�Biodegradation Using Natural Microbial Community� by HC120212021312

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									“Biodegradation Using Natural Microbial
             Community”




              Than Than Sein
             School of Biology
            BIODEGRADATION ??
 Biodegradation is the process by which organic substances are broken
  down by living organisms. The term is often used in relation to ecology,
  waste management, environmental remediation (bioremediation) and to
  plastic materials, due to their long life span. Organic material can be
  degraded aerobically, with oxygen or anaerobically, without oxygen. A
  term related to biodegradation is biomineralisation, in which organic
  matter is converted into minerals.It can catalize reduction in complexity
  of chemicals. (http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodegradation)

Biodegradation
  Biodegradation is nature's way of recycling wastes, or
  breaking down organic matter into nutrients that can be
  used by other organisms. "Degradation" means decay, and
  the "bio-" prefix means that the decay is carried out by a
  huge assortment of bacteria, fungi, insects, worms, and
  other organisms that eat dead material and recycle it into
  new forms. (Cornell University)
    BIOREMEDIATION


A technology that encourages growth
and reproduction of indigenous micro
organisms to enhence biodegradation of
organic constituents.
Constituent          Tropospheric
                     mixing ratio


N2 (Nitrogen)        78.08%

O2 (Oxygen)          20.95%

H2O (water vapor)    <3.00%


A (Argon)            0.93%

CO2 (carbon
dioxide)
                     345 ppmv
                                    •Acid Rain
O3 (ozone)           10 ppmv        •GlobalWarming
CH4 (methane)        1.6 ppmv
                                    •SmogFormation
N2O (nitric oxide)   350 ppbv
                                    •Ozone Depletion
CO (carbon           70 ppbv
monoxide)

CFC=s 11-12          0.2-0.3 ppbv
A Hebei, China, resident says his neck lesions are the result of a toxic
environment. It's a likely story—barely a third of China's cities have air that
meets national air-quality levels, which are below World Health Organization
levels. Indoor air pollution from coal burning takes more than 700,000 lives a
year, and respiratory diseases cause nearly a quarter of all deaths in the
countryside.
       Green House Gas
GHG?
 GHG

                       N2O
           CFC




CO2
                 CH4
The 3R Initiative
The 3R Initiative aims to promote the "3Rs"
• Reduce,
• Reuse and
• Recycle globally so as to build a sound-material-cycle society through
  the effective use of resources and materials.
In order to formally launch the 3R Initiative, it was also agreed to hold a
   ministerial meeting of G-8 countries in Japan in the spring of 2005.
  Advanced Industrialized Nations G-8Countries

1.United Kingdom
2. France
3.Germany
4. Italy
5. Japan
6. USA
7. Canada(1998)
8. Russia
            Benefits of Recycling
• Conserves resources for our children's future.
• Prevents emissions of many greenhouse gases and
  water pollutants.
• Saves energy.
• Supplies valuable raw materials to industry.
• Creates jobs.
• Stimulates the development of greener technologies.
• Reduces the need for new landfills and incinerators.
             US Environmental Protection Agency
                    What are the 3Rs?


 Reducing means choosing to use things with care to reduce the
  amount of waste generated.
 Reusing involves the repeated use of items or parts of items
  which still have usable aspects.
 Recycling means the use of waste itself as resources.
 Waste minimization can be achieved in an efficient way by
  focusing primarily on the first of the 3Rs, "reduce," followed by
  "reuse" and then "recycle."
Final Product
 BIODEGRADATION
 TRIANGLE

                 Compound




              BIODEGRADATION


Environment                    Microorganisms
Enhanced microbiological treatment of environments contaminated
with a variety of organic and inorganic pollutants (King et al., 1998).
The utilization of microorganisms for the destruction of chemical
pollutants (Alexander, 1994).
A treatability technology that uses biological activity to reduce the
concentration or toxicity of a pollutant (NETAC, 1991).




             http://www.personal.psu.edu/mab568/Enzyme.htm
General Catogories of
harzardous Waste


 1.   Toxic Chemicals
 2.   flammable
 3.   Radio active
 4.   Explosive waste
 5.   Biological waste
             The ease of degradation

• The ease of degradation of organic molecules is a
  function of their structure. The general rules are that
  branched molecules are very difficult to break down,
  whereas compounds with carbon-carbon double bonds
  (olefins) breakdown relatively quickly.

• Alkynes > Alkenes >Carboxylic
  Acids>Alcohols>Straight Chains > Aromatics
  >Chlorinated Aromatics> Branched Chains
                   Degradative pathway
• The first step in the degradation of a straight chain hydrocarbon
  is the formation of a hydroxyl group on a terminal methyl carbon.
  This can be considered as the "insertion" of an oxygen atom into
  a carbon-hydrogen bond.

• This product is called an alcohol (because of the -OH ). The
  second step involves the loss of two hydrogen atoms, forming an
  aldehyde. The third step involves further oxidation of the terminal
  carbon, this time taking it from an aldehyde to a carboxylic acid.

• Once the carboxylic acid is formed, the molecule can undergo b -
  oxidation. In b -oxidation, the carboxylic acid is reduced in length
  by two carbon atoms forming a new, shorter straight-chain
  carboxylic acid and two carbon dioxide molecules.
• Biodegradable matter is generally organic material such as plant
  and animal matter and other substances originating from living
  organisms, or artificial materials that are similar enough to plant
  and animal matter to be put to use by microorganisms. Some
  microorganisms have the astonishing, naturally occurring,
  microbial catabolic diversity to degrade, transform or accumulate a
  huge range of compounds including hydrocarbons (e.g. oil),
  polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons
  (PAHs), pharmaceutical substances, radionuclides and metals.
  Major methodological breakthroughs in microbial biodegradation
  have enabled detailed genomic, metagenomic, proteomic,
  bioinformatic and other high-throughput analyses of
  environmentally relevant microorganisms providing
  unprecedented insights into key biodegradative pathways and the
  ability of microorganisms to adapt to changing environmental
  conditions
                  Microbial biodegradation
• Microbial biodegradation of pollutants has intensified in
  recent years as mankind strives to find sustainable ways to
  cleanup contaminated environments.These bioremediation
  and biotransformation methods endeavour to harness the
  astonishing, naturally occurring, microbial catabolic diversity
  to degrade, transform or accumulate a huge range of
  compounds including hydrocarbons (e.g. oil), polychlorinated
  biphenyls (PCBs), polyaromatic hydrocarbons(PAHs),
  pharmaceutical substances, radionuclides and metals. Major
  methodological breakthroughs in recent years have enabled
  detailed genomic, metagenomic, proteomic, bioinformatic
  and other high-throughput analyses of environmentally
  relevant microorganisms providing unprecedented insights
  into key biodegradative pathways and the ability of
  organisms to adapt to changing environmental conditions.
             Degradation Times of Materials

   Banana peel,          2 – 10 days
   Cotton rags,          1 – 5 months
   Sugarcane Pulp Products 30 - 60 days
   Paper,                2 – 5 months
   Rope,                 3 – 14 months
   Orange peels,         6 months
   Wool socks,           1 – 5 years
   Cigarette filters,    1 – 12 years
   Styrofoam cup, non-biodegradeable
   Tetrapaks (plastic composite milk cartons), 5 years
   Plastic bags,         10 – 20 years
   Leather shoes         25 – 40 years
   Nylon fabric,         30 – 40 years
   Plastic six-pack holder rings, 450 years
   Diapers and sanitary pads 500 – 800 years
   Tin cans              50 - 100 years
   Aluminium cans        80 - 100 years
              Ministerial Conference

The Ministerial Conference on the 3R initiative was held in Tokyo on 28-30 April 2005 to
   formally launch the 3R Initiative agreed upon at the G8 Sea Island Summit in June 2004.
   During the conference, participating countries and organizations shared information on
   3R-relevant activities carried out by them. Through the discussions at the ministerial
   level, the conference recognized it necessary to promote:
              • (a)formulation and implementation of visions and/or strategies leading
                to a sound material-cycle society;
              • (b)reduction of barriers to the international flow of goods and
                materials;
              • (c)cooperation between developed and developing countries;
              • (d)cooperation among stakeholders; and
              • (e)science and technology suitable for the 3Rs.
              • It was also agreed that the outcome of the conference should be fed
                into the G8 Summit meeting at Gleneagles in the UK in July 2005, and
                shared with the international community through various fora.

                 The conference welcomed a proposal by Japan to organize a meeting
                 at the senior official level as a follow-up to the Ministerial Conference.
What a foolish things!!
Today’s man is polluting…the earth
precious soils which produce the treasure
vitally important.(Mokichi Okada)
 "You must be
the change you
 wish to see in
  the World."


    Gandhi
       What You Can Do ???

 You can help save your local environment and the planet. It's
  soooo easy! All you have to do is think of all the garbage you
  make and then think of ways you can reduce it, reuse it, or
  recycle it.

 It's called the 3 Rs. Practising the 3 Rs only takes a few minutes
  each day because it's really simple.

 Every R is important but reducing is at the heart of the best
  solution to producing less garbage. That the best way to keep
  our environment clean. And we're not just saying that because
  it's the business we're in. You'll see what we mean when you
  explore all the neat info at this site.
Nudes have always been popular in
art, but they’ve never been used in
quite this way. Artist Spencer Tunick, in
collaboration with Greenpeace, staged
an installation on the Aletsch Glacier in
southern Switzerland. What did he
install? Six hundred naked people, of
                 course.

The participants bared themselves as a
way to raise awareness for global
warming and glacial retreat. And, quite
to the point, it wasn’t all that cold during
the    shoot:     about      fifty  degrees
Fahrenheit. (Greenpeace)
ENERGY WASTING LIGHTBULB
         Why we crushed 10,000 lightbulbs:
         These are obsolete, but widely available,
           energy wasting incandescent
           lightbulbs. This type of bulb wastes 95
           percent of its energy generating heat
           instead of light. This wasted energy
           mostly comes from burning fossil fuels
           like coal - causing climate change by
           adding carbon dioxide to our
           atmosphere.
         We crushed in Berlin while EU and G8
           ministers were meeting there for the,
           "Energy Efficiency: Shaping
           Tomorrow's World" conference .
                  Environmental Ethics

When I go shopping, I take my       • As the Secretary of the
  own cloth bags so that I don’t
                                      Governing Council, we use
  have to use plastic bags. In my
  house we have reduced the           recycled paper for our
  use of chemicals; we keep the       reports and we reuse
  windows open and let fresh air      envelopes. The staff collects
  in, instead of using sprays. We     printed paper in a box and
  protect nature from plastics        prints drafts
  and chemicals. We let our           on it. We save paper. I save
  towels dry in thesun, instead
                                      resources.
  of washing them everyday.I
  save water.
(Shafqat Kakakhel, Deputy           • (Beverly A. Miller: Secretary,
                                      Governing
Executive Director of the UNEP
                                    • Council, Secretariat of
                                      Governing Bodies)
        Ethics

• Water and energy are the most       • Every day I commute to
  importantresources in Africa. I       Work on my bike. That is
  switch off the lightwhen I go to      easy, economical and
  lunch and I put my computer to        environmentally friendly. I
  sleep when I am not working on
                                        don’t pollute
  it. I save energy. I only wash my
  Senegalese clothes once a             the air.
  month. In my home, I fi lter
  waste-water to water my garden.
                                      • (Ming Wu, Translater,
  That is cheaper and I save water.
                                        Chinese
• (Bakary Kante,
                                      • Language Unit)
• Director: Division of Policy
  Development
• and Law)
          You can participate!!

• I drive an electrical car. I also   • Think about your daily
  have solar panels at home to          activities. Are you
  produce electric power. I
                                      • practicing ethics in
  reduce CO2 emissions.
                                        action?

(Sean Khan: Programme Officer,
  Information
Management, DEWA)                     • Perhaps you can
                                      • share some examples?
You can do it!!!

  • You Can Do It!

    Clear air. Clean water. Life-giving trees. And a lot less ugly
    pollution. It's what saving the planet is all about. It's what we
    do at the New Brunswick Solid Waste Association. And you
    can do it, too! Become a Recycling Ranger.

    This site will help you get started with easy tips, fun games
    and lots of neat information you can use to do your part to
    make your city or town, and the whole planet, an even better
    place to live and play.
Eco Town Program, which was inaugurated in 1997, places "Zero
Emission" concept (a concept to shift all the wastes generated from
a specific industry to utilize them as material for other industry,
aiming at suppressing waste generation at zero) as a basis for
establishing an environmentally harmonizing socio-economy in
local community. Also, the Program aims at promoting advanced
and environmentally harmonizing town by being integrated into a
major pillar of measures to realize local revitalization.
Approved Eco Town Programs (As of July 2005)
http://actonco2.direct.gov.uk/index.html
 Environmental Awareness is important

• Air- acid rain, indoor air pollution, ozone, radon
• Conservation- energy, environmental stewardship, natural
  resources, pollution prevention
• Ecosystems- ecology, endangered species, global warming,
  habitats, watersheds
• Human Health- drinking water, fish advisories, indoor air, lead,
  ozone depletion, pesticides, radon, smog
• In Your Neighborhood- databases, local issues, maps
• Waste & Recycling- garbage, household, hazardous & solid
  waste, landfills, superfund cleanups, trash
• Water- drinking water, ecosystems, lakes, oceans, rivers, water
  pollution, watersheds
OUR BEST FRIENDS…
     PLANTS..
           Professor Wangari Maathai (KENYA)

            Professor Maathai was listed 6th in the
            Environmental Agency(UK) peer review orf
            the world’s Top 100 Eco -Heros


Green Belt Movement ,now has helped
women who plant 30 millions trees.

       2004 Nobel Peace Prize Laureate
Sustainable Energy
Globe could support the NEEDS But not the
                GREEDS
                    Be Kind
                    to
                    bamboo




USE LOCAL PRODUCT
One ton of Recycled Paper can saved the
           lives of 17 Trees…
               =17 
Venus
Thank You So Much
 for Kind Attention!

								
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