“Biodegradation Using Natural Microbial Community” Than Than Sein School of Biology BIODEGRADATION ?? Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken down by living organisms. The term is often used in relation to ecology, waste management, environmental remediation (bioremediation) and to plastic materials, due to their long life span. Organic material can be degraded aerobically, with oxygen or anaerobically, without oxygen. A term related to biodegradation is biomineralisation, in which organic matter is converted into minerals.It can catalize reduction in complexity of chemicals. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodegradation) Biodegradation Biodegradation is nature's way of recycling wastes, or breaking down organic matter into nutrients that can be used by other organisms. "Degradation" means decay, and the "bio-" prefix means that the decay is carried out by a huge assortment of bacteria, fungi, insects, worms, and other organisms that eat dead material and recycle it into new forms. (Cornell University) BIOREMEDIATION A technology that encourages growth and reproduction of indigenous micro organisms to enhence biodegradation of organic constituents. Constituent Tropospheric mixing ratio N2 (Nitrogen) 78.08% O2 (Oxygen) 20.95% H2O (water vapor) <3.00% A (Argon) 0.93% CO2 (carbon dioxide) 345 ppmv •Acid Rain O3 (ozone) 10 ppmv •GlobalWarming CH4 (methane) 1.6 ppmv •SmogFormation N2O (nitric oxide) 350 ppbv •Ozone Depletion CO (carbon 70 ppbv monoxide) CFC=s 11-12 0.2-0.3 ppbv A Hebei, China, resident says his neck lesions are the result of a toxic environment. It's a likely story—barely a third of China's cities have air that meets national air-quality levels, which are below World Health Organization levels. Indoor air pollution from coal burning takes more than 700,000 lives a year, and respiratory diseases cause nearly a quarter of all deaths in the countryside. Green House Gas GHG? GHG N2O CFC CO2 CH4 The 3R Initiative The 3R Initiative aims to promote the "3Rs" • Reduce, • Reuse and • Recycle globally so as to build a sound-material-cycle society through the effective use of resources and materials. In order to formally launch the 3R Initiative, it was also agreed to hold a ministerial meeting of G-8 countries in Japan in the spring of 2005. Advanced Industrialized Nations G-8Countries 1.United Kingdom 2. France 3.Germany 4. Italy 5. Japan 6. USA 7. Canada(1998) 8. Russia Benefits of Recycling • Conserves resources for our children's future. • Prevents emissions of many greenhouse gases and water pollutants. • Saves energy. • Supplies valuable raw materials to industry. • Creates jobs. • Stimulates the development of greener technologies. • Reduces the need for new landfills and incinerators. US Environmental Protection Agency What are the 3Rs? Reducing means choosing to use things with care to reduce the amount of waste generated. Reusing involves the repeated use of items or parts of items which still have usable aspects. Recycling means the use of waste itself as resources. Waste minimization can be achieved in an efficient way by focusing primarily on the first of the 3Rs, "reduce," followed by "reuse" and then "recycle." Final Product BIODEGRADATION TRIANGLE Compound BIODEGRADATION Environment Microorganisms Enhanced microbiological treatment of environments contaminated with a variety of organic and inorganic pollutants (King et al., 1998). The utilization of microorganisms for the destruction of chemical pollutants (Alexander, 1994). A treatability technology that uses biological activity to reduce the concentration or toxicity of a pollutant (NETAC, 1991). http://www.personal.psu.edu/mab568/Enzyme.htm General Catogories of harzardous Waste 1. Toxic Chemicals 2. flammable 3. Radio active 4. Explosive waste 5. Biological waste The ease of degradation • The ease of degradation of organic molecules is a function of their structure. The general rules are that branched molecules are very difficult to break down, whereas compounds with carbon-carbon double bonds (olefins) breakdown relatively quickly. • Alkynes > Alkenes >Carboxylic Acids>Alcohols>Straight Chains > Aromatics >Chlorinated Aromatics> Branched Chains Degradative pathway • The first step in the degradation of a straight chain hydrocarbon is the formation of a hydroxyl group on a terminal methyl carbon. This can be considered as the "insertion" of an oxygen atom into a carbon-hydrogen bond. • This product is called an alcohol (because of the -OH ). The second step involves the loss of two hydrogen atoms, forming an aldehyde. The third step involves further oxidation of the terminal carbon, this time taking it from an aldehyde to a carboxylic acid. • Once the carboxylic acid is formed, the molecule can undergo b - oxidation. In b -oxidation, the carboxylic acid is reduced in length by two carbon atoms forming a new, shorter straight-chain carboxylic acid and two carbon dioxide molecules. • Biodegradable matter is generally organic material such as plant and animal matter and other substances originating from living organisms, or artificial materials that are similar enough to plant and animal matter to be put to use by microorganisms. Some microorganisms have the astonishing, naturally occurring, microbial catabolic diversity to degrade, transform or accumulate a huge range of compounds including hydrocarbons (e.g. oil), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), pharmaceutical substances, radionuclides and metals. Major methodological breakthroughs in microbial biodegradation have enabled detailed genomic, metagenomic, proteomic, bioinformatic and other high-throughput analyses of environmentally relevant microorganisms providing unprecedented insights into key biodegradative pathways and the ability of microorganisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions Microbial biodegradation • Microbial biodegradation of pollutants has intensified in recent years as mankind strives to find sustainable ways to cleanup contaminated environments.These bioremediation and biotransformation methods endeavour to harness the astonishing, naturally occurring, microbial catabolic diversity to degrade, transform or accumulate a huge range of compounds including hydrocarbons (e.g. oil), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs), pharmaceutical substances, radionuclides and metals. Major methodological breakthroughs in recent years have enabled detailed genomic, metagenomic, proteomic, bioinformatic and other high-throughput analyses of environmentally relevant microorganisms providing unprecedented insights into key biodegradative pathways and the ability of organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions. Degradation Times of Materials Banana peel, 2 – 10 days Cotton rags, 1 – 5 months Sugarcane Pulp Products 30 - 60 days Paper, 2 – 5 months Rope, 3 – 14 months Orange peels, 6 months Wool socks, 1 – 5 years Cigarette filters, 1 – 12 years Styrofoam cup, non-biodegradeable Tetrapaks (plastic composite milk cartons), 5 years Plastic bags, 10 – 20 years Leather shoes 25 – 40 years Nylon fabric, 30 – 40 years Plastic six-pack holder rings, 450 years Diapers and sanitary pads 500 – 800 years Tin cans 50 - 100 years Aluminium cans 80 - 100 years Ministerial Conference The Ministerial Conference on the 3R initiative was held in Tokyo on 28-30 April 2005 to formally launch the 3R Initiative agreed upon at the G8 Sea Island Summit in June 2004. During the conference, participating countries and organizations shared information on 3R-relevant activities carried out by them. Through the discussions at the ministerial level, the conference recognized it necessary to promote: • (a)formulation and implementation of visions and/or strategies leading to a sound material-cycle society; • (b)reduction of barriers to the international flow of goods and materials; • (c)cooperation between developed and developing countries; • (d)cooperation among stakeholders; and • (e)science and technology suitable for the 3Rs. • It was also agreed that the outcome of the conference should be fed into the G8 Summit meeting at Gleneagles in the UK in July 2005, and shared with the international community through various fora. The conference welcomed a proposal by Japan to organize a meeting at the senior official level as a follow-up to the Ministerial Conference. What a foolish things!! Today’s man is polluting…the earth precious soils which produce the treasure vitally important.(Mokichi Okada) "You must be the change you wish to see in the World." Gandhi What You Can Do ??? You can help save your local environment and the planet. It's soooo easy! All you have to do is think of all the garbage you make and then think of ways you can reduce it, reuse it, or recycle it. It's called the 3 Rs. Practising the 3 Rs only takes a few minutes each day because it's really simple. Every R is important but reducing is at the heart of the best solution to producing less garbage. That the best way to keep our environment clean. And we're not just saying that because it's the business we're in. You'll see what we mean when you explore all the neat info at this site. Nudes have always been popular in art, but they’ve never been used in quite this way. Artist Spencer Tunick, in collaboration with Greenpeace, staged an installation on the Aletsch Glacier in southern Switzerland. What did he install? Six hundred naked people, of course. The participants bared themselves as a way to raise awareness for global warming and glacial retreat. And, quite to the point, it wasn’t all that cold during the shoot: about fifty degrees Fahrenheit. (Greenpeace) ENERGY WASTING LIGHTBULB Why we crushed 10,000 lightbulbs: These are obsolete, but widely available, energy wasting incandescent lightbulbs. This type of bulb wastes 95 percent of its energy generating heat instead of light. This wasted energy mostly comes from burning fossil fuels like coal - causing climate change by adding carbon dioxide to our atmosphere. We crushed in Berlin while EU and G8 ministers were meeting there for the, "Energy Efficiency: Shaping Tomorrow's World" conference . Environmental Ethics When I go shopping, I take my • As the Secretary of the own cloth bags so that I don’t Governing Council, we use have to use plastic bags. In my house we have reduced the recycled paper for our use of chemicals; we keep the reports and we reuse windows open and let fresh air envelopes. The staff collects in, instead of using sprays. We printed paper in a box and protect nature from plastics prints drafts and chemicals. We let our on it. We save paper. I save towels dry in thesun, instead resources. of washing them everyday.I save water. (Shafqat Kakakhel, Deputy • (Beverly A. Miller: Secretary, Governing Executive Director of the UNEP • Council, Secretariat of Governing Bodies) Ethics • Water and energy are the most • Every day I commute to importantresources in Africa. I Work on my bike. That is switch off the lightwhen I go to easy, economical and lunch and I put my computer to environmentally friendly. I sleep when I am not working on don’t pollute it. I save energy. I only wash my Senegalese clothes once a the air. month. In my home, I fi lter waste-water to water my garden. • (Ming Wu, Translater, That is cheaper and I save water. Chinese • (Bakary Kante, • Language Unit) • Director: Division of Policy Development • and Law) You can participate!! • I drive an electrical car. I also • Think about your daily have solar panels at home to activities. Are you produce electric power. I • practicing ethics in reduce CO2 emissions. action? (Sean Khan: Programme Officer, Information Management, DEWA) • Perhaps you can • share some examples? You can do it!!! • You Can Do It! Clear air. Clean water. Life-giving trees. And a lot less ugly pollution. It's what saving the planet is all about. It's what we do at the New Brunswick Solid Waste Association. And you can do it, too! Become a Recycling Ranger. This site will help you get started with easy tips, fun games and lots of neat information you can use to do your part to make your city or town, and the whole planet, an even better place to live and play. Eco Town Program, which was inaugurated in 1997, places "Zero Emission" concept (a concept to shift all the wastes generated from a specific industry to utilize them as material for other industry, aiming at suppressing waste generation at zero) as a basis for establishing an environmentally harmonizing socio-economy in local community. Also, the Program aims at promoting advanced and environmentally harmonizing town by being integrated into a major pillar of measures to realize local revitalization. Approved Eco Town Programs (As of July 2005) http://actonco2.direct.gov.uk/index.html Environmental Awareness is important • Air- acid rain, indoor air pollution, ozone, radon • Conservation- energy, environmental stewardship, natural resources, pollution prevention • Ecosystems- ecology, endangered species, global warming, habitats, watersheds • Human Health- drinking water, fish advisories, indoor air, lead, ozone depletion, pesticides, radon, smog • In Your Neighborhood- databases, local issues, maps • Waste & Recycling- garbage, household, hazardous & solid waste, landfills, superfund cleanups, trash • Water- drinking water, ecosystems, lakes, oceans, rivers, water pollution, watersheds OUR BEST FRIENDS… PLANTS.. Professor Wangari Maathai (KENYA) Professor Maathai was listed 6th in the Environmental Agency(UK) peer review orf the world’s Top 100 Eco -Heros Green Belt Movement ,now has helped women who plant 30 millions trees. 2004 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate Sustainable Energy Globe could support the NEEDS But not the GREEDS Be Kind to bamboo USE LOCAL PRODUCT One ton of Recycled Paper can saved the lives of 17 Trees… =17 Venus Thank You So Much for Kind Attention!
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