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AP BIOLOGY REVIEW 2

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					AP BIOLOGY
 REVIEW 2



             1
2
3
  Which of the following is TRUE of synaptic
     signaling and hormonal signaling?

a. Hormonal signaling occurs in animals only.
b. Hormonal signaling is important between cells
   that are at greater distances apart than in
   synaptic signaling.
c. Both use neurotransmitters, but hormone
   signaling is for adjacent cells in animals only.
d. Both are forms of paracrine signaling.



                                                      4
  Which of the following is TRUE of synaptic
     signaling and hormonal signaling?

a. Hormonal signaling occurs in animals only.
b. Hormonal signaling is important between cells
   that are at greater distances apart than in
   synaptic signaling.
c. Both use neurotransmitters, but hormone
   signaling is for adjacent cells in animals only.
d. Both are forms of paracrine signaling.



                                                      5
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8
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11
12
13
     A group of cells is assayed for DNA content
    immediately following mitosis and is found to
     have an average of 8 picograms of DNA per
   nucleus. Those cells would have____picograms
 at the end of the S phase and _____ picograms at
                    the end of G2.
a.    8,8
b.    8,16
c.    16,8
d.    16,16
e.    12,16



                                                    14
     A group of cells is assayed for DNA content
    immediately following mitosis and is found to
     have an average of 8 picograms of DNA per
   nucleus. Those cells would have____picograms
 at the end of the S phase and _____ picograms at
                    the end of G2.
a.    8,8
b.    8,16
c.    16,8
d.    16,16
e.    12,16



                                                    15
16
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Meiosis




          29
30
In meiosis I, _____ are separated; in meiosis
          II,______ are separated.

a. homologous chromosomes; nonhomologous
chromosomes.
b. homologous chromosomes; sister chromatids
c. nonhomologous chromosomes; homologous
chromosomes
d. sister chromatids; homologous chromosomes.




                                                31
In meiosis I, _____ are separated; in meiosis
          II,______ are separated.

a. homologous chromosomes; nonhomologous
chromosomes.
b. homologous chromosomes; sister chromatids
c. nonhomologous chromosomes; homologous
chromosomes
d. sister chromatids; homologous chromosomes.




                                                32
33
34
35
36
  A diploid cell has three pairs of homologous
    chromosomes designated J1/J2, K1/K2,
      and L1/L2. Which of the following
      represents a probable chromosome
    compliment in a haploid cell formed by
                     meiosis?
a.  J1 and K1
b. J1 and J2

c.  J2, K1, and L2
d. J1, J1, K2, and K2

e.  J1, J2, K1, K2, L1, and L2

                                                 37
  A diploid cell has three pairs of homologous
    chromosomes designated J1/J2, K1/K2,
      and L1/L2. Which of the following
      represents a probable chromosome
    compliment in a haploid cell formed by
                     meiosis?
a.  J1 and K1
b. J1 and J2

c.  J2, K1, and L2
d. J1, J1, K2, and K2

e.  J1, J2, K1, K2, L1, and L2

                                                 38
Comparison Mitosis & Meiosis




                               39
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Independent Assortment




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Ecology




   46
                       Terms
   Punctuated equilibrium – In the fossil record,
    long periods of apparent stasis (equilibrium), in
    which a species undergoes little or no
    morphological change, interrupted by relatively
    brief periods of sudden change.
   Epiphytic plant – a plant that nourishes itself
    but grows on the surface of another plant for
    support (often on trunks of tropic plants)

                           47
                    Terms
   Ecological niche – sum total of an organisms
    use of biotic and abiotic resources as it “fits
    into” an ecosystem
   Fundamental niche – resources a population is
    capable of using




                         48
                 Terms cont’d
   Realized niche – resources a population
    actually does use
   Limiting factor - something needed for
    productivity (like water, O2 or CO2 for plants)
   Resource partitioning – different niches allow
    similar species to coexist in community



                           49
50
                Terms cont’d
   Dominant species - one in community that has
    the most biomass
   Biomass - sum weight of all individuals in
    population
   Keystone species - not abundant but has control
    by role not numbers i.e.. sea star pg. 1184



                          51
                 Terms cont’d
   Carrying capacity – maximum amount that can
    live there without harming the species
   Logistic growth – population growth that levels
    off as population reaches carrying capacity




                          52
               Terms cont’d
   K – selected population - a population living
    at or near its carrying capacity
     - Produces relatively few offspring that have a
    good chance for survival.
     - Long life, low mortality rate (death rate)




                         53
                Terms cont’d
    R- selected population - a population where
     densities fluctuate with little competition.
    - short life span, high mortality rate ie.
     dandelions




                          54
                 Terms cont’d
   Altruism behavior – puts the needs of the
    population before itself
   Kin selection – needs of family come first




                          55
56
    Exponential population growth
   Aka Geometric population growth
   Population increase under ideal conditions




                          57
Fig. 53-10

                           2,000
                                       dN
                                          = 1.0N
                                       dt
     Population size (N)


                           1,500
                                                          dN
                                                             = 0.5N
                                                          dt

                           1,000



                            500



                              0
                                   0    5             10              15
                                       Number of generations
                                                                           58
Fig. 53-11



                          8,000
    Elephant population



                          6,000


                          4,000


                          2,000


                             0
                             1900   1920   1940     1960   1980
                                             Year

                                                              59
       Exponential growth graph
   J-shape is characteristic of populations that are
    introduced into a new environment or whose
    numbers have been drastically reduced by a
    catastrophic event and they are now rebounding.




                          60
Fig. 53-12
                                                   Exponential
                                                   growth
                               2,000                   dN
                                                          = 1.0N
                                                       dt
         Population size (N)



                               1,500
                                           K = 1,500


                                                                     Logistic growth
                               1,000
                                                                   dN          1,500 – N
                                                                      = 1.0N
                                                                   dt            1,500

                                500



                                  0
                                       0                5            10                    15
                                                       Number of generations
                                                                                                61
62
63
Which of the following could cause a realized
 niche to differ from a fundamental niche?

 a. suitable habitat
 b. food size and availability
 c. temperature limitations
 d. water availability
 e. competition from other species.




                       64
Which of the following could cause a realized
 niche to differ from a fundamental niche?

 a. suitable habitat
 b. food size and availability
 c. temperature limitations
 d. water availability
 e. competition from other species.




                       65
66
67
68
Which of the following species interaction is
    INCORRECTLY paired to its effects on
       the density of the two interacting
                  populations?
a. predation – one increases, one decreases
b. parasitism – one increases, one decreases
c. commensalisms – both increase
d. mutualism – both increase
e. competition – both decrease




                     69
Which of the following species interaction is
    INCORRECTLY paired to its effects on
       the density of the two interacting
                  populations?
a. predation – one increases, one decreases
b. parasitism – one increases, one decreases
c. commensalisms – both increase
d. mutualism – both increase
e. competition – both decrease




                     70
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DNA




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Meselson-Stahl Experiment




                            98
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105
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108
109
  The genetic code contains the specific
            instructions for:

a. replicating DNA strands for reproduction
b. producing amino acids for proteins
c. directing cell division
d. determining the order of amino acids in
protein




                                              110
  The genetic code contains the specific
            instructions for:

a. replicating DNA strands for reproduction
b. producing amino acids for proteins
c. directing cell division
d. determining the order of amino acids in
protein




                                              111
Transcription




                112
113
114
Once transcribed, eukaryotic mRNA typically
undergoes substantial alteration that includes

a. excision of introns.
b. fusion into circular forms known as plasmids.
c. linkage to histone molecules.
d. union with ribosomes.
e. fusion with other newly transcribed mRNA.




                                                   115
Once transcribed, eukaryotic mRNA typically
undergoes substantial alteration that includes

a. excision of introns.
b. fusion into circular forms known as plasmids.
c. linkage to histone molecules.
d. union with ribosomes.
e. fusion with other newly transcribed mRNA.




                                                   116
RNA Processing




                 117
118
119
   If the arrangement of bases on DNA is
5΄ACCGAT 3΄ then a corresponding strand of
                mRNA will be:
 a.   5΄ACCGAT3΄
 b.   3΄TAGCCA5΄
 c.   5΄UGGCUA3΄
 d.   3΄UGGCUA5΄




                                         120
   If the arrangement of bases on DNA is
5΄ACCGAT 3΄ then a corresponding strand of
                mRNA will be:
 a.   5΄ACCGAT3΄
 b.   3΄TAGCCA5΄
 c.   5΄UGGCUA3΄
 d.   3΄UGGCUA5΄




                                         121
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134
Control of Protein Synthesis




                               135
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149
Which of the following best describes why the
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a standard
technique used in molecular biology research?
a.  It uses inexpensive materials and produces
    perfect results.
b. It can purify specific sections of a DNA
    molecule.
c.  It can produce large amounts of specific DNA
    sequences.
d. It can duplicate the entire human genome.
e.  It can produce large amounts of mRNA.

                                               150
Which of the following best describes why the
polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a standard
    It uses inexpensive materials and research?
technique used in molecular biologyproduces
a.
    perfect results.
b. It can purify specific sections of a DNA
    molecule.
c.  It can produce large amounts of specific DNA
    sequences.
d. It can duplicate the entire human genome.
e.  It can produce large amounts of mRNA.

                                               151

				
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