Electric Vehicle Info

Document Sample
Electric Vehicle Info Powered By Docstoc
Electro 2010 Electric Vehicle Awareness Program
Our goal is to do more than just drive an Electric Vehicle, we want to promote the entire concept and get as many of our citizens as possible driving, making, buying and supporting Electric Vehicles and the companies that support this program. We are dedicated to educate the future generation our students, engineers, designers, and our American citizens, about the technology and issues surrounding the problem of sustainable mobility. The benefits of EVs include clean and quiet operation, zero tailpipe emissions, low operating cost, reliability, reduced demand for foreign oil. Objectives for the E.V.A.P program include:

Increase public awareness of the convenience and reliability of electric vehicles.

Evaluate the year-round performance, operational costs, reliability and life-cycle costs of EVS in the front range of Philadelphia PA and other states.
 

Evaluate the usability and acceptability of EVs.

Test EV component design and technological improvements.


Evaluate EV infrastructure, like charging stations, and develop and test infrastructure components Thank you Louis Valentine
1-215-426-4985 Philadelphia PA, 19134

In the late 1890s electric vehicles (EVs) outsold gasoline cars ten to one. EVs dominated the roads and dealer showrooms. Some automobile companies, like Oldsmobile and Studebaker actually started out as successful EV companies, only later did they transition to gasoline-powered vehicles. In fact, the first car dealerships were exclusively for EVs. Early production of EVs, like all cars, was accomplished by hand assembly. In 1910, volume production of gasoline powered cars was achieved with the motorized assembly line. This breakthrough manufacturing process killed off all but the most wellfinanced car builders. Independents, unable to buy components in volume died off. The infrastructure for electricity was almost non-existent outside of city boundaries – limiting EVs to city-only travel. Another contributing factor to the decline of EVs was the addition of an electric motor (called the starter) to gasoline powered cars – finally removing the need for the difficult and dangerous crank to start the engine. Due to these factors, by the end of World War I, production of electric cars stopped and EVs became niche vehicles – serving as taxis, trucks, delivery vans, and freight handlers. In the late 1960s and early 1970s, there was a rebirth of EVs prompted by concerns about air pollution and the OPEC oil embargo. In the early 1990s, a few major automakers resumed production of EVs – prompted by California ’s landmark Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate. Those EVs were produced in very low volumes – essentially hand-built like their early predecessors. However, as the ZEV mandate was weakened over the years, the automakers stopped making EVs – Toyota was the last major auto maker to stop EV production in 2003. Thanks to the efforts by some of these production EVs were saved from the crusher. Sources: EAA historical archives, ―The Electric Vehicle and the Burden of History‖, David A. Kirsch. ―The Lost Cord: The Story Tellers History of the Electric Car‖, Barbara E. Taylor. ―Taken For a Ride‖, Jack Doyle.

EV Timeline
[EAA Home] [Top] [next] [prev] 1834: Thomas Davenport invents the battery electric car. Or possibly Robert Anderson of Scotland (between 1832 and 1839). Using non-rechargable batteries. Electric vehicles would hold all vehicle land speed records until about 1900. 1859: Gaston Plante invented rechargeable lead-acid batteries. 1889: Thomas Edison built an EV using nickel-alkaline batteries. 1895: First auto race in America , won by an EV. 1896: First car dealer – sells only EVs. 1897: First vehicle with power steering – an EV. Electric self-starters 20 years before

appearing in gas-powered cars. 1898: NYC blizzard, only EVs were capable of transport on the roads. First woman to buy a car – it was an EV. 1899: Pope Manufacturing Company forms the Electric Vehicle Company, the first large-scale operation in the US automobile industry. 1900: NYC’s huge pollution problem – horses. 2.5 million pounds of manure, 60,000 gallons of urine daily on the streets; 15,000 dead horses removed from the streets each year. All US cars produced: 33% steam cars, 33% EV, and 33% gasoline cars. Poll at the National Automobile Show in NYC showed people's first choice for automobiles was electric followed closely by steam. 1901: Oldsmobile EV (Walt Disney's). William McKinley, 25th US President, takes his final ride in an electric ambulance. 1903: First speeding ticket – it was earned in an EV. Krieger company makes a hybrid vehicle — using a gasoline engine to supplement a battery pack. 1904: America has only 7% of the 2 million miles of roads better than dirt – only 141 miles, or less than one mile in 10,000 was ―paved‖. Here's a 1904 Curved Dash Olds (replica). Henry Ford begins assembly line production of low-priced gas-powered vehicles. 1908: Henry Ford buys his wife, Clara Ford, an EV. Many socialites of that time gave this rousing endorsement for EVs, ―It never fails me.‖ 1910: Motorized assembly produces gas-powered cars in volume; reducing cost per vehicle. 1912: 38,842 EVs on the road. Horse drawn ―tankers‖ deliver gasoline to gas stations. EVs perform well in snow. 1913: Ford creates experimental EVs [1, 2] . Self starter for gas cars (10 years later for the Model-T). 1915: The Detroit Electric Automobile. 1921: Federal Highway Act. By 1922, federal match (50%) for highway construction and repair (for mail delivery). Before this, roads were considered only ―feeders‖ to railroads, and left to the local jurisdiction to fund. 1956: National System of Interstate and Defense Highways. Funded 90% by states, and 90% by the federal government. 1957: Sputnik is launched. The US space program initiates advanced battery R&D. 1966: Gallup poll: 36 million really interested in EVs. At the time EVs had a top speed of 40 mph, and typical range less than 50 miles. 1967: Walter Laski founds the Electric Auto Association. 1968-1978: Congress passes more regulatory statues than ever before due to health risks associated with cars: collisions, dirty air. 1972: First Annual EAA EV rally. 1974: CitiCar debut at Electric Vehicle Symposium in Washington , DC. Full production also ramps up. By 1975, Vanguard-Sebring, maker of the CitiCar is the 6th largest auto maker in the US. EAA member Roger Hedlund sets first world speed record for EVs at Bonneville Salt Flats. 1976: EAA members assist US Congress in creating the Electric and Hybrid Vehicle Research, Development, and Demonstration Act of 1976. 1977: EAA member Frank Willey developed a transistorized speed controller and

earned the IEEE Outstanding Engineering Award. First named the Willey-9 controller, later became the Curtis 1221C. 1983: A fleet of EVs drove from San Jose, CA to San Francisco, CA, 100 mile round trip, on a single charge. 1985: Saied Motai drove 230 miles on a single charge. 1990: California establishes the Zero Emission Vehicle (ZEV) Mandate; requires 2% of vehicles to be ZEVs by 1998, 10% ZEVs by 2003. GM shows their production EV initially named, Impact; later it was re-named the EV-1. (US government spent $194 million on all energy efficient research. Much less than the $1 billion for a single day of Desert Storm, or the $1 billion per week of 2003 Iraq conflict.) 1991: First Phoenix Solar and Electric 500 race. 1992: EAA supports California $1,000 tax credit for EVs. 1993: EAA member Bob Schneeveis races over 100 mph in a custom-built electric car named "Snow White". The EAA's EV Showcase exhibit is featured at WESCON Electronics Trade Show in San Francisco. GM estimated that it would take 3 months to collect names of 5,000 people interested in the EV-1 – it only took one week! 1994: Twelve additional states adopt the California ZEV mandates. The GM Impact EV (later to be named the EV-1) sets a 187 mph speed record. 1995: Renaissance Cars, Inc begins production of the Tropica. 1996: EAA helps to hatch CALSTART incubator (for EV research) in Alameda , CA. Solectria Sunrise breaks the 300 mile range at the NESEA Tour de Sol. GM begins production of the EV-1 (formerly called the Impact). 1997: Toyota Prius hybrid gas-electric vehicle unveiled at the Tokyo Auto Show as the first production hybrid vehicle. First National Electric Drag Racing Association (NEDRA) event in Woodburn, Oregon. 2000: Ford offers the Th!nk City EV, it's version of the Pivco, in California. 2001: CARB upholds the ZEV Mandate of between 4,000 and 15,000 EVs starting in 2003. Dr. Andy Frank and his UC Davis Team Fate produce demonstration plug-in hybrid vehicles. 2002: EAA launches the 1st annual Chapter's meeting in Washington, D.C. Toyota RAV4-EV retail sales begins; their estimated 2-year supply sold out in 8 months. Ford sells the Th!nk City Group. 2003: ZEV Mandate weakened to allow ZEV credits for non-ZEVs. Only requires 250 fuel-cell vehicles by 2009. Toyota stops production of the RAV4-EV; Honda stops lease renewals of the EV-Plus; GM does the same for the EV-1. 2003: AC Propulsion’s tZero earns highest grade at the Michelin Challenge Bibendum; tZero specs: 300 miles per charge, 0-60mph in 3.6 seconds, 100 mph top speed. 2004: The Ford Ranger EV and Th!nk are saved from the crushers. Unfortunately, the GM EV1 could not be saved from the crusher. CalCars demonstrates modifications to a Toyota Prius to enable plug-in capabilities. 2005: Commuter Cars’ Tango begins shipments in fall of 2005. Myers Motors introduces the MM NmG (formerly the Corbin Sparrow). saves EVs from the crusher — including the Th!nk City, Ranger EV, RAV4-EV. The EAA launches a Plug-In Hybrid Special Interest Group. Hybrid sales are through the roof. EDrive Systems brings their plug-in hybrid to the EVS-21 Auto Conference in Monaco. Launch of PlugInAmerica, a coalition of EV drivers, clean air and energy independence

advocates working to promote the use of plug-in vehicles. 2006: The Wrightspeed X1 demonstrates ability to go from 0 to 60 mph in about three seconds, and has a range of 100 miles in "normal" city driving. President Bush describes plug-in hybrids (video). EAA launches the first special interest chapter, the PlugInAmerica chapter.

Sampling from the EAA Historical Archives
[EAA Home] [Top] [next] [prev]
Famous People and their EVs

Sample Magazine Ads

Mildé Electric Car (3-wheeler)

Why You Should Help Our Project?
By helping the Electro 2010 Electric Vehicle Awareness Program, it will increase alternative fuel and energy conservation awareness. To reach this goal we need the support from businesses and the community. The success of Electro 2010 program is possible only with the support, both monetary and material, from our corporate and private sponsors. All of our funding and resources come from companies and citizens that are willing to support our cause, they have full confidence that this program will achieve their goal. Please share our story with your colleagues, maybe they will make the decision to become part of our sponsors and friends to support our efforts. We are dedicated to educate the future generation our students, engineers, designers, and our American citizens, about the technology and issues surrounding the problem of sustainable mobility.

corporation to individual enthusiasts who want this car to carry their signature, we've something for everyone, so contact us today!

Potential Sponsorship benefits include: Tax cut,for your donation  Media Exposure  You may have the vehicle displayed at the sponsor’s business (arrangements must be made).  Having the sponsor’s logo placed on display with the vehicle  Having the sponsor’s website link placed on the Electro 2010 website.  Having the sponsor’s support listed in the on display placards.  Having the sponsor’s logo displayed and represented at upcoming events.  Company banners display at events, (must be provided by sponsor).  Products provided by sponsors, will have their logo on products. This way they can be view by potential customers.

Our program will give students the exposure to an important project where they can learn from the past to develop the technology for the future. This project helps to inspire students in an environment that promotes teamwork, communication skills, and the continuation to higher education (technology). By investing in this program, you will be investing in your company’s future. You would be helping to develop these young adults into successful productive members of society. Your sponsorship of this program will truly make a difference. Our goal is to do more than just drive an Electric Vehicle, we want to promote the entire concept and get as many of our citizens as possible driving, making, buying and supporting Electric Vehicles and the companies that support this program. To achieve this we need your help so please consider making a donation or assist us by promoting this project and the concept of Electric Vehicles. YOU CAN BECOME AN IMPORTANT PART OF OUR TEAM AND GET THE EXPOSURE YOUR COMPANY DESERVED.

Overview: Electric cars are in many ways similar to gasoline dependent cars. They can be
comfortable, reliable and handle well. Electric cars are very quiet. So quiet that you can barely

hear the motor run, even at top speed. This silence can be a danger to pedestrians crossing the street since pedestrians cannot hear the car coming. An electric car operator must be constantly aware of this problem while driving in populated areas. Until recently, most electric cars fell into two categories--cars converted from gasoline power, such as a VW or a Chevy chevette or tiny cars such as City-Car and Commuter Cars from the mid 1970's to the early 1980's. . In the case of the City-Car, the normal range in the summer of about 40 miles and in the winter time, about 30 miles per charge. With intermittent charging throughout the day, the range maybe extended up to 70 miles per day. The average driver drives an estimated 28 miles per day. Most electric cars today have built in battery chargers and all that is required to recharge is a long extension cord and plug into a regular 110 Volt home outlet. It takes about 7 hours to completely re charge the batteries. It is possible to reduce the charging time by increasing the charging voltage however; by doing this, the life of the batteries, will be shortened. The City-Car uses eight special 6 volts "deep cycle" batteries, which are also commonly known as marine batteries. These batteries weigh more then normal car batteries are, designed to endure up to 2000 charges. Under normal conditions, this translates to about two years of use. A set of eight deep cycle batteries can cost as little as $800. When the cost of replacing the batteries and the cost to recharge the batteries are considered, the cost to run a small electric car (non-hybrid) is about three times greater than a conventional economy gasoline car. Since the cost of electricity tends to be similar to the cost of fuel, it is unlikely that this ratio will change in the future. Electric cars are fun to have and drive, but you will not save money, nor will you really help the environment. Converting a car from gasoline to electric: It is possible to convert any vehicle to electric but the frame of a convention car has become modify. This has to be with extra supports. This is in order to sustain the weight of the batteries. I would have to say that the vast majority of conversions, which I have seen would have to be considered almost unacceptable. In most cases, the modification is too heavy, underpowered, very short range and low top speed. From what I have observed, the person converting the vehicle has a conventional gasoline powered car that has a bad motor or the person has access to a smaller car at a very favorable price. After removing the existing gasoline engine, the new chases must be modified that is why you end up with a rather heavy (and expensive) load of batteries are installed, in most cases in the trunk and under the rear seat of the vehicle. The gasoline engine will be replace with a 10 to 20 hp DC electric motor, or an AC motor with a power inverter. The result is a vehicle that is anywhere from 700lbs to 1500lbs (300kg to 600kg) heavier than the original gasoline powered car, even taking into consideration the removal of the heavy gasoline engine. In many cases, the original car was only 2000lbs and is now 1/3 heavier. Since the original vehicle was not design for such a heavy weight, the stability and handling are often adversely affected. Conversions often seem to have a range of 25 to 40 miles and a top speed of 50mph; however, new technology is making it possible to go faster than that, from what I have observed. Sadly, I have noticed many exaggerated claims in the press, regarding top speed and range. Prior to converting the vehicle, most people had expected far greater performance. Another factor in home conversions is that the projects are often not finish. Since the person, performing the conversion either loses interest, or runs into minor technical problems or may not find specific parts. I have seen a wide variety of conversions including a Porsche 914, Saab, fiat 850, Chevrolet Vans, Renault LeCars (R5), VW Beatles and VW buses. Perhaps surprisingly, the most successful conversions seem to be the VW bus. I think that the reason is that the frame is relatively strong to begin with, so that the batteries have a relatively good base and the VW bus is a rather lightweight vehicle.

Can I recharge the batteries by placing a generator or an alternator on the electric motor, so that I can drive indefinitely? No. This setup will
not work since there is a concept of conservation of energy and therefore, it would take the same (or more) energy to recharge the batteries, thus the car would not move. This is also known as perpetual motion and is contrary to the know and established laws of physics. It should be noted however, that while braking the car, you can slow it down by converting the forward motion of the car into electricity that can be redirected to the batteries. This is known as regenerative braking. From my perspective, the added weight and complexity of the regenerative braking system, plus the low absorption efficiency rate of conventional batteries, ultimately provides for little if any gain in range for the vehicle. In the case of long range driving, with little braking required, the added weight of the regenerative braking system, probably reduces range somewhat. Do electric vehicles pollute? Electric vehicles do pollute, though most of the pollution is at the point of electric generation. Though the electric car itself does not burn fuel, most power plants use "fossil" fuels to generate electricity, so we must consider the pollution created at the power plant. Another issue that is rarely addressed is the fact that most electric cars use batteries which themselves have the potential to pollute if they are not disposed of correctly. In many cases, batteries, while they are being charge gives off gasses. This can vary depending upon the type of batteries. This can be hydrogen and oxygen or sulfur fumes or other gases. Hydrogen and Oxygen by themselves are not pollution: however, the mixture can be explosive if they reform to water. Another type of pollution that may be of concern is the electro-magnetic emissions that some people feel can cause various human ailments. Electric motors maybe shielded with special alloys, such as a highly tempered copper/nickel alloy, creating a type of Faraday cage, however this adds weight to the vehicle and it is not conclusive that all emissions can be contained. CAN IT BE POSIBLE WITH SOLAR POWER? With current technology, it is not possible, to effectively run a car directly from the sun. So-called solar powered cars are in reality solar charging battery powered cars. The sun’s power is use to charge the batteries. Nevertheless, there have been remarkable developments in the area of solar cells and in the development of ultra light, weight solar charging battery powered cars. For example, the GM Sunraycer, weighs 390 lbs, is 3.3 feet high, 6.6 feet wide and 19.7 feet long and averaged 41.6 miles per hour for a total over of 44.9 driving hours. The GM Sunraycer is to be consider, one of the most advanced "solar" cars in the world and in 1987 won the Solar Challenge race in Australia--a 1,950 miles race. Other solar cars have attained speeds of over 110 mile per hour. Are Electric vehicles safe? These days, some people are concerned with the electromagnetic emissions of cell phones. It should be pointed out that the electromagnetic emissions emitted from an electric car is many times greater than that of a cell phone. Please also refer to the paragraph above entitled "Do Electric Vehicles Pollute?". There are many different types and sizes of electric cars. Most electric cars are much heavier then they look, due mostly to the weight of the batteries. The Citi-Car for example, weighs about 1600 lbs. Since most electric cars are limited production cars, they are built the same way as most racing cars--with tubular steel frames. As a result, most electric cars are structurally very strong--stronger then most conventionally produced gasoline cars! Acceleration: An electric motor has what call as continuous torque and therefore has almost the same horsepower at any speed, though an electric motor is more efficient at high

rotational speeds. For this reason, an electric car normally has better acceleration from standstill of then the acceleration of a gasoline dependent car! The City-Car can out accelerate most cars from 0 to 20 miles per hour. The top speed of the City-Car is however only 40 miles per hour. What kind of DC motors you use? To save weight, I use low HP (horse power) motors, usually between 3 and 6HP to power a car that has a total weight of 1800pounds (including batteries). This is enough power to move the vehicle between 35 and 55 miles per hour. This means that the car weighs about 800kg and can travel between 50km and 90km per hour. A normal small gasoline car, such as the old (1972) VW 1300cc Beatle has about 18hp and can travel up to 110km hour. An electric motor has continuous torque and has different properties than a gasoline engine. At 100km per hour, a normal car weighing 1000kg, only needs to have a 7hp motor to keep going at 100km an hour. The problem is acceleration and the time it takes to go 100km per hour.

What is the average speed that maybe achieved with such a motor?
This varies on the motor use see above for reference.

Should I use 4 separate motors (1 for every wheel) to get the best in performance or would it be better to use 1 in the front and 1 in the back of the car and linking the two together? This system of using motors in
every wheel was first used over 100 years ago. The problem with this setup is that it is difficult to keep each wheel at an exact constant speed. It leads to an instable car, in most cases.

How many batteries will I need to run a small two person electric vehicle? In general, to run a small electric vehicle, weighing 700lbs, without batteries, you
will probably use between 8 and 10 6 volt batteries for a combined voltage would be from 48 to 60 or more volts.

More about batteries including the time consuming issues regarding charging: If you are using conventional 6 or 12 volt "deep cycle" batteries, the charging time
will be about 8 hours per day. Once a week, it will be necessary to take the caps off of all of the cells and top the cells off with distilled water and then charge the batteries for 12 hours. If one cell in the battery array is bad, it is important to replace the battery immediately, since that one cell with drain the charge from the entire battery array. Lead acid batteries have what is referred to as a memory. This is a very inconvenient phenomenon whereby if you re-charge the batteries before they are fully discharged, over time, the batteries will remember that point and this will actually reduce the amount of electricity that can be stored in the battery. If your battery pack, when fully charged, is able to let you drive 40 miles and you drive 30 miles to a particular location, it is possible to charge the batteries for an hour or two and then have the necessary power to go the additional 20 miles to complete your 60 mile round trip. The problems that arise in this case again, is the memory issue. As mentioned above, a fully discharged set of batteries requires 7 to 8 hours of charging, but it is interesting to note that within two to three hours, the batteries are charged to an 80% level. This means that most charging occurs in the first few hours. Again, however, if you charge your batteries for only a few hours, the batteries will be greatly effected, by the memory issue and will rapidly decline in overall output. Should I use a gearbox, if I build an electric car? Hard to say, though most car companies use gear box. Perhaps a bicycle transmission or a transmission from an old DAF

car would be a good idea. You may also be able to adapt standard machine tool components that have variable speed V belt adjusters. For optimum efficiency, it is better for an electric motor to spin at a higher rpm (revolutions per minute) so that gearing, when starting from a standstill, can measurably increase performance and duration. In the case of a gasoline engine, the opposite is true, in that for maximum mpg (miles per gallon), it is important to keep the engine running at a relatively low rpm.

Should I use an electronic voltage control system or an electromechanical system? I use all types of systems, but I find that the electric savings using a
fully electronic system is so small, that it is not worth the effort and expense of the equipment.

Should I make the body out of fiberglass, carbon fiber, aluminum or what else? These are basic car design issues. I think that fiberglass is too heavy. Perhaps a
lightweight frame and then use shaped Styrofoam covered with a very thin coating or thin plastic. UV sunlight can destroy many types of plastic in just a year or two. I believe that carbon fiber is vastly over rated for a number of reasons. Though in theory, carbon fiber is extremely light and at the same time, is substantially stronger than steel, I have noticed that all too often, parts made of carbon fiber are not well designed and thus the potential weight advantage is not achieved. Further, if a carbon fiber component is not well engineered, it can, in fact, fracture. In general, the material that you feel most comfortable and most experienced to work with is probably the best material to use, but you should always, at all phases of both design and construction, keep weight down, but at the same time, do not compromise safety. I have seen strong, effective vehicles made out of a light weight tubular frame with stretched and shrunk thin film mylar used for the side and rear panels. The problem of mylar is that it is greatly effected by UV light and degenerates, under normal conditions, in less than two years. I have also seen the same using thin canvas. Cost of operating an electric vehicle (Plug in): On average, a straight electric (non-hybrid) car, which uses standard deep cycle lead acid marine type batteries and is charged from the mains, costs about 3 times more to run than a conventional gasoline car. From a financial point of view, a diesel car, running on something like filtered, used vegetable oil, such as the discarded oil from restaurants, might be a better solution, however, the effort in doing the conversion and in acquiring the used oil might not be worth the effort. Perhaps buying an economy car such as a Ford Aspire (43mpg), Honda Civic or one of the hybrids, such as the Toyota Prius, might also be a solution. If gasoline should ever become difficult to obtain (which, for the moment, seems unlikely), it may be possible to use an electric car charged from such local sources as wind power, or less likely, because of the high price of solar cells, solar power

Shared By:
Description: Electric Vehicle information