework (DQAF)
                               for the
                       Producer Price Index




Point of contact in the IMF for this Framework:

Real Sector Division
International Monetary Fund
700 19th Street N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20431

Telefax: (202) 623 6028
E-mail: realsta@imf.org
                                                                    -i-




                                                             Contents                                                                 Page

Introduction................................................................................................................................ii
A.    Purpose of the Framework ...............................................................................................ii
B.    Structure of the Framework .............................................................................................ii
C.    Content of the Framework ...............................................................................................iii

0.         Prerequisites of Quality.................................................................................................1
0.1        Legal and institutional environment ................................................................................1
0.2        Resources .........................................................................................................................3
0.3        Relevance.........................................................................................................................5
0.4        Other quality management...............................................................................................6

1.         Assurances of Integrity..................................................................................................7
1.1        Professionalism ................................................................................................................7
1.2        Transparency....................................................................................................................9
1.3        Ethical standards ..............................................................................................................10

2.         Methodological Soundness ............................................................................................11
2.1        Concepts and definitions..................................................................................................11
2.2        Scope................................................................................................................................12
2.3        Classification/sectorization ..............................................................................................14
2.4        Basis for recording...........................................................................................................15

3.         Accuracy and Reliability ...............................................................................................16
3.1        Source data.......................................................................................................................16
3.2        Assessment of source data ...............................................................................................19
3.3        Statistical techniques........................................................................................................20
3.4        Assessment and validation of intermediate data and statistical outputs ..........................22
3.5        Revision studies ...............................................................................................................23

4.         Serviceability ..................................................................................................................24
4.1        Periodicity and timeliness ................................................................................................24
4.2        Consistency......................................................................................................................24
4.3        Revision policy and practice............................................................................................25

5.         Accessibility ....................................................................................................................26
5.1        Data accessibility .............................................................................................................26
5.2        Metadata accessibility......................................................................................................28
5.3        Assistance to users ...........................................................................................................29

Box
A          The Cascading Structure of the Data Quality Assessment Framework...........................iv
                                            - ii -




     DATA QUALITY ASSESSMENT FRAMEWORK (DQAF) FOR PRODUCER PRICE INDEX

Introduction
A.     Purpose of the Framework

The main purpose of the Framework is to provide a flexible structure for the qualitative
assessment of the producer price index (referred to as the statistics or the index throughout
the Framework).

The Framework could be used in a variety of contexts, including the following:
         reviews performed in the context of IMF country work, e.g., the data module of
         the Reports on the Observance of Standards and Codes (ROSCs), technical
         assistance, and surveillance;
         self-assessments performed by national statistical offices, central banks, and other
         data producing agencies; and
         assessments by other groups of data users, such as financial market participants.

B.     Structure of the Framework

The DQAF comprehensively covers the various quality aspects of data collection,
processing, and dissemination. The Framework is organized in a cascading structure that
progresses from the abstract/general to the more concrete/specific details.

The first level covers the prerequisites of quality and five dimensions of quality; assurances
of integrity, methodological soundness, accuracy and reliability, serviceability, and
accessibility. For each of these prerequisites and five dimensions, there are elements (two-
digit level) and indicators (three-digit level.)1

At the next level, focal issues that are specific to the compilation of producer price index are
addressed. Below each focal issue, key points identify quality features that may be
considered in addressing the focal issues. The key points are meant to be suggestive, not
exhaustive.

Box A provides a view of the cascading structure employed in the Framework.



1
  The first three levels are common with other Data Quality Assessment Frameworks that
have been developed to assess datasets. This design was implemented to ensure a common
and systematic assessment across datasets. To date, frameworks have been developed for
national accounts statistics, consumer price index, producer price index, government finance
statistics, monetary statistics, balance of payments statistics, and income poverty statistics.
                                          - iii -




C.     Content of the Framework

The elements and indicators within their respective dimensions are described below.

0.     Prerequisites of quality: Although not itself a dimension of quality, this group of
       “pointers to quality” includes elements and indicators that have an overarching role as
       prerequisites, or institutional preconditions, for quality of statistics. Note that the
       focus is on the agency, such as a national statistical office, central bank, or a
       ministry/department. These prerequisites cover the following elements:
       0.1     legal and institutional environment,
       0.2     resources available for the statistical program,
       0.3     relevance, and
       0.4     other quality management.

1.     Assurances of integrity: This dimension relates to the adherence to the principle of
       objectivity in the collection, compilation, and dissemination of statistics. The
       dimension encompasses institutional arrangements that ensure professionalism in
       statistical policies and practices, transparency, and ethical standards. The three
       elements for this dimension of quality are the following:
       1.1      professionalism,
       1.2      transparency, and
       1.3      ethical standards.

2.     Methodological soundness: This dimension covers the idea that the methodological
       basis for the production of statistics should be sound and that this can be attained by
       following internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices. This
       dimension is necessarily dataset-specific, reflecting different methodologies for
       different datasets. This dimension has four elements, namely:
       2.1     concepts and definitions,
       2.2     scope,
       2.3     classification/sectorization, and
       2.4     basis for recording.

3.     Accuracy and reliability: This dimension covers the idea that statistical outputs
       sufficiently portray the reality of the economy. This dimension is also data specific,
       reflecting the sources used and their processing. The five elements of this dimension
       cover the following:
       3.1     source data,
       3.2     assessment of source data,
       3.3     statistical techniques,
       3.4     assessment and validation of intermediate data and statistical outputs, and
       3.5     revision studies.

4.     Serviceability: This dimension relates to the need that statistics are disseminated with
       an appropriate periodicity in a timely fashion, are consistent internally and with other
                                        - iv -




     major datasets, and follow a regular revision policy. The three elements for this
     dimension are as follows:
     4.1    periodicity and timeliness,
     4.2    consistency, and
     4.3    revision policy and practice.

5.   Accessibility: This dimension relates to the need for data and metadata to be
     presented in a clear and understandable manner on an easily available and impartial
     basis, that metadata are up-to-date and pertinent, and that a prompt and
     knowledgeable support service is available. This dimension has three elements,
     namely:
     5.1     data accessibility,
     5.2     metadata accessibility, and
     5.3     assistance to users.
                                             -v-




Box A: The Cascading Structure of the Data Quality Assessment Framework,
DQAF July 2003, for the Producer Price Index: An Example

Using serviceability as the example of a dimension of quality, the box below shows how the
framework identifies three elements that point toward quality. Within consistency, one of
those elements, the framework next identifies three indicators. Specifically, for each
indicator, focal issues are addressed through key points that may be considered in identifying
quality.

   Dimension                     4. Serviceability


                                 4.1 Periodicity and Timeliness

    Elements                     4.2 Consistency

                                 4.3 Revision policy and Practice


                                 4.2.1 Statistics are consistent within the dataset

   Indicators                    4.2.2 Statistics are consistent or reconcilable
                                 over a reasonable period of time

                                 4.2.3 Statistics are consistent or reconcilable
                                 with those obtained through other data sources
                                 and/or statistical frameworks


  Focal Issues                   i. The statistical series is internally consistent



                                 •    Estimates produced for all classification
                                      typologies are consistent in the sense that the all-
                                      items aggregate is invariant to the typology of
                                      aggregation.1
   Key Points
                                 1/
                                   For the PPI, the two classification typologies are industry
                                 and product
                                              -1-




0.      Prerequisites of Quality
0.1   Legal and institutional environment
— The environment is supportive of statistics.

0.1.1 The responsibility for collecting, processing, and disseminating the statistics is
      clearly specified.

i.      The primary responsibility for collecting, processing, and disseminating the
        statistics is clearly established.

•       A law, such as a statistical law, or other formal provision (e.g., inter-agency protocol
        or executive decree, supranational legislation) assigns primary responsibility as well
        as the authority to an agency (agencies) for the collection, processing, and
        dissemination of the statistics.

•       Working arrangements are consistent with this assignment of responsibility.

•       If more than one data producing agency is involved in producing parts of the
        statistics, arrangements are in place to promote consistency of methods and results.

•       Conflicts or potential conflicts between the legal authority to produce the statistics
        and other laws or provisions (e.g., access to information law or bank secrecy laws)
        have been successfully resolved or reconciled with no major impairment to the data
        production.

0.1.2   Data sharing and coordination among data-producing agencies are adequate.

i.      Arrangements or procedures exist to facilitate data sharing and coordination
        between the agency (agencies) with the primary responsibility for compiling the
        statistics and other data producing agencies.

•       Procedures are in place to provide for the effective and timely flow of source data
        (e.g., administrative data as well as survey data) to the data-producing agency
        (agencies).

•       Contacts (e.g., regular meetings and workshops) are maintained with other data
        producing agencies to promote a proper understanding of data requirements, to avoid
        duplication of effort, and to take into account reporting burden (e.g., by discussing
        changes to administrative processes before they take place.)
                                            -2-




0.1.3 Individual reporters’ data are to be kept confidential and used for statistical
      purposes only.

i.      The confidentiality of individual reporters’ data is guaranteed and that guarantee is
        widely known.

•       A law or other formal provision clearly states that individual data are to be treated as
        confidential, and shall not be disclosed or used for other than statistical purposes
        unless disclosure is agreed to in writing.

•       In surveys and other statistical inquiries, respondents are informed of their rights and
        obligations with regard to the provision of information, and they are informed that the
        information they provide will be used for the purpose of producing statistics.

ii.     Procedures are in place to prevent disclosure of individual reporters’ data.

•       Rules and regulations to prevent disclosure include penalties against staff who
        disclose confidential data.

•       Access to individual data is restricted to staff who require the information in the
        performance of their statistical duties.

•       Special aggregation rules are used to prevent residual disclosure when aggregations
        of survey or other confidential data are disseminated.

•       Staff review all data prepared for dissemination for possible indirect disclosure of
        individual data and design tables and outputs in a way that prevents disclosure.

•       Where unit records are made available (e.g., for research purposes), the
        confidentiality of the individual data is protected (e.g., by making all records
        anonymous, or ensuring that access to data is bound by confidentiality provisions).

•       Confidentiality of data is appropriately guarded during storage and during the process
        of the destruction of records.

•       Steps are taken to secure the premises of the data producing agency and its computer
        systems to prevent unauthorized access to individual data.

0.1.4   Statistical reporting is ensured through legal mandate and/or measures to
        encourage response.

i.      A law or other formal provision provides for the reporting of information needed to
        compile the statistics.
                                            -3-




•      The data producing agency has the legal authority to collect data required to compile
       the statistics.

•      Collection activity is consistent with the legal authority.

•      If reporting is mandatory, penalties for noncompliance (including misreporting) act as
       effective deterrent, even if such provisions rarely need to be employed.

ii.    Other mechanisms are in place to provide for adequate reporting of data for
       compiling the statistics.

•      The data producing agency considers carefully response burden (e.g., by actively
       pursuing alternative avenues to obtain data, adapting questions to reporters’
       terminology and record-keeping systems, carefully designing new surveys, closely
       monitoring response burden, and periodically evaluating existing surveys).

•      The data producing agency provides assistance to respondents in completing and
       submitting forms (e.g., by providing a point of contact).

•      The data producing agency seeks to secure cooperation by creating goodwill (e.g., by
       registering and dealing with respondents’ complaints, indicating the purpose of the
       data collection, informing of measures to limit response burden, raising awareness of
       the importance of good quality statistics, and providing respondents with data upon
       request).

0.2   Resources
— Resources are commensurate with needs of statistical programs.

0.2.1 Staff, facilities, computing resources, and financing are commensurate with
      statistical programs.

i.     Staff resources for compiling the statistics are adequate to perform required tasks.

•      Overall, the number of staff is adequate to perform the required tasks.

•      The qualifications of the staff are adequate, with their skills maintained and
       developed to perform the required tasks.

•      A core staff with adequate training is maintained and staff turnover is manageable.

•      Salary levels are adequate for the nature of the work and competitive with public
       administration conditions in the country.
                                           -4-




ii.    Computing resources for compiling the statistics are adequate to perform required
       tasks.

•      Overall, sufficient resources are allocated and best efforts are made to exploit the full
       potential of effective computing technology for compiling and disseminating the
       statistical series.

•      Software utilized for compiling and analyzing the statistical series is effective,
       periodically updated, and well adapted to perform existing and emerging tasks.

•      Hardware is distributed adequately to facilitate the efficient collection and processing
       of data, and management of databases.

•      Adequate protection is provided for computer resources, including through provision
       of emergency back-up systems for retrieval of statistical series and updates in the
       event of natural disasters, accidents, and other unusual events.

iii.   Physical facilities and other resources are adequate to perform required tasks.

•      Office building provide adequate working facilities (e.g., lighting, heat, and cooling).

•      Office furniture and equipment (e.g., desks, chairs filing cabinets, telephones, and
       related equipment) are adequate to perform required tasks.

•      Transportation arrangements (e.g., for data collection) are adequate.

iv.    Funding for compiling the statistics is adequate to perform required tasks.

•      Funding is reasonably secure for the identified needs of the statistical program.

•      Budgeting practices provide clear information to financing authorities (e.g., when
       reviewing priorities for improvements, cutbacks, or increase in certain elements of
       programs).

•      The funding horizon is amendable to planning for statistical developments (e.g., over
       a two- to three-year period).

0.2.2 Measures to ensure efficient use of resources are implemented.

i.     Management ensures that resources are used efficiently.

•      Periodic reviews of staff performance are conducted.
                                            -5-




•       Efficiencies are sought through periodic reviews of work processes, e.g., seeking cost
        effectiveness of survey design in relation to objectives, and encouraging consistent
        concepts, classification and other methodologies across datasets.

•       When necessary, the data producing agency seeks outside expert assistance to
        evaluate statistical methodologies and compilation systems.

ii.     Costing and budgeting practices are in place and provide sufficient information to
        management to make appropriate decisions.

•       Resources used to compile the statistics are measured periodically (costing) and
        compared to other statistical programs.

•       Budgeting procedures are used to help allocate resources.

0.3    Relevance
— Statistics cover relevant information on the subject field

0.3.1   The relevance and practical utility of existing statistics in meeting users’ needs
        are monitored.

i.      Specific actions are taken to ensure that current statistics meet needs of data users.

•       Data users are consulted and/or kept informed on specific aspects of current data
        (e.g., usefulness in terms of detail, periodicity, and timeliness) through surveys,
        newsletters or seminars, with their feedback actively sought (e.g., e-mail address
        provided).

ii.     Mechanisms are in place to identify new and emerging data requirements.

•       A structured and periodic process of consultation (e.g., users’ advisory committee or
        working groups) takes place with policy departments/ministries and other principal
        data users, which include academia, the press, and/or other private sector
        representatives, to review the usefulness of existing statistics and to identify emerging
        data requirements.

•       The data producing agency regularly participates in statistical meetings and seminars
        organized by international and regional organizations and by professional
        organizations (e.g., International Statistical Institute (ISI) and International
        Association for Official Statistics (IAOS)).

•       The data producing agency undertakes studies to help identify new and emerging data
        requirements.
                                            -6-




0.4  Other quality management
— Quality is a cornerstone of statistical work.

0.4.1 Processes are in place to focus on quality.

i.     There is recognition throughout the organization that quality builds trust and thus
       is a cornerstone of statistical work.

•      Management is sensitive to all dimensions of data quality, and promotes a shared
       concern for quality throughout the organization (e.g., mission statement emphasizes
       importance of quality, managers are held accountable for achieving quality).

•      Staff training programs emphasize the importance of quality and give staff an
       understanding as to how quality may be achieved.

•      The organization provides an infrastructure for quality by recognizing trade-offs,
       economies of scale, and interrelations between datasets.

•      The organization has implemented externally recognized processes or activities that
       focus on quality (e.g., Total Quality Management, ISO 9000, quality initiatives within
       the European Statistical System, and independent evaluations).

•      Information is publicly available on the organization’s commitment to quality,
       including information about trade-offs affecting the statistical work program.

0.4.2 Processes are in place to monitor the quality of the statistical program.

i.     Measures are in place for a systematic monitoring and review of quality.

•      Monitoring processes are in place to inform managers on the quality achieved for
       ongoing statistical activities (e.g., response rates, editing rates, revisions history,
       timeliness evaluations).

•      Compiling areas have access to expert guidance on the quality of their statistics and
       on strategies for improving data production.

•      Periodic reviews are undertaken to identify steps necessary to maintain quality
       requirements.

0.4.3 Processes are in place to deal with quality considerations in planning the
statistical program.

i.     In planning the statistical program, quality issues (including implicit and explicit
       trade-offs among the dimensions of quality) are considered.
                                             -7-




•       Quality issues, such as the following, are addressed explicitly and taken into account
        in the work program planning process:
        - quality improvements identified during ongoing monitoring and in periodic
            reviews;
        - feedback from users on quality standards and on new and emerging data
            requirements; and
        - trade-offs among the dimensions of quality (e.g., resources availability,
            timeliness, and accuracy/reliability).

1.      Assurances of Integrity
The principle of objectivity in the collection, processing, and dissemination of statistics is
firmly adhered to.

1.1    Professionalism
— Statistical policies and practices are guided by professional principles.

1.1.1   Statistics are produced on an impartial basis.

i.      The terms or conditions under which the statistics are produced are in accordance
        with professional independence.

•       A law or other formal provision supports professional independence by, for example:
        - addressing the general need for the professional independence of the data-
            producing agency (e.g., the importance of professional independence in carrying
            statistical functions is clearly stated and recognized);
        - prohibiting interference from others, including other government agencies, in the
            compilation and/or dissemination of statistical information; and
        - ensuring that the choice, tenure, and reporting arrangements of the agency’s head
            are supportive of the professional independence of the statistical agency (e.g.,
            tenure does not usually coincide with that of current government; appointment
            and removal of head result from transparent processes with emphasis on
            professional qualifications and performance).

•       If there is no law or formal provision to support professional independence,
        - traditions or cultures of professionalism are clearly recognized as essential to the
             credibility of statistical results (e.g., others, including other government agencies,
             understand the importance or noninterference); and
        - the choice, tenure, and reporting arrangements of the agency’s head are
             supportive of the professional independence of the agency.

ii.     Professionalism is actively promoted and supported within the organization.

•       Recruitment and promotion are based on relevant aptitude and/or expertise in
        statistics (e.g., sampling techniques or in the subject matter area).
                                           -8-




•      Formal (using internal and outside experts) and on-the-job training in the
       methodology and compilation methods is provided, including participation in
       seminars, courses, and workshops arranged by regional and international
       organizations to further knowledge of statistical practices and providing easy access
       to professional literature.

•      Processes and activities in the workplace promote a culture of professionalism (e.g.,
       by professional accreditation of staff, peer review of statistical work, recognition of
       authors of methodological papers, organization of lectures and conferences, and the
       institutional support of professional bodies).

•      Research and analysis (including rationale for the choice of methodologies) are
       encouraged and published subject to internal review and other processes to maintain
       the agency’s reputation for professionalism.

1.1.2 Choices of sources and statistical techniques as well as decisions about
      dissemination are informed solely by statistical considerations.

i.     The choices of data sources and statistical techniques are informed solely by
       statistical considerations.

•      The choice of source data (e.g., among surveys, between surveys and administrative
       records, or between collected data and administrative records) is based on
       measurement objectives and data requirements.

ii.    Decisions about dissemination are informed solely by statistical considerations.

•      Decisions to disseminate data are based solely on statistical considerations.

•      Decisions about the timing, media, and other aspects of dissemination are based
       solely on statistical considerations.

1.1.3 The appropriate statistical entity is entitled to comment on erroneous
      interpretation and misuse of statistics.

i.     The data producing agency comments when its statistics are misinterpreted or
       misused.

•      The data producing agency seeks to prevent misinterpretation or misuse of statistics
       by providing explanatory materials and briefings (e.g., to the media).

•      There is a formal policy or well-established custom to deal with data
       misinterpretations or misuse of statistics.
                                            -9-




•       The data producing agency
        - monitors media coverage of its data (“clipping service”), and
        - comments publicly and in a timely manner on erroneous interpretations or misuse
           of the statistics in the media and in other fora.

1.2    Transparency
— Statistical policies and practices are transparent.

1.2.1   The terms and conditions under which statistics are collected, processed, and
        disseminated are available to the public.

i.      Information is available to the public about the terms and conditions under which
        the statistical series are compiled and disseminated, including the obligation to
        compile and disseminate the statistics, the confidentiality of individual reporters’
        data, and other key features.

•       Agency publications and/or websites reproduce material from the statistical law and
        other relevant documents about the terms and conditions under which official
        statistics are compiled and disseminated. These terms and conditions may refer to the
        obligation to compile and disseminate the statistics, the confidentiality of individual
        reporters’ data, and other key features (e.g., the codes of conduct under which official
        statistics are compiled and disseminated, the approval process for data dissemination,
        the procedures to hire and remove the head of the data producing agency).

•       In public speeches and other gatherings, the agency makes an active and ongoing
        effort to inform about the terms and conditions under which it operates.

•       Statistical publications identify where more information about the data producing
        agency and its products can be found.

1.2.2 Internal governmental access to statistics prior to their release is publicly
      identified.

i.      The public is made aware of internal government access to statistics prior to their
        release to the public.

•       Internal government access to statistics prior to release is made public in terms of
        who has access, and how long before the dissemination access is given.
                                            - 10 -




1.2.3   Products of statistical agencies/units are clearly identified as such.

i.      Statistical products are clearly identified so that the public is aware of what the
        data producing agency takes responsibility for.

•       Data released to the public are clearly identified as the data producing agency’s
        product (e.g., by name, logo, and insignia).

•       In the case of joint publications, the part attributable to the data producing agency is
        identified (e.g., statistics are clearly distinguished from policy interpretation).

•       The data producing agency requests attribution when its statistics are used for
        reproduced.

1.2.4 Advanced notice is given of major changes in methodology, source data, and
      statistical techniques.

i.      Users of statistics are made aware in advance of major changes in methodology,
        source data, and statistical techniques.

•       Advance notice is given to the public (e.g., articles in bulletins, briefings, or news
        releases) when major changes are introduced in methodology, sources, and statistical
        techniques.

1.3   Ethical standards
— Policies and practices are guided by ethical standards.

1.3.1 Guidelines for staff behavior are in place and are well known to the staff.

i.      A clear set of ethical standards has been prepared.

•       There are clear guidelines outlining correct behavior when the agency or its staff are
        confronted with potential conflict of interest situations.

•       There are clear guidelines that make the connection between ethics and staff work
        (e.g., with respect to guarding against misuse and misrepresentation of statistics (see
        also 1.1.3)).

•       A strong culture for maintaining ethical standards discourages political interference.

ii.     Staff are made aware of the ethical standards.

•       Management acknowledges its status as a role model and is vigilant in following the
        standards.
                                           - 11 -




•      New staff are made aware of the standards when they join the organization.

•      Staff are reminded periodically of the standards (e.g., in staff training, announcements
       to staff, or by requiring staff to periodically reaffirm ethical practices or adhere to
       conflict of interest policy).

2.     Methodological Soundness
The methodological basis for the statistics follows internationally accepted standards,
guidelines, or good practices.

The methodological soundness dimension is assessed against the guidelines outlined in the
System of National Accounts 1993 (1993 SNA) or the European System of Accounts 1995
(1995 ESA), and the Producer Price Index Manual (PPI Manual), which is under
development with draft chapters available on the IMF PPI Manual website. The concepts and
definitions from the 1993 SNA are used as guidelines with regard to coverage and valuation,
and the methods and procedures from the PPI Manual are used as guidelines for compiling
the PPI.

The 1993 SNA and 1995 ESA are viewed as interchangeable whenever reference is made in
this document to the 1993 SNA.

2.1   Concepts and definitions
— Concepts and definitions used are in accord with internationally accepted statistical
frameworks.

2.1.1 The overall structure in terms of concepts and definitions follows internationally
      accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.

i.     Concepts and definitions used to compile the PPI are in broad conformity with
       guidelines outlined in the 1993 SNA and the PPI Manual.

The 1993 SNA is followed regarding determination of the index output weights for the PPI,2
as well as, where applicable, the intermediate input weights for price indices of intermediate
input and output price indices by stage of processing.

2
  The weighting concept for the PPI is Market output of finished goods and services (goods
and services that can be sold at economically significant prices—often conventionally
defined as covering at least half their unit cost of production). Market output is defined in
the 1993 SNA as comprising:
- sales, barter,
- change in output inventories of market goods for sale, exclusive of holding gains,
- Change in inventories of finished goods,
- Net accumulation of work-in-progress,
                                                                                     (continued)
                                           - 12 -




Concepts and definitions such as those given in the Producer Price Index Manual (in
preparation) are followed regarding the definition or specification of the individual goods and
services whose prices are to be periodically measured.3

ii.    Output estimates are compiled at a sufficient level of industrial and commodity
       detail.

•      Industrial detail,
       - at the level of all divisions of the classification (e.g., two-digit ISIC), preferably at
          the group (three-digit) or class (four-digit) level; and
       - industrial at the level of the main tabulation categories of the classification used
          (e.g., one-digit ISIC).

•      Commodity detail,
       - at the level of the main tabulation categories of the classification used (e.g., one-
         digit CPC);
       - at the level of all groups and classes of the classification (e.g., two-, three-, four-,
         five-digit CPC) or several of them.

•      Deviations from the above concepts and definitions are kept under review (see
       also 5.2.1).

2.2    Scope
— The scope is in accord with internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good
practices.

2.2.1 The scope is broadly consistent with internationally accepted standards,
      guidelines, or good practices.

i.     The scope of the PPI is the maximum feasible fraction of the total output of
       resident establishments/enterprises.


- Output of market goods and services for own final use in consumption or fixed capital
formation (as noted under 2.2.ii below) Market output of finished goods is market output less
work in progress.
3
 Including consideration, not only of product characteristics, but also of transaction
characteristics that have a significant effect on price in determining the specification.
Transaction characteristics are important in, for example, identifying goods and services sold
with extension of trade credit of various durations, and on a nonarms-length basis between
units of the same or related enterprises at so-called transfer prices.
                                           - 13 -




•      The PPI covers core mining and manufacturing activities and as much of the
       remainder of production from resident enterprises as feasible.
       - core coverage of the PPI comprises mining and manufacturing activities;
       - industrial coverage includes core coverage plus energy (electricity, steam, natural
          gas) and water;
       - although sometimes separately identified when they are produced in national
          statistical systems, output price indices for agriculture, forestry and fishing, and/or
          construction activity can be considered within the scope of the PPI; and
       - business services and other services (e.g., trade, finance, transport, etc.) are in
          scope and may be targeted as sectors for future expansion if not covered by
          published indices.

ii.    The delimitation of the constituent units of the economy is in accordance with
       the 1993 SNA.

•      All resident market enterprises4 are in scope for the PPI. Deviations should be noted.
       In particular, the following should be included:
       - free zones/bonded warehouses/factories operated by offshore enterprises under
           customs control.

iii.   Differences in the scope of coverage between the PPI and the 1993 SNA should be
       made public and known to users.

•      The degree of PPI coverage of items that are among the following outputs in scope
       for market output measurement in the 1993 SNA5 should be noted:
       - market goods production for sale, comprising:
           - sales, and
           - changes in output inventories,
       - own-account production of market goods for own final consumption;6
       - output of market goods for own-account fixed capital formation;7

4
  Market enterprises are institutional units principally engaged in the production of market
output, often conventionally defined as having market output covering at least 50 percent of
the total value of output.
5
 See notes to 2.1.1.i regarding the definition of market output. An item may be in-scope for
measurement irrespective of the coverage that is actually achieved.
6
 Comprising, for example, agricultural products for consumption by the owners, employees,
and their families of an unincorporated household farming enterprise.
7
  Comprising production for own use of equipment and residential or nonresidential
structures.
                                              - 14 -




          -   illegal market goods sold to willing buyers;
          -   market services production for sale;
          -   production of selected services for own final consumption;8
          -   production of services for own account fixed capital formation;9 and
          -   illegal market services sold to willing buyers.

•         Deviations from the above scope are kept under review (see also 5.2.1).

2.3    Classification/sectorization
— Classification and sectorization systems are in accord with internationally accepted
standards, guidelines, or good practices.

2.3.1 Classification/sectorization systems used are broadly consistent with
internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.

i.        The classification and sectorization used in the compilation of the PPI are in broad
          conformity with internationally recommended systems.

•         The 1993 SNA is followed to classify:
          - institutional units; and
          - transactions.

•         ISIC,10 NACE,11 or a compatible (e.g., derived or related) national industry
          classification is used to classify the principal economic activity (industry) of
          establishments and enterprises.

•         CPC,12 CPA,13 or a compatible (e.g., derived or related) national product
          classification is used to classify products.


8
 As noted above, principally comprising the real estate leasing services produced by
household owner-occupants of residential housing for own final consumption.
9
  Principally comprising own account production of construction and fixed-capital
installation services, research and development services, and entertainment, literary, or
artistic originals.
10
     International Standard Industrial Classification of All Economic Activities.
11
   Nomenclature Génerale des Activités Économiques dans les Communautés Européennes
(In English: Statistical Classification of Economic Activities in the European Communities).
12
     Central Product Classification.
                                               - 15 -




•         Deviations from the above classifications/sectorizations are kept under review (see
          also 5.2.1).

2.4    Basis for recording
— Flows and stocks are valued and recorded according to internationally accepted
standards, guidelines, or good practices.

2.4.1 Market prices are used to value flows and stocks.

i.        The valuation rules used for recording flows and stocks are in accordance with
          the 1993 SNA.

•         Regarding output (for weights of the PPI),
          - market output is valued at basic/producer prices; and
          - output for own-use is valued at equivalent market prices.

•         Regarding intermediate consumption (for weights of input price indices and stage of
          processing output price indices),
          - transport margins are included in the valuation of intermediate consumption;
          - if levied, sales and excise taxes are included in the valuation of intermediate
             consumption; and
          - if value added taxes are in place, they are included in the valuation of
             intermediate consumption, excluding the deductible part of the value added taxes.

•         Product specifications include transaction characteristics, such as transactions
          between units of the same enterprise valued at transfer prices.

•         Deviations from the above valuation principles are kept under review (see also 5.2.1).

2.4.2 Recording is done on an accrual basis.

i.        The timing rules used for recording flows are in accordance with the 1993 SNA.

•         In particular, output of services, finished goods, and work-in-progress are recorded in
          the period they are produced.

•         Deviations from the above accrual recording principle are kept under review (see
          also 5.2.1).




13
     Classification of Products by Activity.
                                           - 16 -




2.4.3 Grossing/netting procedures are broadly consistent with internationally
      accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices.

i.     The grossing/netting procedures are in accordance with the 1993 SNA.

•      If stage of processing indices are produced, the net weights are developed in
       accordance with 1993 SNA procedures.

•      Transactions between establishments within the same enterprise are recorded on a
       gross basis.

•      Deviations from the above procedures are kept under review (see also 5.2.1).

3.     Accuracy and Reliability
Source data and statistical techniques are sound and statistical outputs sufficiently portray
reality.

3.1   Source data
— Source data available provide an adequate basis to compile statistics.

3.1.1 Source data are obtained from comprehensive data collection programs that
      take into account country-specific conditions.

i.     The data collection programs employed to compile the producer price statistics are
       adequate.

•      The data sources are kept under continuous review to ensure that the data collection
       program is comprehensive.

•      The data sources of the data collection program are broadly sufficient to compile
       statistics.

•      Information from other available sources supplements core compilation.

ii.    Annual statistics are collected through a regular enterprise establishment survey
       program for compiling PPI output weights, intermediate input weights (input price
       and stage of processing output price indices), and product weights.

•      A comprehensive and up-to-date business register provides the basis for sample
       surveys of business units.

•      Register maintenance procedures are adequate (including adding new units, deleting
       dead units and accounting for mergers and changeovers).
                                           - 17 -




•      In the absence of a business register, comprehensive and up-to-date sample frames
       are available (for example, census list updated with new registrations).

•      An up-to-date statistical area sample frame is available.

•      The frame includes household unincorporated enterprises.

•      Sample design ensures that the population in scope is represented properly. The
       sample has an appropriate division of completely enumerated and sampled strata.

•      The sample selections are refreshed regularly, especially in relation to maintaining
       acceptable levels of sample error.

•      Survey questionnaires are constructed according to sound design principles (e.g.,
       questionnaires are subject to field/pilot testing; observation studies are conducted
       during the design of survey questionnaires). They are reviewed periodically to take
       account of changed circumstances, and proposed changes are pretested to ensure
       effectiveness.

•      Coverage of output is comprehensive, or if not, exclusions are based on criteria that
       do not diminish the representativeness of the usefulness of the survey.

•      The survey coverage of activities (in terms of value added) within each main
       industrial group (e.g., ISIC one-digit level) is comprehensive.

iii.   Monthly or quarterly price statistics are collected through a regular
       establishment/enterprise survey program to compile the PPI by activities, by
       products, and by stage of processing.

•      The coverage of products is comprehensive, or if not, exclusions are based on criteria
       that do not diminish the representativeness of the survey.

•      The survey coverage of activities (in terms of value added) within each main
       industrial groups (e.g., ISIC one-digit level) is good (more than 80 percent).

•      Sample design and estimation procedures represent the survey universe, scientific
       random sampling techniques are used.

•      The sample selections are refreshed regularly, especially in relation to maintaining
       acceptable levels of sample error.

•      Data collected are sufficiently detailed to derive PPIs at the three-digit industry level
       and four-digit product level for covered sectors.
                                          - 18 -




iv.    Periodic (two or more years) surveys/censuses of output and intermediate
       consumption are conducted on a regular basis.

•      These include, at least, comprehensive surveys/censuses for:
       - establishments/enterprises;
       - population/households; and
       - agriculture/livestock.

•      Census/sample design and estimation procedures adequately represent the universe.

v.     The data collection programs are sufficiently open and allow for versatility to new
       developments in sources.

•      The press and research papers are monitored for information on prices for integration
       into statistics/registers.

•      Periodic meetings are held with producers and the business community to identify
       new developments that need to be taken into account of in the PPI compilation
       system.

•      International standards are monitored for changes that need to be taken into account
       in the price index compilation system.

3.1.2 Source data reasonably approximate the definitions, scope, classifications,
      valuation, and time of recording required.

i.     Source data approximate the definitions, scope, classifications, valuation, and time
       of recording required in the PPI.

•      Source data are consistent with the definitions, scope, and classifications, of PPI
       statistics.

•      Source data are consistent with the time of recording and valuation of the statistics.

3.1.3 Source data are timely.

i.     The data collection system provides for timely receipt of data.

•      The periodicity and timeliness of the price collection survey is adequate for
       disseminating the producer price statistics.

•      Other systems of price statistics from which source data may be used provide timely
       data:
       - prices of agricultural products;
       - prices or price indices of other major products; and
                                                - 19 -




           -   export and import price indices.

•          Respondents are made aware of the deadlines set for reporting.

•          The compilers have follow-up procedures to ensure the timely receipt of source data.

3.2   Assessment of source data
— Source data are regularly assessed.

3.2.1 Source data—including censuses, sample surveys, and administrative records—
      are routinely assessed, e.g., for coverage, sample error, response error, and
      nonsampling error; the results of the assessments are monitored and made
      available to guide statistical processes.

i.         Accuracy of the data from surveys is routinely assessed.

•          Information about sampling errors for each of the surveys conducted is monitored on
           a regular basis.14 Information is available about nonsampling errors: survey
           operations, biases, over/under-coverage, misclassification, processing, and
           nonresponse.

•          The procedures identify outliers and other atypical differences in periodic responses
           by individual survey units. Extreme values are confirmed with respondents, and
           records maintained on the confirmation.

•          Surveys/censuses are audited to verify the accuracy of the individual survey data
           (e.g., supervised field collection; random post-enumeration checks; independent
           reviews).

•          The effects on survey estimates of changes to questionnaires are assessed.

ii.        Accuracy of administrative data and other secondary sources is routinely assessed.

•          Accuracy of administrative data received from government agencies, trade
           associations, regulatory authorities, etc. are routinely assessed.

iii.       Appropriate measures are taken to make the source data consistent with PPI
           concepts.

•          The source data are analyzed to correct for underreporting/misreporting, in particular
           to check for:

14
      This refers to standard errors, or coefficients of variation.
                                           - 20 -




        -   temporal consistency; and
        -   consistency with other related data sources.

iv.     The regular PPI compilation provides a comprehensive measure of price change in
        covered economic activities.

•       A plausible and widely accepted estimate of price change is available for the part of
        the economy that is not covered by the regular PPI compilation (e.g., implicit
        deflators in the national accounts).

•       The proportion of total output for the economy that is not covered in regular PPI
        compilation is low (less than 10 percent).

•       The proportion of output for the sectors in scope for the PPI that is not covered by the
        PPI is low (less than 10 percent).

3.3    Statistical techniques
— Statistical techniques employed conform to sound statistical procedures.

3.3.1   Data compilation employs sound statistical techniques to deal with data sources.

i.      Adjustments are made to source data when concepts followed in their compilation
        are not consistent with price statistics.

•       Compilation procedures minimize processing errors such as coding, editing, and
        tabulation errors.

•       Adjustments to unit records are made only when clearly warranted (e.g., unusual
        values are not replaced or modified unless clearly required) and can be identified in
        datasets.

•       Procedures for imputation and adjustment for nonresponse are soundly based.

•       Appropriate use is made of ancillary, and benchmark information in compiling
        population estimates.

ii.     Appropriate measures are taken to validate the source data.

•       Specific procedures are developed to adjust data sources to improve the coverage,
        definitions, classifications, and valuation conforming to the international guidelines
        for PPI compilation.

•       Grossing-up factors are derived scientifically based on sample design.
                                               - 21 -




iii.      Internationally accepted statistical methods are used to handle missing prices and
          the introduction of new products that are within the scope of the PPI.

•         Prices for temporarily missing products handled by:
          - imputing the price based on the change similar product prices (preferred);
          - carrying forward the last reported price (used carefully); or
          - dropping the product from the sample (discouraged).

•         Missing prices for seasonal products are imputed.

•         Replacement products are selected for products that become permanently unavailable.

•         Quality adjustments (using internationally accepted methods) are made when quality
          differences are observed in replacement products.

•         New products are introduced into the sample as they gain market share.

3.3.2 Other statistical procedures (e.g., data adjustments and transformations, and
      statistical analysis) employ sound statistical techniques.

i.        Proper statistical techniques are used to address specific issues of output
          measurement for PPI weights.

•         Either gross output, as defined in the 1993 SNA, or gross sales are used to establish
          weights.

•         Work in progress: If output is used, the following are treated as work-in-progress:
          - growing crops;
          - standing timber;
          - stocks of fish;
          - livestock reared for purposes of food;
          - large construction projects; and
          - output of large equipment.15

•         Inventory valuation adjustment: if inventories data are used in the estimates of
          output, output is adjusted for holding gains/losses accruing on inventories.

•         If inventories data are used in the estimates of intermediate consumption,
          intermediate consumption is adjusted for holding gains/losses on inventories.



15
     Such as ships, aircraft, military ordinance, etc.
                                          - 22 -




•      Owner-occupied dwellings: output is valued as the estimated rentals that tenants
       would pay for similar accommodation.

•      Cash vs. accrual: the cash data are converted to accrual by allocating them to the
       period to which they relate, in particular for certain data related to government
       activities:
       - taxes and subsides on products;
       - government arrears;
       - government revenue data;
       - government expenditure data.

ii.    Internationally accepted statistical techniques are used to compile the PPI
       estimates.

•      An unbiased formula is used to calculate the elementary (item) level indices (ratio of
       average prices or geometric mean are preferred; the average of price relatives must be
       used with caution).

•      Either a short-term price change from the previous period or a long-term price change
       from the price reference period is used.

•      The method to aggregate elementary indices to higher levels uses an internationally
       accepted formula (e.g., Laspeyres, Paasche, geometric mean, Fisher).

•      The current weight reference period and price reference period for the index are the
       same. If not, the weights are adjusted for price change to align with the price
       reference period when they were introduced (Lowe Index). Otherwise, the
       expenditure shares are held constant from the weight reference period (Young Index).

•      The weight reference period has been updated within the past seven years.

•      When new weights are introduced the new index is linked to the old index using an
       internationally accepted technique as recommended in the PPI Manual.

3.4    Assessment and validation of intermediate data and statistical outputs
— Intermediate results and statistical outputs are regularly assessed and validated.

3.4.1 Intermediate results are validated against other information where applicable.

i.     Intermediate results are validated against other independent data sources.

•      The PPI by product and/or stage of processing are compared with comparable
       estimates from other sources such as the national accounts statistics, export price
       indices, and import price indices.
                                           - 23 -




3.4.2 Statistical discrepancies in intermediate data are assessed and investigated.

i.      Unusual index movements arising from potential problems in price data are
        investigated and made available to users.

•       Unusual movements in the index arising from large movements in particular sectors
        or from particular reporters are investigated and explained in descriptive
        documentation such as press releases, with due attention to disclosure requirements.

3.4.3 Statistical discrepancies and other potential indicators or problems in statistical
      outputs are assessed and investigated.

i.      Statistical discrepancies, if any, between PPI for economic activities and the PPI
        for products are investigated and made available to users.

•       Discrepancies arising from inconsistent imputation for missing data and other
        possible sources of aggregation inconsistency are assessed.

•       Appropriate adjustments are made to remove discrepancies.

3.5    Revision studies
— Revisions, as a gauge of reliability, are tracked and mined for the information they may
provide.

3.5.1   Studies and analyses of revisions are carried out routinely and used internally to
        inform statistical processes (see also 4.3.3).

i.      Revision studies are undertaken on a regular basis.

•       Periodic weight revisions are analyzed to determine the effects of substitution bias on
        the PPI.

•       Studies of long-term trends in the revision pattern are conducted periodically to
        identify systematic biased revisions.

•       Studies investigate the sources of errors in the data and explain the methods of
        revising the data.

ii.     Measures are undertaken to incorporate the findings from revision studies in data
        compilation.

•       Findings from revision studies are used to define the optimal revision cycle that is
        largely driven by the availability of major data sources.
                                            - 24 -




•       Findings from revision studies are used to refine preliminary data and data collection
        programs for the subsequent periods.

•       Adequate documentation on revisions is well maintained and includes description of
        causes of revisions, methods used to incorporate new data sources, and the way data
        are adjusted.

4.      Serviceability
Statistics, with adequate periodicity and timeliness, are consistent and follow a predictable
revisions policy.

4.1   Periodicity and timeliness
—Periodicity and timeliness follow internationally accepted dissemination standards.

4.1.1   Periodicity follows dissemination standards.

i.      The periodicity of the statistics follows the IMF data dissemination standards
        (Special Data Dissemination Standard (SDDS) or General Data Dissemination
        System (GDDS)).

•       The PPI is compiled monthly (SDDS and GDDS).

4.1.2   Timeliness follows dissemination standards.

i.      The timeliness of the statistical series follows the IMF data dissemination standards
        (SDDS or GDDS).

•       The monthly index is disseminated within one month after the end of reference
        month. (SDDS)

•       The monthly index is disseminated within two months after the end of reference
        month. (GDDS)

4.2    Consistency
— Statistics are consistent within a dataset, over time, and with major datasets.

4.2.1 Statistics are consistent within the dataset.

i.      The statistical series is internally consistent
                                              - 25 -




•         Estimates produced for all classification typologies are consistent in the sense that the
          all-items aggregate is invariant to the typology of aggregation.16

4.2.2 Statistics are consistent or reconcilable over a reasonable period of time.

i.        The statistical series is consistent over time.

•         Consistent time series data are available for an adequate period of time (at least five
          years).

•         When changes in source data, methodology, and statistical techniques are introduced,
          historical series are reconstructed as far back as reasonably possible.

•         Detailed methodological notes identify and explain the main breaks and
          discontinuities in time series, their causes, as well as adjustments made to maintain
          consistency over time.

•         Unusual changes in economic trends are explained in the analytical text included in
          the publication and in the database accessible to users.

4.2.3 Statistics are consistent or reconcilable with those obtained through other data
      sources and/or statistical frameworks.

i.        The statistics are consistent or reconcilable with other statistical frameworks.

•         The producer price statistics are largely consistent with other price statistics, national
          accounts, and, other statistical frameworks, as relevant.

4.3   Revision policy and practice
— Data revisions follow a regular and publicized procedure.

4.3.1     Revisions follow a regular and transparent schedule.

i.        The practice of revisions (e.g., from provisional estimates, for weight updates, for
          changes in methodology) follows a predictable pattern of which users of statistics
          are informed.

•         The revision cycle is predetermined and reasonably stable from year to year.

•         The revision cycle is made known to the public.


16
     For the PPI, the two classification typologies are industry and product.
                                            - 26 -




•       The reasons underlying the cycle (e.g., the availability of source data, the timing of
        revisions with related datasets, the timing for preparing important economic policy
        documents) are explained.

•       Adequate documentation of revisions is included in the publication of the statistical
        series and in the database accessible to users.

•       When revisions outside the regular cycle are called for (e.g., by the discovery of new
        source data, errors), they are made known to the public.

4.3.2   Preliminary and/or revised data are clearly identified.

i.      Users are informed about the preliminary nature of the data.

•       At the time of data dissemination, users are informed whenever data are preliminary.

ii.     Users are informed about the revised nature of the data.

•       At the time of data dissemination, users are informed whenever data are revised.

4.3.3   Studies and analyses of revisions are made public (see also 3.5.1).

i.      Users are informed of results and studies of the revisions to the statistics.

•       Weight revisions and data revisions are measured, assessed, and explained in the
        statistical publication and in the database accessible by users.

•       Analysis of differences between the revised and preliminary data is published for
        major aggregates to allow an assessment of the reliability of the preliminary data.

5.      Accessibility
Data and metadata are easily available and assistance to users is adequate.

5.1    Data accessibility
— Statistics are presented in a clear and understandable manner, forms of dissemination are
adequate, and statistics are made available on an impartial basis.

5.1.1 Statistics are presented in a way that facilitates proper interpretation and
      meaningful comparisons (layout and clarity of text, tables, and charts).

i.      The presentation of the statistics data is commensurate with users’ needs.

•       Data are published in a clear manner; charts and tables are disseminated with the data
        to facilitate the analysis.
                                            - 27 -




•       Datasets are published with various levels of detail (disaggregation).

•       Analysis of current-period developments is included with dissemination.

•       Estimates are disseminated at a detailed level and with time-series.

•       Relevant series are disseminated in a seasonally adjusted form.

5.1.2   Dissemination media and format are adequate.

i.      Statistics are disseminated in formats to suit users’ needs.

•       Statistics are disseminated in ways that facilitate re-dissemination in the media (e.g.,
        information release).

•       More comprehensive and/or detailed statistics are also disseminated in paper and/or
        electronic formats.

•       Current statistics and longer time series can be accessed (perhaps for a fee) through
        an electronic database maintained by, or on behalf of, the data producing agency.

5.1.3   Statistics are released on a preannounced schedule.

i.      Statistics are released on the preannounced schedule.

•       A schedule announces in advance the dates the statistics are to be released.

•       The statistics are released according to the preannounced schedule.


5.1.4 Statistics are made available to all users at the same time.

i.      The statistics are made available to all users at the same time.

•       The public is informed of the statistics being released, and of the procedures to access
        them (e.g., Internet, publications).

•       The statistics are made available to all interested users simultaneously.

•       If the press is briefed in advance, embargos are imposed to prevent early public
        disclosure.

5.1.5   Statistics not routinely disseminated are made available upon request.

i.      Statistics not routinely disseminated are made available to users upon request.
                                            - 28 -




•       For general use purposes, statistics are made available upon request, in addition to the
        statistics routinely disseminated.

•       For specific purposes, customized tabulations can be provided (perhaps for a fee).

•       The availability of additional statistics and of the procedures for obtaining them are
        made known.

5.2   Metadata accessibility
— Up-to-date and pertinent metadata are made available.

5.2.1   Documentation on concepts, scope, classifications, basis of recording, data
        sources, and statistical techniques is available, and differences from
        internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices are annotated.

i.      The metadata give adequate information about the meaning of the data and about
        the methodology used to collect and process them.

•       A comprehensive sources and methods document is published and updated regularly,
        and it includes the following:
        - information on concepts, definitions, classifications, data sources, compilation
           methods, statistical techniques and other relevant methodological aspects and
           procedures;
        - departures from internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices;
           and
        - information on survey sources, such as survey characteristics (response rates,
           survey monitoring and studies of non sampling errors) and other survey features
           (method, sample frame, sample design and selection, estimation and imputation
           techniques, etc.), and on the nature of administrative data sources; and main
           linkages with related major data systems.

•       Deviations from internationally accepted standards, guidelines, or good practices are
        well documented in the metadata.

•       The SDDS/GDDS metadata, SDDS summary methodologies, and other related
        descriptions are reviewed and updated regularly.

•       The metadata are readily accessible (e.g., websites, statistical publications) and their
        availability is cross-referenced in data releases, and otherwise well publicized (e.g., in
        catalogues).

5.2.2 Levels of detail are adapted to the needs of the intended audience.

i.      Different levels of metadata detail are made available to meet users’ requirements.
                                            - 29 -




•       General use information (e.g., a brochure) about the PPI and other price statistics
        (e.g., how to locate the data) is available and made public.

•       More specialized use information (e.g., background papers, working documents) is
        available and made public.

5.3  Assistance to users
— Prompt and knowledgeable support service is available.

5.3.1   Contact points for each subject field are publicized.

i.      Adequate assistance is given to users of statistics.

•       Prompt and knowledgeable service and support are available to users of statistics.

•       All statistical releases identify contact points for enquiries by mail, telephone,
        facsimile, or by e-mail.

•       Material to raise awareness on the use of statistics is available (e.g., for schools and
        research).

•       Access points for clients to obtain statistical information are well advertised.

•       Assistance to users is monitored and reviewed periodically (e.g., time of response to
        e-mail requests).

5.3.2   Catalogs of publications, documents, and other services, including information
        on any changes, are widely available.

i.      Catalogs of publications and other services are available to users of statistics.

•       Catalogs of publications, documents, and other services to users are available and
        updated regularly (e.g., each year if needed).

•       The prices of the statistical products and services are clearly disclosed and assistance
        is provided in placing orders.

				
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