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ESA FINAL

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Table of Contents
Executive Summary .................................................................................................................... 1 
Chapter 1  Introduction ........................................................................................................... 1-1 
1.1        Background and Previous Studies .......................................................................... 1-1 
1.2        Facilities Plan Purpose and Organization ............................................................... 1-1 
Chapter 2  Project Setting ....................................................................................................... 2-1 
2.1        Study Area Characteristics ...................................................................................... 2-1 
2.2        Land Use Trends and Population Projections ......................................................... 2-1 
2.2.1      Land Use ................................................................................................................. 2-1 
2.2.2      Population Projections ............................................................................................ 2-3 
2.3        Water Supply and Use ............................................................................................ 2-3 
2.3.1      Water Supply Characteristics and Facilities ............................................................ 2-3 
2.4        Wastewater Collection and Treatment .................................................................... 2-6 
Chapter 3  Market Assessment .............................................................................................. 3-1 
3.1        Potential Recycled Water Market ............................................................................ 3-1 
3.2        Methodology............................................................................................................ 3-2 
3.2.1      2005 Master Plan Market Assessment Methodology .............................................. 3-2 
3.2.2      Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club .................................................................................... 3-3 
3.3        Eastern Service Area Market .................................................................................. 3-3 
3.4        Demand Peaking Factors........................................................................................ 3-4 
Chapter 4  Recycled Water Supply Alternatives ................................................................... 4-1 
4.1        Water Quality Requirements ................................................................................... 4-1 
4.1.1      Regulatory Requirements ....................................................................................... 4-1 
4.1.2      Irrigation Water Quality Requirements .................................................................... 4-5 
4.2        SEWRF ................................................................................................................... 4-5 
4.2.1      SEWRF Water Quality ............................................................................................ 4-5 
4.2.2      Institutional Requirements....................................................................................... 4-6 
4.2.3      Availability and Reliability of Supply ........................................................................ 4-6 
4.2.4      SEJPA Supply Cost Considerations ....................................................................... 4-6 
4.3        City of San Diego .................................................................................................... 4-7 
4.3.1      NCWRP Water Quality ............................................................................................ 4-7 
4.3.2      Institutional Requirements....................................................................................... 4-8 
4.3.3      Availability and Reliability of Supply ........................................................................ 4-8 
4.4        Community Services Districts (CSDs) ..................................................................... 4-9 
4.4.1      CSD Water Quality ................................................................................................ 4-10 
4.4.2      Institutional Requirements..................................................................................... 4-10 
4.4.3      Availability and Reliability of Supply ...................................................................... 4-10 
4.4.4      Supply Cost Considerations .................................................................................. 4-11 
4.5        Comparison of Demand with Recycled Water Supply .......................................... 4-11 
4.6        Comparison of Recycled Water Quality ................................................................ 4-13 
4.6.1      Regulatory Water Quality Comparison .................................................................. 4-13 
4.6.2      Landscape Irrigation.............................................................................................. 4-15 
4.6.3      End-User Requirements/Impacts .......................................................................... 4-15 
4.7        User Interest and Barriers to Use.......................................................................... 4-15 
4.8        Recycled Water Supply Summary ........................................................................ 4-15 
Chapter 5  Recycled Water Distribution System Alternatives ............................................. 5-1 
5.1        Hydraulic Analysis and Design Criteria ................................................................... 5-1 
5.2        Alternatives Development ....................................................................................... 5-1 
5.2.1      Evaluation Methodology .......................................................................................... 5-7 
5.3        Storage and Pump Station Site Alternatives and Analysis...................................... 5-8 



September 2011                                                                                                                          i
5.3.1      Site 1 – Western End of Golf Club .......................................................................... 5-8 
5.3.2      Site 2 – Golf Club Driving Range ............................................................................ 5-9 
5.3.3      Site 3 – Expanded Pond ....................................................................................... 5-10 
5.3.4      Storage/Pumping Preliminary Environmental Assessment ................................... 5-10 
5.3.5      Storage and Pump Station Site Recommendation................................................ 5-10 
5.4        Pipeline Segments and Alternatives ..................................................................... 5-10 
5.4.1      New Pipeline within Abandoned 30-inch SDWD Pipeline ..................................... 5-13 
5.4.2      SEJPA Segment 1 ................................................................................................ 5-14 
5.4.3      San Diego Segment 1A......................................................................................... 5-19 
5.4.4      San Diego Segment 1B......................................................................................... 5-21 
5.4.5      CSD Pipelines ....................................................................................................... 5-22 
5.4.6      Common Segment 1 ............................................................................................. 5-23 
5.4.7      Common Segment 2 ............................................................................................. 5-24 
5.4.8      Common Segment 3 ............................................................................................. 5-28 
5.4.9      Common Segment 4 ............................................................................................. 5-32 
5.4.10     Common Segment 5 ............................................................................................. 5-39 
5.4.11     Common Segment 6 ............................................................................................. 5-42 
5.4.12     Common Segment 7 ............................................................................................. 5-44 
5.5        Distribution System Recommendations ................................................................ 5-45 
5.5.1      SEJPA Supply Distribution System ....................................................................... 5-46 
5.5.2      City of San Diego Supply Distribution System ...................................................... 5-49 
5.5.3      City of San Diego Supply Distribution System –OMWD Connection .................... 5-52 
5.5.4      CSD Supply Distribution System........................................................................... 5-55 
Chapter 6  Alternatives Assessment and Recommended Project ...................................... 6-1 
6.1        Alternatives Assessment ......................................................................................... 6-1 
6.1.1      Project Alternatives Unit Cost ($/AF) ...................................................................... 6-1 
6.1.2      Available Supply Volume and Quality ..................................................................... 6-2 
6.1.3      Institutional Requirements....................................................................................... 6-4 
6.1.4      Ability to Control Future Risks ................................................................................. 6-5 
6.2        Most Viable Recycled Water Project ....................................................................... 6-6 
6.3        No Project/Potable Water Alternative...................................................................... 6-6 
6.4        Comparison of Projected Imported Treated Potable Water and Recycled Water Cost
Per Acre Foot ............................................................................................................................. 6-7 
6.5        Implementation Plan ............................................................................................... 6-8 
6.5.1      Implementation Schedule...................................................................................... 6-10 
6.6        Findings of Preliminary Environmental Assessment ............................................. 6-10 
6.7        Construction Financing Plan and Revenue Program ............................................ 6-11 
6.7.1      Funding Sources ................................................................................................... 6-11 
6.7.2      Revenue Sources and Incentive Programs ........................................................... 6-13 
6.7.3      Recycled Water Rates .......................................................................................... 6-13 
6.7.4      Preliminary Financial Analysis .............................................................................. 6-13 
References.................................................................................................................................. R 

List of Tables
Table ES- 1: Recycled Supply Costs at Full Build Out and Phase I Demands ...................... 3 
Table ES- 2: Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Supply Cost Assumption Summary.... 4 
Table ES- 3: Distribution System Cost for Each Supply Alternative...................................... 6 
Table ES- 4: Total Supply and Distribution System Cost Summary for Each Alternative ... 6 

Table 2-1: SFID Population Projections ................................................................................. 2-3 


September 2011                                                                                                                               ii
Table 2-2: SFID Total Water (Potable and Recycled) Demand Projections (acre-feet) ...... 2-4 
Table 3-1: Title 22 Allowed Uses for Disinfected Tertiary Recycled Water ........................ 3-1 
Table 3-2: Summary of Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Customers ........................ 3-4 
Table 3-3: Peaking Factors for Irrigation ............................................................................... 3-5 
Table 4-1: Comparison of Recycled Water Supply to Practical Eastern Service Area
    Demands ......................................................................................................................... 4-13 
Table 4-2: Groundwater Quality Objectives versus Permit Requirements and Water
    Quality ............................................................................................................................. 4-14 
Table 4-3: Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Supply Cost Summary ........................ 4-18 
Table 5-1: Distribution System Hydraulic Performance Criteria ......................................... 5-1 
Table 5-2: Comparison of SEJPA Supply Segment 1 Alternatives ................................... 5-19 
Table 5-3: Comparison of Common Segment 2 Alternatives............................................. 5-28 
Table 5-4: Comparison of Common Segment 3 Alternatives............................................. 5-32 
Table 5-5: Comparison of Common Segment 4A.2 Sub-Alternatives ............................... 5-37 
Table 5-6: Comparison of Common Segment 4 Alternatives............................................. 5-39 
Table 5-7: Comparison of Common Segment 5 Alternatives............................................. 5-42 
Table 5-8: SEJPA Supply Option Distribution System Costs ............................................ 5-47 
Table 5-9: City of San Diego Supply Option Distribution System Costs .......................... 5-50 
Table 5-10: City of San Diego – OMWD Supply Option Distribution System Costs ........ 5-53 
Table 5-11: CSD Demineralization Supply Option Distribution System Costs ................ 5-55 
Table 5-12: CSD Blend Scenario 2 Supply Option Distribution System Costs ................ 5-58 
Table 6-1: Summary of SFID Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Alternatives Costs
    (Build Out)......................................................................................................................... 6-2 
Table 6-2: Summary of SFID Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Alternatives Costs
    (Phase I) ............................................................................................................................ 6-2 
Table 6-3: Estimated SFID Irrigation Rate Projections ......................................................... 6-7 
Table 6-4: Potential Funding Sources .................................................................................. 6-13 

List of Figures
Figure ES- 1: SFID Service Area and Current and Potential Recycled Water Customers ... 1 
Figure ES- 2: Most Viable Option – SEJPA Supply and Distribution System ....................... 8 
Figure ES- 3: Conceptual Footprint of Most Viable Recycled Water Storage Facilities....... 9 

Figure 2-1: Study Area Map ....................................................................................................2-2 
Figure 2-2: Existing Recycled Water System ........................................................................ 2-5 
Figure 3-1: Potential Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Customers ............................ 3-6 
Figure 4-1: Basin Plan Groundwater Quality Objectives for TDS........................................ 4-4 
Figure 5-1: SEJPA Distribution System Alternatives ........................................................... 5-3 
Figure 5-2: City of SD Distribution System Alternatives ...................................................... 5-4 
Figure 5-3: City of SD via OMWD Distribution System Alternatives ................................... 5-5 
Figure 5-4: CSD Distribution System Alternatives ............................................................... 5-6 
Figure 5-5: Storage and Pump Station Site 1 ........................................................................ 5-9 
Figure 5-6: Eastern Service Area Pipeline Segments and Alignment Alternatives ......... 5-12 
Figure 5-7: SEJPA Segment 1 Alternatives ......................................................................... 5-15 
Figure 5-8: Los Morros North of San Elijo Avenue ............................................................. 5-16 
Figure 5-9: Horse Trail North of San Elijo Avenue .............................................................. 5-17 
Figure 5-10: Via de Fortuna North of San Elijo Avenue...................................................... 5-18 
Figure 5-11: San Diego Segment 1A .................................................................................... 5-20 
Figure 5-12: San Diego Segment 1B .................................................................................... 5-22 
Figure 5-13: Common Segment 1 ......................................................................................... 5-23 


September 2011                                                                                                                              iii
Figure 5-14: San Elijo Avenue – Common 1 ........................................................................ 5-24 
Figure 5-15: Common Segment 2 ......................................................................................... 5-25 
Figure 5-16: Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club Parking Lot......................................................... 5-26 
Figure 5-17: Via De La Cumbre ............................................................................................. 5-27 
Figure 5-18: Common Segment 3 Alternatives ................................................................... 5-29 
Figure 5-19: Rambla De Las Flores South of San Elijo Avenue ........................................ 5-30 
Figure 5-20: Los Morros South of San Elijo Avenue .......................................................... 5-31 
Figure 5-21: Common Segment 4 Alternatives ................................................................... 5-33 
Figure 5-22: San Elijo Avenue, North of Avenida De Acacias ........................................... 5-35 
Figure 5-23: Horse Trail South of El Monte Video .............................................................. 5-36 
Figure 5-24: Avenida De Acacias, North of Via De La Cumbre .......................................... 5-38 
Figure 5-25: Common Segment 5 Alternatives ................................................................... 5-40 
Figure 5-26: Common Segment 6 ......................................................................................... 5-43 
Figure 5-27: Common Segment 7 ......................................................................................... 5-44 
Figure 5-28: El Sicamoro ....................................................................................................... 5-45 
Figure 5-29: SEJPA Distribution System ............................................................................. 5-48 
Figure 5-30: Conceptual Footprint of Recycled Water Storage Facilities ........................ 5-49 
Figure 5-31: City of San Diego Supply Distribution System .............................................. 5-51 
Figure 5-32: City of San Diego Supply Distribution System via OMWD ........................... 5-54 
Figure 5-33: CSD Demineralization Supply Distribution System ...................................... 5-56 
Figure 5-34: CSD Blend Supply Distribution System ......................................................... 5-59 
Figure 6-1: Implementation Schedule .................................................................................. 6-10 

Appendices
Appendix A -               Recycled Water Market Table 
Appendix B -               CSD Tertiary/Demineralization Treatment Evaluation 
Appendix C -               Cost Estimating Basis for Facility Planning 
Appendix D -               Detailed Cost Estimates 
Appendix E -               Technical Memorandum of Geological Evaluation 
Appendix F -               SEJPA Supply Letter 
Appendix G -               Net Present Value Calculations 
Appendix H -               Conceptual Financial Analysis 
Appendix I -               Record of Public Meeting 
Appendix J -               Recycled Water Storage Analysis 




September 2011                                                                                                                     iv
List of Abbreviations
ADD              Average Day Demand
AF               Acre-feet
AFY              Acre-feet/year
APN              Assessor Parcel Number
CCR              California Code of Regulations
CDFG             California Department of Fish and Game
CDPH             California Department of Public Health
CEC              Contaminants of Emerging Concern
CESA             California Endangered Species Act
CEQA             California Environmental Quality Act
CSD              Community Service District
DPH              Department of Public Health
ESA              Endangered Species Act
GIS              Geographic Information Systems
gpd              Gallons per day
gpm              Gallons per minute
HA               Hydrologic Area
HDPE             High Density Polyethylene
HSA              Hydrologic Subarea
HU               Hydrologic Unit
hp               Horsepower
IPR              Indirect potable reuse
LF               Linear feet
MG               Million gallons
MGD              million gallons per day
mg/L             Milligrams per liter
MDD              Max Day Demand
MF               Membrane Filtration
MMD              Max Month Demand
MWD              Metropolitan Water District of Southern California
MSL              Mean Sea Level
NCWRP            North City Water Reclamation Plant
NPDES            National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System
O&M              Operations and Maintenance
OMWD             Olivenhain Municipal Water District
PHD              Peak Hour Demand
ppb              Parts per billion
psi              Pounds per square inch
PVC              Polyvinyl chloride
RCP              Reinforced Concrete Pipe



September 2011                                                        v
RO                Reverse Osmosis
RSF               Rancho Santa Fe
RW                Recycled water
RWQCB             Regional Water Quality Control Board
SDRWQCB           San Diego Regional Water Quality Control Board
SDWD              San Dieguito Water District
SEJPA             San Elijo Joint Powers Authority
SEWRF             San Elijo Water Reclamation Facility
SFID              Santa Fe Irrigation District
SWRCB             State Water Resources Control Board
TDS               Total dissolved solids
USA               Underground Service Alert
USACE             United States Army Corps of Engineers
USFWS             United State Fish and Wildlife Service
Water Authority   San Diego County Water Authority
WDR               Waste Discharge Requirements
WRR               Water Recycling Requirements
WTP               Water Treatment Plant
WWTP              Wastewater treatment plant




September 2011                                                     vi
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                    Executive Summary



Executive Summary
ES-1             Introduction and Purpose
Figure ES- 1 presents existing and potential recycled water customers throughout the Santa Fe Irrigation
District (SFID) service area. To enable the reuse of wastewater treated at San Elijo Water Reclamation
Facility (SEWRF), in 2000 the San Elijo Joint Powers Authority (SEJPA) constructed tertiary treatment
and recycled water distribution facilities to serve agencies within the vicinity of SEWRF. SFID is one of
three agencies which established an agreement to purchase recycled water from SEJPA. Since 2000,
multiple SFID potable water customers have been converted to recycled water use. SFID currently serves
approximately 500 acre feet per year (AFY) of recycled water to customers within the western portion of
the service area, and is working with SEJPA to expand service in the west.
      Figure ES- 1: SFID Service Area and Current and Potential Recycled Water Customers




There are multiple potable water customers in the Eastern Service Area that could be converted to
recycled water use. SFID does not produce recycled water and would be required to purchase the supply
for the Eastern Service Area. There are three potential recycled water suppliers for the Eastern Service
Area. Since the Eastern Service Area is essentially built out, SFID must construct new recycled water
facilities to serve the Eastern without the benefit of having facilities installed as part of new
developments. To date, multiple recycled water studies have been conducted; however none have defined
the full facilities planning level cost of purchasing and delivering recycled water to the Eastern Service
Area
The purpose of this Facilities Plan is to build upon prior studies to define the most viable recycled water
project for the Eastern Service Area. The Facilities Plan identifies recycled water quantity and quality
requirements; defines available recycled water supply volume, quality, and costs; provides a detailed
planning level assessment of conveyance and storage alternatives for each supply option; and provides


September 2011                                                                                         ES-1
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                      Executive Summary



facility planning level costs for each alternative. The most viable project is identified based upon relative
cost per acre foot, available supply volume and quality, institutional requirements, and the ability to
control future risks.
This Facilities Plan is partially funded through the State Water Resources Control Board Water Recycling
Grant Program (Grant Program) and has been structured to provide the information required to conform
to Grant Program requirements.

ES-2             Recycled Water Market Assessment and Projected
                 Demands
SFID’s 2005 Recycled Water Master Plan included a detailed recycled water market assessment. SFID’s
2009 Asset Management Master Plan utilized potable water records to confirm demands identified in the
2005 Master Plan. Over 1,300 AFY of potential recycled water demand was identified in the Eastern
Service Area. The largest potential recycled water customer is Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club. As shown in
Figure ES-1, demands are spread out throughout the service area, which makes it impractical and not cost
effective to serve every demand. The following steps were completed in order to establish the “practical
demand” in the Eastern Service Area:
    1. The largest demands were identified and a “backbone” recycled water system was developed
       between the various supply options and the largest demands.
    2. The demands immediately along the transmission route were identified and included in the
       practical demand.
    3. Distribution pipelines to other potential demands were evaluated and depending on usage volume,
       type of demand, and relative cost to serve the demand, additional practical demands were
       identified.
Based upon this assessment, the practical demand of the Eastern Service Area at build out was determined
to be approximately 700 to 750 AFY. Recycled water demand peaking factors were used to appropriately
size pipelines, pumping, and storage facilities, and to confirm availability of supply. Meetings were held
with the Golf Club to confirm demand since this is the largest potential user in the area.
In order to address phasing of the project, the Facilities Plan identified “Phase I” demands for each supply
alternative. Phase I would include construction of facilities to serve Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club and other
potential recycled water customers that could be readily served from a distribution system to the Golf
Club. Depending upon the supply source and transmission route, Phase I demands ranged from 319 to
429 AFY. Under a phased implementation scenario, it was assumed pipelines would be sized to
accommodate total build out demand, and pump stations and storage facilities would be sized for Phase I
demand and expanded in the future.

ES-3             Recycled Water Supply Alternatives
The Facilities Plan includes an evaluation of three potential recycled water supplies for the Eastern
Service Area.
       SEJPA would serve the Eastern Service Area with recycled water produced at the SEWRF.
        Pumping would be required to convey supplies from coastal elevations to the higher Eastern
        Service Area elevations. SEJPA is planning the addition of demineralization facilities to improve
        water quality, primarily to lower total dissolved solids (TDS) to less than 1,000 mg/L.
       The City of San Diego would serve recycled water through a 16-inch City recycled water
        pipeline that terminates just southeast of SFID’s service area. The City’s recycled water system is
        currently pressurized and pumping would not be required to reach proposed SFID storage
        facilities. The City’s supply is currently demineralized to provide less than 1,000 mg/L TDS. The


September 2011                                                                                           ES-2
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                 Executive Summary



        Facilities Plan also considers delivery of City supply through an existing Olivenhain Municipal
        Water District (OMWD) pipeline that is connected to the City’s recycled water distribution
        system.
       The Rancho Santa Fe, Whispering Palms, and Fairbanks Ranch Community Services
        Districts (CSDs) provide wastewater treatment to communities within and outside of SFID’s
        service area. The CSDs own and operate separate wastewater treatment plants that provide
        secondary level treatment. The Facilities Plan considers conveyance of secondary effluent from
        Whispering Palms and Fairbanks Ranch Wastewater Treatment Plants to Rancho Santa Fe
        Wastewater Treatment Plant, and construction of tertiary treatment facilities at Rancho Santa Fe
        Treatment Plant to treat the CSD flows to acceptable levels for recycled water use.
        Demineralization or blending with potable water would be required to address high TDS of the
        CSD effluent. Rancho Santa Fe Wastewater Treatment Facility is located just outside of the
        southeastern boundary of the SFID service area. Pumping would be required to convey supply to
        Eastern Service Area storage facilities.

The Facilities Plan provides a discussion of quality, quantity, institutional issues, costs, and other
challenges with each supply option. SEJPA has indicated they can currently meet Phase I demands and
could meet practical build out demands following completion of planned improvements at the SEWRF. It
is assumed that the City of San Diego can supply build out demands of the Eastern Service Area. For the
City of San Diego alternative that utilizes an existing OMWD recycled water pipeline as part of the
distribution system, OMWD has indicated that the existing pipeline should be able to accommodate Phase
I demands but most likely could not accommodate build out demand. With demineralization, the CSD’s
could accommodate Phase I demands but could not accommodate build out demands. If blending with
potable water is implemented in lieu of demineralization, the CSD’s could only serve 155 AFY of
recycled water and the remainder of water served would be potable water used in the blending process.
Table ES-1 summarizes the demand that could be served by each supply option, and the estimated supply
cost per acre foot.
             Table ES- 1: Recycled Supply Costs at Full Build Out and Phase I Demands

                       Total
                     Practical       Supply Cost Per        Total Practical        Supply Cost Per
                   Demand (Full      Acre Foot At Full     Demand (Phase I       Acre Foot At Phase I
Supply Option       Build-Out)          Build Out             Demands)                Demands
     SEJPA            689 AFY             $780 /AF              324 AFY                 $920 /AF
   City of San        689 AFY        $422 to $1,181 /AF         429 AFY            $422 to $1,181/ AF
      Diego
(Direct Connect)
   City of San        744 AFY        $422 to $1,181 /AF         319 AFY            $422 to $1,181 /AF
      Diego
  (Via OMWD)
    CSDs              360 AFY           $10,100 /AF             360 AFY               $10,100 /AF
 (With Demin)
     CSDs             155 AFY            $1,200 /AF             104 AFY                $1,800 /AF
(With Blending)


A supply cost is also provided for a “Phase I” only demand. A range of estimated costs per acre foot are
shown for the City of San Diego. The lower cost is based upon costs included in the City’s current
agreement with OMWD; however, it is anticipated that the cost for recycled water from the City of San


September 2011                                                                                      ES-3
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                      Executive Summary



Diego will increase in the future. Based upon trends in the industry, SFID estimates the City’s rate will be
approximately $2.50 per hundred cubic feet, which is approximately 60% of the City’s current irrigation
water rate. This assumption results in an estimated future City of San Diego Supply cost of $1,181 per
AF. This estimate has not been confirmed by the City of San Diego.
Table ES-2 provides additional information regarding supply cost assumptions. As indicated in Table
ES-2, supply cost assumptions include the application of all, or a portion of, potentially available
incentives from Metropolitan Water District (MWD) and/or the San Diego County Water Authority
(Water Authority). Historically, MWD has provided up to $250 per acre-foot and the Water Authority has
provided up to $200 per acre-foot reimbursement for recycled water delivered under approved projects.
MWD recently cancelled pending and future recycled water funding programs for Water Authority
member agencies. The Water Authority has indicated they are assessing their ability to fund future
projects. The future availability of these incentives for a project in the Eastern Service Area is uncertain.
In order to accommodate O&M and other cost increases, SEJPA estimated that their supply cost would
increase by 5% annually. It was assumed that the City of San Diego and CSD supply costs would
increase annually at a similar rate.
       Table ES- 2: Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Supply Cost Assumption Summary

 Supply Source           Unit Cost                         Assumptions and Conditions
SEJPA                                            Costs include future SEWRF demineralization upgrades
                      $920/AF (Based              capital and O&M costs.
                        on Phase I
                                                 Costs assume SEJPA receives $250 per AF incentive
                        Demands)
                                                  from MWD for up to 350 AFY of recycled water
                                                  delivered. Beyond 350 AFY, SFID could apply for MWD
                      $780/AF (Based              incentives to accommodate distribution infrastructure.
                        on Build-out             SFID could apply for up to $200/AF incentive, if
                         Demands)                 available, for distribution system.
City of San Diego     $422/AF current            Current cost is based upon existing agreement between
                           cost                   the City and OMWD
(Direct
Connection)                                      Potential Future cost is an estimate provided by SFID
                                                  based upon industry trends.
                        $1,181/AF
                      Potential Future           Current and Potential Future costs assume City would
                           Cost                   receive $450 in MWD/Water Authority Incentives
City of San Diego                                Costs have not been confirmed by the City
(OMWD                 $422/AF current            Current cost is based upon existing agreement between
Connection)                cost                   the City and OMWD,
                                                 Potential Future cost is an estimate by SFID based upon
                                                  industry trends.
                        $1,181/AF
                      Potential Future           Current and Potential Future costs assume City would
                           Cost                   receive $450 in MWD/Water Authority Incentives.
                                                 Costs do not include OMWD wheeling cost.
CSD with                                         Supply costs based upon estimated capital and O&M
Demineralization                                  costs, refer to Appendix B
                        $10,100/AF               Supply costs do not include any MWD or Water
                                                  Authority Incentives. SFID could apply for up to $450/AF
                                                  in MWD/Water Authority incentives, if available.




September 2011                                                                                           ES-4
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                     Executive Summary



 Supply Source           Unit Cost                        Assumptions and Conditions
CSD with Blending      $1,800 (Based
                         on Phase I              Supply costs based upon estimated capital and O&M
                         Demands)                 costs, refer Appendix B
                                                 Supply costs do not include MWD or Water Authority
                        $1,200/AF                 Incentives. SFID could apply for up to $450/AF in
                      (Based on Build             MWD/Water Authority incentives, if available.
                       Out Demands)


ES-4             Recycled Water Distribution System Alternatives
Building upon information in prior studies, the Facilities Plan provides a detailed evaluation of multiple
alternatives for the pumping, conveyance, and storage facilities required to deliver recycled water from
the three potential supply options.
Based on discussions with the Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club, two potential recycled water storage sites were
identified. A third open reservoir (lake water feature) site was also considered but was eliminated early in
the process due to permitting and other implementation challenges. In order to establish realistic planning
level costs, the pipeline, pump stations, and storage facilities were sized to accommodate Eastern Service
Area demand requirements. Unit cost estimates were established based upon recent bid data and industry
standards.
Potential challenges associated with pipeline construction along each alignment were identified and unit
costs were adjusted accordingly to establish reliable planning level costs.
Table ES- 3: provides a summary of distribution system costs. Distribution system costs include supply
pump station (if required), transmission pipelines, storage reservoir, distribution system pumping, and
distribution pipelines. The SEJPA distribution system includes the use of an abandoned 30-inch pipeline
owned by the San Dieguito Water District (SDWD) that would be lined with a new 16-inch pipeline to be
installed by SFID. The costs in Table ES- 3: do not include charges by SDWD for use of the existing 30-
inch pipeline and easement, or costs associated with reservoir site purchase.
The distribution system option for the SEJPA supply assumes $250 per acre foot is available from MWD
to apply to distribution system costs when demands are above 350 AFY. SEJPA would use the MWD
incentive for treatment for demands up to 350 AFY. Costs assume $200 per acre foot incentives from the
Water Authority will be available and is applied to the distribution costs.
The City of San Diego supply costs include the use of both MWD and Water Authority incentives by the
City; therefore, no incentives are included in the City of San Diego distributions system cost.
CSD distribution system costs assume total incentives ($450 per acre foot) are available from MWD and
the Water Authority.




September 2011                                                                                          ES-5
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                     Executive Summary



                   Table ES- 3: Distribution System Cost for Each Supply Alternative

                          Total          Distribution
                        Practical      System Cost Per        Total Practical       Distribution System
                      Demand (Full     Acre Foot At Full     Demand (Phase I       Cost Per Acre Foot At
 Supply Option         Build-Out)         Build Out             Demands)             Phase I Demands
     SEJPA              689 AFY             $1,660                324 AFY                  $2,130
City of San Diego       689 AFY             $1,860                429 AFY                  $1,970
(Direct Connect)
City of San Diego       744 AFY             $1,960                319 AFY                  $1,930
  (Via OMWD)
     CSDs               360 AFY              $780                 360 AFY                   $780
  (With Demin)
      CSDs              155 AFY             $3,960                104 AFY                  $2,460
 (With Blending)


ES-5              Total Cost Summary for Each Alternative
Table ES-4 presents the total cost per acre foot for each of the Eastern Service Area recycled water
supply and distribution system alternatives. The costs include capital, and operation and maintenance
costs. As described above, capital costs do not include reservoir site land acquisition costs or charges for
use of the abandoned SDWD 30-inch pipeline and easement. Costs include relining the 30-inch pipeline
with a new 16-inch pipeline. Supply costs do not include wheeling charges for use of the OMWD
pipelines to convey flows from the City of San Diego. A range of costs are shown for City of San Diego
options to reflect current costs and anticipated increased City of San Diego supply costs. Each of the
options assumes the availability of up to $450 in MWD and Water Authority incentives. The incentive
would either be acquired by SFID or the supply agency, as described above. Future availability of
incentives is uncertain.
      Table ES- 4: Total Supply and Distribution System Cost Summary for Each Alternative

                        Total
                      Practical        Total Recycled
                      Demand           Water Cost Per         Total Practical      Total Recycled Water
                     (Full Build-     Acre Foot At Full      Demand (Phase I       Cost Per Acre Foot At
Supply Option           Out)             Build Out              Demands)             Phase I Demands
     SEJPA             689 AFY             $2,440                 324 AFY                   $3,050
   City of San         689 AFY        $2,282 to $3,041            429 AFY             $2,392 to $3,111
      Diego
(Direct Connect)
   City of San         744 AFY        $2,382 to $3,141            319 AFY             $2,352 to $3,111
      Diego
  (Via OMWD)
    CSDs               360 AFY             $10,880                360 AFY                  $10,880
 (With Demin)
     CSDs              155 AFY             $5,160                 104 AFY                   $4,260
(With Blending)




September 2011                                                                                           ES-6
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                      Executive Summary



ES-6             Most Viable Eastern Service Area Project
Based upon relative cost per acre foot, available supply volume and quality, institutional requirements,
and the ability to control future risks, the SEJPA supply and distribution system alternative is the most
viable Eastern Service Area recycled water project. Figure ES-2 presents the most viable SEJPA supply
and distribution system alternative. Figure ES-3 provides a conceptual footprint for the most viable
recycled water storage facilities.
Relative Cost per Acre Foot: At $2,440/AF to serve build out demand and $3,050/AF to serve Phase I
demand, the cost of the SEJPA alternative is equal to or less than, the other recycled water alternatives,
assuming the City of San Diego’s recycled water supply cost will increase from the City’s current cost.
The total cost estimate for the SEJPA supply and distribution option assumes total incentives of $450 will
be available from MWD and the Water Authority. Since SEJPA currently has an incentive agreement in
place with MWD and the Water Authority, incentives for the Eastern Service Area project could be
available. The costs do not include charges from SDWD for the use of the abandoned 30-inch pipeline or
reservoir site costs or land acquisition costs for the reservoir and pump station site.
Available Supply Volume and Quality: According to a letter from SEJPA, SEWRF can currently serve
the estimated Phase I annual average and peak demands. The SEJPA cannot serve full build out demands
of the Eastern Service Area until planned improvements to the SEWRF are constructed. Construction is
currently scheduled for mid 2012 but is dependent upon available funding.
SEJPA’s current permit has a TDS permit limit of 1,200 mg/L based upon a 12-month average and 1,300
mg/L daily maximum limit. SEJPA periodically exceeds its current permit limit for TDS. The
agronomic target established in the Facilities Plan is 1,000 mg/L. SEJPA has indicated that it intends to
construct demineralization which would achieve the 1,000 mg/L target and achieve permit compliance.
SEJPA’s current Master Recycled Water Permit encompasses the Eastern Service Area. However the
numerical limits in the permit are not directly aligned with the most stringent basin plan objectives for the
Eastern Service Area. During project implementation, clarifications to the existing permit will need to be
made to clearly define the Hydrologic Units, Hydrologic Areas, and Hydrologic Sub-Areas in which
recycled water will be delivered and to confirm whether current numerical limits are acceptable.
Institutional Requirements: SFID currently has an agreement with SEJPA for the purchase of recycled
water. This agreement could be modified to include the requirements of the Eastern Service Area, or a
new agreement specific to the Eastern Service Area could be developed. An agreement with SDWD
would also need to be implemented to install a 16-inch recycled water transmission pipeline within the
abandoned 30-inch pipeline. The ability to utilize existing easements along the existing 30-inch pipeline
would also need to be determined.
Though the SEJPA option includes institutional issues, the issues appear to be relatively less challenging
than the other supply options.
Ability to Control Future Risks: The ability to control future risks is a key factor in the determination of
the most viable alternative. It is anticipated that terms and conditions can be negotiated with SEJPA that
limit SFID’s risk associated with future supply costs. In addition, based upon SFID’s successful
relationship with SEJPA in the western portion of the service area, it is anticipated that SEJPA would be
able to deliver the quality and quantity of recycled water required.




September 2011                                                                                           ES-7
(THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK)
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                   Figure ES-2: Most Viable Option - SEJPA Supply and Distribution System
                                                                                                                                                         SEJPA Supply Option




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Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                               Executive Summary



        Figure ES- 3: Conceptual Footprint of Most Viable Recycled Water Storage Facilities




ES-7             Implementation
The Facilities Plan describes the next step actions to be taken in order to implement the recommended
project including:
       Address institutional issues
       Conduct financial analysis
       Continue to pursue funding support
       Initiate environmental compliance activities
       Initiate permitting and easement activities
       Identify general on-site retrofit requirements for major customers
       Obtain letters of commitment from potential customers
       Continue public outreach efforts




September 2011                                                                                   ES-9
                                                                                                  Chapter 1
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                            Introduction


Chapter 1           Introduction
1.1 Background and Previous Studies
Santa Fe Irrigation District (SFID) was formed January 26, 1923 under the California Irrigation District
Act to deliver water to the City of Solana Beach and unincorporated San Diego County communities of
Rancho Santa Fe and Fairbanks Ranch. SFID provides potable water service for agricultural, commercial
and residential water customers; and recycled water for landscape irrigation of common areas, golf
courses, schools, parks, businesses and Caltrans.
SFID relies upon imported water from the San Diego County Water Authority (Water Authority) to meet
approximately 70% of its water demand. The reliability and cost-effectiveness of importing water is in
question due to environmental concerns and long-term drought conditions which result in periodic
cutbacks in imported water allotments. Local water supplies, primarily recycled water will play an
important role in dealing with anticipated imported water supply cutbacks in the future. Continuing
development of recycled water use in SFID’s service area would:
       Reduce Dependence on Imported Water Supplies. Recycled water use within SFID’s service
        area will reduce dependency on imported water from the Colorado River and State Water Project.
       Improve Water Supply Reliability. Recycled water supply is generally not affected by
        hydrologic conditions; therefore, it provides additional dry-year reliability.
       Preserve Potable Water Supplies. Using recycled water to serve non-potable demands such as
        irrigation will preserve high-quality drinking water supplies for potable needs.

The following previous studies investigating development of a recycled water system in the Eastern
Service Area and related facilities were reviewed as part of this Facilities Plan:
       Thirty-Inch Low-Pressure Pipeline Condition Assessment and estimate of Remaining Useful Life
        (Boyle, January 2000)
       Final Preliminary Design Report, Reclaimed Water Demineralization Facility and Conveyance
        System Improvements prepared for the San Elijo Joint Powers Authority (Tetra Tech, Inc.,
        February 2002)
       Santa Fe Irrigation District Recycled Water Study (Earth Tech, March 2004)
       Santa Fe Irrigation District Recycled Water Master Plan (Dudek & Associates, Inc. August
        2005)
       Asset Management Master Plan for the Santa Fe Irrigation District (Dexter Wilson Engineering,
        Inc., March 19, 2009)
       San Elijo Water Reclamation Facility Final Preliminary Design Report - Recycled Water
        Demineralization Project (Kennedy/Jenks, December 2009)

1.2 Facilities Plan Purpose and Organization
The purpose of this SFID Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan is to build upon prior
studies and define the cost of recycled water supply and facilities to serve the Eastern Service Area. After
assessing the recycled water market, alternative recycled water supplies were investigated to determine
available volume, quality, and cost of available supply sources. Alternatives for conveying and storing
recycled water for distribution to customers were developed and evaluated to identify the most viable
distribution system. A preliminary assessment of potential environmental issues was conducted to identify
readily apparent fatal flaws and challenges. Alternatives were defined to a level of detail that provides
reliable planning level unit costs (cost per acre-foot) for each supply and distribution system combination.


September 2011                                                                                            1-1
                                                                                                 Chapter 1
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                           Introduction


Estimated unit costs for project alternatives include capital, operation and maintenance and recycled water
purchase costs.
This Facilities Plan was partially funded through the State Water Resources Control Board Water
Recycling Grant Program (Grant Program). The Facilities Plan has been structured to provide the
information required to conform with Grant Program requirements and consists of six chapters organized
as follows:
        Chapter 1 – Introduction.
        Chapter 2 – Project Setting. This chapter characterizes the SFID Eastern Service Area including
        climate, hydrologic features, land use, water supply and use, wastewater treatment and disposal,
        and existing recycled water facilities.
        Chapter 3 – Market Assessment. This chapter identifies potential recycled water customers
        within the SFID Eastern Service Area, providing estimates of recycled water demand.
        Chapter 4 – Recycled Water Supply Alternatives. This chapter presents recycled water supply
        alternatives for the SFID Eastern Service Area.
        Chapter 5 – Recycled Water Distribution System Alternatives. This chapter presents the
        methodology for developing and evaluating recycled water distribution system alternatives for the
        SFID Eastern Service Area based on cost, right-of-way considerations, permitting, potential
        environmental impacts, constructability, traffic impacts, operations and maintenance, and demand
        served. It defines distribution system performance criteria and assumptions, and provides a
        recommended distribution system alternative for each potential recycled water supply.
        Chapter 6 – Alternatives Assessment and Recommended Project. This chapter presents
        complete recycled water alternatives (including supply and distribution system) and a “No Project
        Alternative”. A most viable alternative is presented, including a summary of supply source and
        distribution system components, project phasing and an implementation plan. This chapter
        provides a preliminary financing plan for implementing the most viable alternative.
The following appendices can be found at the end of the report.
        Appendix A – Recycled Water Market Table
        Appendix B – CSD Tertiary/Demineralization Treatment Evaluation
        Appendix C – Cost Estimating Basis for Facility Planning
        Appendix D – Detailed Cost Estimates
        Appendix E – Technical Memorandum of Geologic Evaluation
        Appendix F – SEJPA Supply Letter
        Appendix G – Construction Financing Plan Cash Flow Projections
        Appendix H – Conceptual Financial Analysis
        Appendix I –Record of Public Meeting (to obtain comments on the project)
        Appendix J – Recycled Water Storage Analysis




September 2011                                                                                           1-2
                                                                                                 Chapter 2
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                         Project Setting


Chapter 2           Project Setting
This section provides a characterization of the Study Area, including information on climate, population,
land use, water supply and use, wastewater treatment and disposal.

2.1 Study Area Characteristics
The following is a description of general characteristics of the Study Area:
        Location. The SFID service area is located in northern coastal San Diego County, approximately
        26 miles north of downtown San Diego within the City of Solana Beach and unincorporated
        communities of Rancho Santa Fe and Fairbanks Ranch. Due to topography and other factors,
        SFID’s service area is informally characterized as Western and Eastern Service Areas. The Study
        Area for this facility plan is SFID’s Eastern Service Area and these terms are used
        interchangeably throughout this report. The Eastern Service Area primary includes the
        unincorporated communities of Rancho Santa Fe and Fairbanks Ranch. SFID’s service area and
        the Study Area are shown in Figure 2-1.
        Climate. The Study Area is a located along the southern California coastline, characterized by
        warm mild summers with average temperatures in the 70’s and cool mild winters with average
        temperatures in the 50’s. Average annual precipitation is approximately 10.4 inches (RMC,
        2011).
        Soils and Topography. The SFID service area consists of rolling hills and valleys, with elevation
        ranging from sea level to approximately 400 feet above mean sea level. The Study Area elevation
        ranges from approximately 36 feet to 400 feet above mean seal level.
        The Study Area is located within the coastal plains of the Peninsular Range Geomorphic
        Province. Soils in the Study Area vary, but primarily consist of rock, sand, silt and gravel. Clay
        laminations and lenses of cobble may also occur. There are no known active faults within the
        Study Area. The Study Area consists of locations subject to potential liquefaction, particularly in
        areas that contain shallow groundwater and poorly consolidated, well sorted, fine grained sands
        and silts. Portions of the Study Area are located within identified Landslide Hazard areas ideas.
        Shallow groundwater (within 10 feet of existing ground) is also present in portions of the Study
        Area. (West Coast, 2011, Appendix E).
        Hydrologic Features. The Study Area is located within the Escondido Creek and Solana Beach
        Hydrologic Areas (HA). Within the Escondido Creek HA, the Study Area is located in the San
        Elijo Hydrologic Sub-Area (HSA) which is basin unit number 4.61. Within the Solana Beach HA,
        the Study Area is located within the Rancho Santa Fe HSA, which is basin unit number 5.11.
        Groundwater within the Study Area is of marginal quality, with high total dissolved solids (TDS)
        concentration.

2.2 Land Use Trends and Population Projections
2.2.1 Land Use
The large majority of land within the service area is zoned residential. Residential demand represents
approximately 83% of SFID’s water demand. The service area also includes commercial facilities and
parks. Land use in the Study Area is rural and characterized primarily by large residential lots, many of
which are 3 acres or larger. Rancho Santa Fe has a small village center, schools, a golf course, private
horse ranches and a horse trail system. Most residences are multi-acre landscaped estates, some including
citrus trees. The Fairbanks Ranch community is primarily estate residential and includes a recreation
center.



September 2011                                                                                           2-1
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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 SAN DIEGUITO LAGOON
                                                                                                          Chapter 2
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                                  Project Setting


2.2.2 Population Projections
Table 2-1 provides a summary of population projections for the entire SFID service area. Population in
the SFID service area is relatively built-out. Between 2010 and 2035 the population is estimated to
increase by approximately 11%. Recycled water demands within the Study Area are not significantly
impacted by projected population increase. Recycled water demands in the Eastern Service Area will
primarily offset current potable water use.
                                   Table 2-1: SFID Population Projections

       Year               2010            2015             2020            2025            2030            2035
   Population            19,386          19,839          20,084           20,637          21,165          21,544
Source: SFID 2010 Urban Water Management Plan (RMC, 2011) which references the San Diego Association of Governments
(SANDAG) 2050 Cities/Counties Forecast.

2.3 Water Supply and Use
This section describes SFID water supplies, water facilities, current rates, and water use trends.
2.3.1 Water Supply Characteristics and Facilities
SFID water sources include local surface water, imported water and recycled water. The predominant
source of supply is imported water purchased from the San Diego County Water Authority (Water
Authority).
Water Supply Sources
Imported Water. SFID has been a member agency of the Water Authority since 1948. The Water
Authority is a wholesaler of imported water purchased from Metropolitan Water District of Southern
California (MWD). MWD imports water from the Colorado River and the State Water Project. Water
purchased from the Water Authority is used to supplement local surface water and recycled water supply.
Surface Water. Through an agreement with the City of San Diego, SFID maintains property rights for
inflows to Lake Hodges. Supply from the lake is variable and dependent upon weather patterns, primarily
precipitation. Inflows to Lake Hodges are apportioned between SFID, San Dieguito Water District
(SDWD), and the City of San Diego according to terms and conditions of an agreement between the three
entities. Approximately 25% to 30% of SFID’s potable water demands are served by local surface water.
Local surface water is treated at the R.E. Badger Filtration Plant (REB plant), which has a capacity of up
to 40 million gallons per day (MGD).
Recycled Water. SFID receives tertiary-treated recycled water from the San Elijo Joint Powers Authority
(SEJPA), produced at the San Elijo Water Reclamation Facility (SEWRF). Recycled water is delivered
under a “take or pay” agreement in which SFID must typically purchase a minimum of 398 acre-feet per
year (AFY). The take or pay volume is 450 AFY for the period beginning January 1, 2011 Through
December 31, 2012. SEWRF can currently produce up to 2.48 MGD of recycled water in accordance with
Title 22 regulations for unrestricted reuse.
Water Supply and Use Trends
Table 2-2 shows historical and projected SFID water demand from 2010 to 2035. The reduction in
demand between 2010 and 2015 reflect the success of SFID’s ongoing water conservation programs.
Demand projections for each year consider the expected sustained effect of conservation.




September 2011                                                                                                        2-3
                                                                                                   Chapter 2
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                           Project Setting

         Table 2-2: SFID Total Water (Potable and Recycled) Demand Projections (acre-feet)

                                                                     Year
        Source                 2010           2015          2020            2025     2030           2035
Total Demand                  11,912         11,206         11,338          11,656   11,921        12,126
Source: SFID 2010 Urban Water Management Plan (RMC, 2011)

Water System Facilities
SFID’s potable water system serves approximately 6,484 connections, approximately 5,918 of which are
residential connections. The potable water system is comprised of the following components:
       Pipelines - Approximately 895,000 feet of pipeline ranging from 2- to 54-inches diameter
       Pressure Reducing Stations - 38 pressure reducing stations and 14 pressure zones.
       Larrick Reservoir - A 6-million gallon water storage reservoir.
       Larrick Pump Station - Located adjacent to Larrick Reservoir, a pump station to feed one of
        SFID’s pressure zones.
Recycled Water Facilities
As discussed above, SFID purchases and distributes recycled water from SEJPA. Currently recycled
water is only distributed within the SFID Western Service Area. Recycled water is pumped from SEWRF
distribution pump station into two separate distribution systems supplying three different water purveyors.
The North Distribution System serves the SDWD service area and the South Distribution System serves
the SFID service area and the City of Del Mar.
The South Distribution System that delivers recycled water to SFID is shown in Figure 2-2. The
distribution system includes 4-inch to 24-inch diameter pipelines, Lomas Santa Fe Reservoir and Lomas
Santa Fe Booster Pump Station.
In addition to two other supply options, SEWRF is being considered as a supply option for the Study Area
in addition to two other supply sources. Recycled water to the Study Area would be provided by a
distribution system separate from the Western Service Area system, including a new distribution pump
station at SEWRF and a new network of pipelines. The SEWRF supply option is discussed in detail in
Chapter 4 and the distribution system options for this supply are presented in Chapter 5.




September 2011                                                                                              2-4
                                                                                       Chapter 2
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                               Project Setting

                                     Figure 2-2: Existing Recycled Water System




Source: 2005 Recycled Water Master Plan




September 2011                                                                                 2-5
                                                                                               Chapter 2
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                       Project Setting


2.4 Wastewater Collection and Treatment
Wastewater collection and treatment within the Study Area is provided by SEJPA, Rancho Santa Fe
Community Services District (CSD) and the Fairbanks Ranch CSD. All three agencies use a network of
gravity sewers to convey local wastewater to plants for treatment. Wastewater collected by SEJPA is
treated at SEWRF and wastewater collected by the CSDs is treated at Rancho Santa Fe Wastewater
Treatment Plant (WWTP) and Fairbanks Ranch WWTP.
SEJPA, Rancho Santa Fe CSD and Fairbanks Ranch CSD along with the Whispering Palms CSD (which
treats wastewater from areas outside the Study Area) were evaluated as potential recycled water supply
sources. Currently, all three CSDs treat wastewater to secondary treatment levels and dispose of effluent
in percolation ponds. More information on SEJPA and the CSDs as potential supply sources is provided
in Chapter 4.




September 2011                                                                                         2-6
                                                                                                                              Chapter 3
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                                                  Market Assessment


Chapter 3                Market Assessment
This section presents an assessment of the market for recycled water use within the Study Area.

3.1 Potential Recycled Water Market
Table 3-1 includes a list of potential recycled water uses allowed by the State of California Department of
Public Health (CDPH) for disinfected tertiary recycled water meeting Title 22 standards. This Recycled
Water Facilities Plan focuses on irrigation customers, including landscape and agricultural use. There are
no industrial uses identified in the service area. Groundwater recharge with recycled water was not
considered as part of this Facilities Plan.
                 Table 3-1: Title 22 Allowed Uses for Disinfected Tertiary Recycled Water

Municipal Uses
Parks and playgrounds
School yards
Residential landscaping
Unrestricted access golf courses
Food crops where edible portion is produced above ground and not contacted by recycled water
Cemeteries
Freeway landscape
Restricted access golf courses
Any non-edible vegetation where access is controlled so that irrigated area cannot be used as if it were
part of a park, playground, or school yard
Industrial & Commercial Uses
Industrial or commercial cooling
Flushing toilets and urinals
Agricultural Uses
Ornamental nursery stock and sod farms where access by the general public is not restricted
Pasture for animals producing milk for human consumption
Orchards where the recycled water does not come into contact with the edible portion of the crop
Vineyards where the recycled water does not come into contact with the edible portion of the crop
Non food-bearing trees (no irrigation with recycled water for 14 days prior to harvesting or allowing
general public access)
Fodder crops (e.g. alfalfa) and fiver crops (e.g. cotton)
Seed crops not eaten by humans
Food crops – contact with edible portion of the crop, including all crop roots
Food crops that undergo commercial pathogen-destroying processing before consumption by humans
Ornamental nursery stock and sod farms provided no irrigation with recycled water occurs for a period of
14 days prior to harvesting, retail sale, or allowing access by the general public
Indirect Potable Uses
Groundwater recharge 2
    1.   This table does not represent an all-inclusive list of recycled water uses. See California Health Laws Related to Recycled Water, “The
         Purple Book” (June 2001) for requirements for impoundment, cooling, and other uses
         (www.cdph.ca.gov/certlic/drinkingwater/Documents/Recharge/Purplebookupdate6-01.PDF).
    2.   Allowed under special case-by-case permits with the Regional Water Quality Control Board (RWQCB).




September 2011                                                                                                                               3-1
                                                                                                Chapter 3
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                    Market Assessment


3.2 Methodology
This Facilities Plan primarily used information from the market assessment completed as part of the 2005
Santa Fe Irrigation District Recycled Water Master Plan (Dudek, 2005). Market assessment information
in the 2005 Master Plan was confirmed as part of SFID’s 2009 Asset Management Master Plan (Dexter
Wilson, 2009). Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club was consulted for updated demand information during
preparation of this Facilities Plan since it is the largest demand in the Eastern Service Area.
3.2.1 2005 Master Plan Market Assessment Methodology
This section summarizes how customers and demands were identified in the 2005 Master Plan.
GIS Based Analysis
SFID maintains a geographic information system (GIS) that includes parcels, aerial photographs, SFID
utilities, land use and zoning information, topography and roads. A water billing account GIS was created
by linking assessor parcel numbers (APNs) in the meter accounts with the SFID parcel map. Some
accounts did not have an associated APN. For those accounts with significant water usage, the billing data
was manually linked to the parcel map based on the service address. This map served as an aid to
identifying potential recycled water customers. (Dudek, 2005)
Potable Water Consumption Data
Potable water billing records were downloaded for 2002 through 2004 to identify potential customers.
Analysis of water billing data was performed and plots were generated showing the location of customers.
Tables of large customers were generated, combining water use from multiple meters on the property and
meters from adjacent parcels with the same ownership. Several large potential customers were identified,
along with clusters of smaller customers. Of these customers, the Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club, with an
average annual water demand at the time equal to 340 AFY, was by far the largest potable water
customer. (Dudek, 2005)
Types of customers within the following meter categories were indentified within the Eastern Service
Area:
       Irrigation. Irrigation accounts are generally issued to community and regional parks, medians,
        and common areas within in apartments, residential complexes, and commercial/industrial
        facilities. Irrigation systems are typically separate from potable water systems; therefore, these
        sites can typically be retrofitted for recycled water use at a relatively low cost. All demand at
        these meters is considered as potential recycled water demand.
       Commercial. Commercial designated meters generally include businesses which have common
        landscaping and indoor use meters. The potential recycled water use is therefore less than
        reported based on billing records, and retrofits may be at a higher cost than an irrigation
        customer. Typically however, outdoor irrigation is fed from the main line at one or more
        backflow prevention devices, with the entire downstream system being for irrigation only. The
        new recycled water service can connect immediately upstream of that device. Demands for
        commercial properties were based on a percentage of potable water use or by estimating demand
        based on irrigated acreage.
       Government. Government-designated meters generally include schools with large playing fields.
        Similar to commercial properties, generally a single meter serves indoor and outdoor demand.
        The potential for recycled water use at schools is therefore much less than the reported water use.
        Estimates of water use for schools were based on percentage of potable water use or by
        estimating demand based on irrigated acreage. Retrofit requirements would be similar to
        commercial customers as described above.




September 2011                                                                                           3-2
                                                                                                  Chapter 3
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                      Market Assessment


       Residential/Agriculture. SFID has three residential account types (RS, RL and RM). RS
        accounts are single family homes, RL accounts are estate homes with 6 acres or more land, RM is
        multi-family estate residential. Potential recycled water demand for estate residential meters is
        based on the lot size and generally range from 60-80 % of total demand. Residential customers in
        this report also include those connections designed in the SFID billing system as agriculture.
        SFID has two agriculture account types (A and AC). Type “A” accounts for agriculture with a
        house and type “AC” accounts for agriculture without a house. Agriculture accounts can
        generally be retrofitted with relatively low effort and expense. All demand at these meters is
        considered as potential recycled water demand. Customer retrofits at estate residential properties
        may be difficult and costly. Often indoor and outdoor use is fed through a single meter, and
        backflow prevention devices for irrigation systems are not always present (although typically are
        present on large lots). Estate residential customer retrofit costs may vary significantly from parcel
        to parcel.
       Other. “Other” customers include churches and private schools. Similar to commercial and
        government accounts, generally a single meter serves indoor and outdoor demand at these sites.
        Estimates of water use for “other” customers were based on percentage of potable water use or
        estimating demand based on irrigated acreage.
Groundwater Well Permits
Groundwater is used for irrigation in some areas of Rancho Santa Fe. Well permits were reviewed and
customers on large lots with groundwater wells were identified as potential recycled water customers.
Irrigated Area Analysis
Aerial photos were reviewed to identify parcels which had no potable water accounts or accounts that
indicated relatively low water use and no groundwater permits. These parcels were assumed to be
irrigated with well water.
3.2.2 Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club
Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club is the largest potential recycled water demand in the Eastern Service Area.
The course was opened in 1929 and is owned and operated by the Rancho Santa Fe Association.
Supplying recycled water to the course has been evaluated in the past. In the mid 1990’s a plan was
developed to add tertiary treatment facilities to the local CSD plants (Rancho Santa Fe, Whispering Palms
and Fairbanks Ranch) to serve recycled water to the course. In addition, the 2002 Reclaimed Water
Demineralization Facility and Conveyance System Improvements report prepared by the SEJPA evaluated
serving the course from the SEWRF and included demineralization at the plant to lower TDS. These
projects were never implemented.
RMC and SFID staff met with Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club staff to gauge interest in recycled water,
identify potential water quality and retrofit concerns, and to update demand information for the course.
SFID staff also met with the Rancho Santa Fe Association to discuss recycled water. Both the Rancho
Santa Fe Golf Club and Rancho Santa Fe Association indicated they would utilize recycled water if
available. The Golf Club indicated the water quality must be sufficient to avoid turf damage to fairways
and roughs. Golf course staff indicated greens and tees would likely continue to be irrigated with potable
water to avoid damage to sensitive turf.

3.3 Eastern Service Area Market
Potential recycled water customers in the Eastern Service Area are shown in Figure 3-1 and are
summarized in Table 3-2. A complete list of the recycled water market in the Eastern Service Area is
provided in Appendix A.




September 2011                                                                                             3-3
                                                                                                         Chapter 3
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                                             Market Assessment

               Table 3-2: Summary of Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Customers

                          Number of             Average Annual            Max Month Demand 2            % of Total
  Customer Type           Customers              Demand (AFY)                   (gpd)                   Demand
Commercial                      15                     213                        379,400                  16%
Government                      2                       12                         22,000                   1%
Irrigation                      5                      295                        567,700                  22%
Other                           1                       5.9                        10,500                  <1%
Estate residential 1            72                     834                       1,489,700                 61%
TOTAL                           95                    1,360                      2,469,300                 100%
Source: 2009 Asset Management Master Plan. Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club demand was updated based on discussions with golf
course staff.
1. Estate residential includes agricultural residential parcels.
2. Max month demand is the average day demand during the maximum demand month, based on peaking factors defined below.

The majority of demand (61%) is estate residential, which also includes residential agriculture. The
second largest group of customers is irrigation customers (22% of total demand), with the Rancho Santa
Fe Golf Club accounting for 285 AFY out of 295 AFY in that customer category. Commercial is the other
significant group with 16% of demand. Government and Other customers comprise 1% or less of total
demand each.
Although 1,360 AFY of potential demand was identified in the market assessment, the higher probability
recycled water demand anticipated to be connected in the Eastern Service Area is approximately 750
AFY as discussed further in Chapter 5 and Chapter 6. These demands are generally comprised of
customers that are most cost effective to connect based on proximity to the backbone system, as well as
customers that are more likely to connect such as irrigation, commercial and government users.

3.4 Demand Peaking Factors
Peak flows must be defined to compare recycled water system supply versus demand and evaluate
hydraulics. For the purpose of this Facilities Plan, three peaking situations are defined: maximum month
demand (MMD), maximum day demand (MDD), and peak hour demand (PHD). MMD is defined as the
average daily demand of a customer during the maximum usage month. The maximum usage month is
typically July or August when irrigation demand is highest. MDD is defined as the maximum daily
demand of a customer. This event typically occurs only two to three times per year during the maximum
month and slightly exceeds MMD. PHD is defined as the maximum anticipated flow rate delivered to a
customer in gallons per minute and is based on irrigation over a 9-hour irrigation period (typically from
9:00 PM to 6:00 AM).
MMD, MDD, and PHD were estimated for each customer by applying peaking factors to the average
annual demand values. The peaking factors applied are summarized in Table 3-3. These factors were
applied to all customers with the exception of Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club, whose average annual,
maximum month and peak hourly demand was based on information provided by golf course staff. The
golf course peaking factors were calculated and are provided in the table based on the demands provided
by their staff. Customer peak demands are identified in Appendix A.




September 2011                                                                                                      3-4
                                                                                           Chapter 3
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                               Market Assessment

                                Table 3-3: Peaking Factors for Irrigation

                                                      Standard Peaking      RSF Golf Club Peaking
            Peaking Factor Type                           Factors                 Factors
Max Month Demand Factor (to average annual
                                                            2.0                      2.2
demand)
Max Day Demand Factor (to average annual
                                                            2.4                      2.2
demand)
Peak Hour Demand Factor (to average annual
                                                            6.4                     12.5
demand)




September 2011                                                                                      3-5
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                                                                                                 Chapter 4
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                      Recycled Water Supply Alternatives



Chapter 4            Recycled Water Supply Alternatives
There are three supply options for the Eastern Service Area, each with slightly different water quality,
institutional requirements, availability and reliability of supply, supply costs, and other considerations
including the ability to limit future cost increases and application and availability of incentives. The three
supply options presented in this chapter are:
     SEJPA San Elijo Water Reclamation Facility (SEWRF)
     City of San Diego North City Water Reclamation Plant (NCWRP)
     Local Community Services Districts (CSDs)
This chapter begins with a discussion of recycled water quality requirements, then presents each supply
source, and concludes with a summary comparison of each supply, its unit cost (cost per AF), and ability
to meet water quality requirements.

4.1 Water Quality Requirements
Water quality requirements for recycled water in the Eastern Service Area can be characterized as either
regulatory requirements or irrigation requirements. Regulatory requirements are set by state and local
regulatory agencies, including the California Department of Public Health (CDPH), San Diego County
Department of Public Health (San Diego DPH), State Water Resources Control Board (SWRCB), and
San Diego Regional Water Quality Control Board (SDRWQCB). Irrigation water quality requirements
are water quality parameters that should be met for recycled water to be used successfully for irrigation
without negative effects on plants or customer operations.
This section describes regulatory requirements and typical landscape irrigation water quality
requirements. There are currently no industrial demands identified in the Eastern Service Area; therefore,
water quality requirements for industrial operations are not discussed.
The water quality requirements established herein will be used for evaluating the suitability and benefits
of various supply alternatives, and to establish baseline water quality objectives for treatment of
secondary treated effluent from the CSDs wastewater treatment plants as a supply.
The following is a summary of the key drivers and water quality parameters that will be used in the
development of the Eastern Service Area.
        Recycled water used in the Eastern Service Area will meet CDPH Title 22 Requirements
        TDS target will be 1,000 mg/L based on industry standard for irrigation. Above 1,000 mg/L TDS
         can cause issues with turf and other plants. The TDS driver for regulatory compliance is expected
         to be 1,300 mg/L based on the most stringent Basin Groundwater Objective for the area.
      Though not mandatory, standard practice is to provide a minimum chlorine residual in the system
         to prevent nitrification and associated maintenance issues. SFID intends to provide minimum
         chlorine residual.
More detail on key drivers (regulatory and irrigation quality) is provided below in this section. Permitting
requirements will vary for each supply source. Water quality from each supply must be compared against
regulatory and irrigation water quality requirements identified in this section to determine its suitability
for this project.
4.1.1 Regulatory Requirements
Regulatory requirements include compliance with CDPH’s Title 22, San Diego RWQCB recycling
permits, the State’s Recycled Water Policy, and SFID rules and regulations, which are summarized
below.



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Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                    Recycled Water Supply Alternatives


Title 22 Requirements
The California Department of Public Health guidelines for producing and using recycled water are
codified in California Code of Regulations (CCR), Title 22, Division 4, Chapter 3 entitled “Water
Recycling Criteria” and commonly referred to as Title 22. Two of the three potential supply sources for
the Eastern Service Area, the City of San Diego’s NCWRP and the SEWRF already produce disinfected
tertiary effluent meeting Title 22 requirements for unrestricted non-potable uses. The third supply option
would treat secondary effluent from the local CSDs for use in the Eastern Service Area. In order to
comply with Title 22 requirements for disinfected tertiary recycled water, the CSD supply option would
need to meet Title 22 requirements for water quality.
Water Recycling Requirements (WRRs)
The San Diego RWQCB has issued waste discharge requirements (WDRs) and/or water recycling
requirements (WRRs) for the City of San Diego’s NCWRP and the SEWRF. If the CSD supply option is
implemented, the existing WDRs for the CSDs would need to be modified and/or new WRRs would need
to be obtained through the RWQCB. The purpose of the WRRs would be to ensure that production and
distribution of recycled water complies with both Title 22 requirements and Basin Plan water quality
objectives for the affected hydrologic area (HA) or hydrologic subareas (HSA), which are shown in
Figure 4-1. The new permit requirements for the CSDs would likely be similar to the existing NCWRP
and SEWRF permits in terms of water quality requirements.
SWRCB Recycled Water Policy
In February 2009, the SWRCB adopted Resolution No. 2009-0011: Policy for Water Quality Control for
Recycled Water (Recycled Water Policy). The purpose of the Recycled Water Policy is:
    “to increase the use of recycled water from municipal wastewater sources that meets the
    definition in Water Code section 13050(n), in a manner that implements state and federal water
    quality laws… When used in compliance with this Policy, Title 22 and all applicable state and
    federal water quality laws, the State Water Board finds that recycled water is safe for approved
    uses, and strongly supports recycled water as a safe alternative to potable water for such approved
    uses.”
The Recycled Water Policy is intended to streamline SWRCB and RWQCB permitting processes in order
to expedite the implementation of recycled water projects. The Recycled Water Policy includes
requirements for development of stakeholder-driven Salt and Nutrient Management Plans, streamlined
permitting for landscape irrigation and groundwater recharge projects, guidance regarding anti-
degradation analysis, and a research program for contaminants of emerging concern (CECs).
The Salt and Nutrient Management Plans portion of the Recycled Water Policy requires every
groundwater basin/sub-basin in California to prepare a groundwater management plan addressing salts
and nutrients by 2014. The intent of the Recycled Water Policy is for “salts and nutrients from all sources
to be managed on a basin-wide or watershed-wide basis in a manner that ensures attainment of water
quality objectives and protection of beneficial uses through the development of regional or subregional
Salt and Nutrient Management Plans rather than through imposing requirements solely on individual
recycled water projects.” These plans will require significant efforts throughout the State.
SFID will need to continue to coordinate with adjacent water supply and wastewater agencies to conduct
salt and nutrient planning for the San Dieguito Creek basin. The Southern California Salinity Coalition
(including SFID) and San Diego County Water Authority are in the process of collaborating with the San
Diego RWQCB on development of Salinity and Nutrient Management Planning Guidelines for the many
small groundwater basins in Region 9. SFID should continue to engage in the scheduled meetings hosted
by the Water Authority and coordinate this recycled water project with regional salt and nutrient
management planning efforts.



September 2011                                                                                            4-2
                                                                                                 Chapter 4
Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                      Recycled Water Supply Alternatives


Based on the criteria of 1,000 mg/L TDS for irrigation and the current basin plan groundwater objectives
for TDS (1,500 and 2,800), the Recycled Water Policy is not anticipated to be a driver for water quality
parameters in the Eastern Service Area.
SFID Rules and Regulations for Reclaimed and Non-Potable Water Service – Resolution
97-25
In 1995, the SFID Board of Directors declared that the use of reclaimed and non-potable water shall be
mandatory and that the use of reclaimed and non-potable water, where determined to be available by the
District and suitable for the use being proposed, shall be used after the effective date of Resolution No.
95-15. Resolution 95-15 stated that it is the policy of SFID to encourage and mandate the development of
reclaimed and non-potable water within SFID to meet growing demand for water within SFID’s
jurisdiction. In addition, the use of potable domestic water for irrigation of greenbelts, cemeteries, golf
courses, parks, highway landscaped areas, filling artificial lakes, and industrial processes, constitutes an
unreasonable use of water were non-potable or reclaimed water is available for such use as determined by
SFID. In 1997, the SFID Board of Directors adopted Resolution 97-25 which established comprehensive
rules and regulations for reclaimed and non-potable water service within the jurisdiction of SFID. The
Rules and Regulations state that “it shall hereafter be District policy that reclaimed water be used for any
purpose approved for non-domestic water use, to the maximum extent possible. Use of potable water for
non-domestic uses shall be considered contrary to District policy, shall not be considered the most
beneficial use of a natural resource and shall be avoided to the maximum extent possible. The District
shall take all reasonable steps to ensure that reclaimed water shall be provided in a cost effective manner.”




September 2011                                                                                             4-3
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Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan              Recycled Water Supply Alternatives


                   Figure 4-1: Basin Plan Groundwater Quality Objectives for TDS




September 2011                                                                                   4-4
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Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                      Recycled Water Supply Alternatives


4.1.2 Irrigation Water Quality Requirements
Salinity is typically a key parameter for determining the acceptability of recycled water for irrigation.
TDS is a standard measure of salinity for recycled water. A TDS concentration of 1,000 mg/L is a typical
industry standard upper limit used for landscape irrigation. TDS above 1,000 mg/L may be harmful to
sensitive plants and trees. Plants react differently to constituents in water depending on the type of plant,
site drainage, and soil characteristics. Each site’s suitability for irrigation with recycled water should be
considered before connecting the customer. For the purpose of this Facilities Plan, TDS will be the
primary water quality constituent of concern, and an upper limit of 1,000 mg/L will be the target
concentration for evaluating supply options.

4.2 SEWRF
SEJPA owns and operates the SEWRF, which currently provides recycled water to the City of Del Mar,
San Dieguito Water District and SFID’s Western Service Area. SFID has an agreement with SEJPA to
provide water for the Western Service Area. Under this supply option, recycled water would be delivered
to SFID’s Eastern Service Area from the SEWRF.
4.2.1 SEWRF Water Quality
The Master Recycled Water Permit for the Production and Purveyance of Recycled Water for San Elijo
Joint Powers Authority, San Dieguito Water District, Santa Fe Irrigation District, and City of Del Mar
for the San Elijo Water Reclamation Facility, San Diego County (Order No. 2000-10) was issued by the
San Diego RWQCB on March 8, 2000. The permit includes waste discharge requirements, as well as
requirements for rules and regulations that must be adopted in order to control recycled water use.
Recycled water from SEWRF undergoes tertiary treatment and complies with Title 22 standards.
The permit states that “The recycled water produced at the SEWRF will be distributed to the following
hydrologic areas (HA): Carlsbad HA, San Dieguito HA, and Solana Beach HA.”; however, Carlsbad and
San Dieguito are not HAs but rather HUs as defined in the Basin Plan (see Figure 4-1) and Solana Beach
HA is within the San Dieguito HU. The permit is therefore unclear based on what appears to be
typographical errors. Based on the original permit application areas including City of Carlsbad,
Olivenhain Municipal Water District and SFID, SEJPA has indicated their interpretation is that recycled
water from the SEWRF is permitted for distribution within the Eastern Service Area. SEWRF recycled
water met permit water quality requirements in the 2009 Annual Report for the San Elijo Joint Powers
Authority San Elijo Water Reclamation Facility; however, TDS concentration exceeded the daily
maximum effluent limit of 1,300 mg/L in individual daily samples and was as high as 1,526 mg/L
(February 19, 2009).
The SEJPA San Elijo Water Reclamation Facility Preliminary Design Report, Recycled Water
Demineralization Project (Kennedy/Jenks, 2009) includes preliminary design of facilities to provide a
recycled water effluent with less than 1,000 mg/L TDS. Assuming demineralization is implemented at
SEWRF, the plant would meet the irrigation quality requirement established for the project of 1,000 mg/L
TDS. If demineralization is not implemented, then the plant is permitted for and occasionally exceeds
1,300 mg/L TDS, which would not meet the irrigation standard established. Based on discussions with
SEJPA staff, the water provided to the Eastern Service Area would undergo demineralization.
In addition to the TDS concerns, SEWRF exceeded the Basin Plan groundwater quality objective for the
San Elijo HSA for manganese (0.05 mg/L). SEJPA reported an annual average concentration of
Manganese of 0.09 mg/L and the SEWRF is permitted for 0.15 mg/L. Although the current permit
language is unclear regarding areas where recycled water can be distributed (as described above),
assuming the plant is permitted for distribution in San Elijo HSA, then it could be interpreted that this
exceedance of Basin Plan water quality objectives has already been considered by regulators. This should
be confirmed before implementation of a project in the Eastern Service Area using this supply. SEWRF
effluent manganese concentration would be reduced if membrane filtration followed by reverse osmosis is


September 2011                                                                                             4-5
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Eastern Service Area Recycled Water Facilities Plan                     Recycled Water Supply Alternatives


implemented for demineralization, but design effluent values for manganese were not presented in the
2011 Kennedy Jenks preliminary design report.
4.2.2 Institutional Requirements
SFID would have to modify its current agreement, or develop a new agreement, with SEJPA to establish
the terms and conditions required to purchase recycled water to serve the Eastern Service Area. SFID and
SEJPA have a cooperative relationship and have worked successfully on recycled water implementation
in the Western Service Area.
The viability of this option relies heavily on the use of an abandoned 30-inch San Dieguito Water District
(SDWD) pipeline for installation of a transmission main from SEWRF to the Eastern Service Area. The
pipeline would be purchased or leased and slip-lined with a smaller diameter conveyance pipeline, which
would avoid a significant amount of excavation, surface restoration, and right-of-way issues associated
with open-cut construction. This arrangement would require an agreement between SFID and SDWD.
The 30-inch SDWD pipeline is discussed further in the distribution system alternatives in Chapter 5.
4.2.3 Availability and Reliability of Supply
The following is a summary of the available supply from SEJPA. It is important for planning of the
Eastern Service Area system to determine annual average supply, supply available under MMD
conditions, and the hourly timing of deliveries. The information below was provided in a letter dated
April 22, 2011 from SEJPA to SFID and through discussions with SEJPA staff (included as Appendix F).
       Annual Supply: Represents the quantity of recycled water available for supply to SFID in a
        calendar year. Annual supply available is approximately 700 AFY. Approximately 400 AFY is
        available from the current recycled water treatment system. An additional 300 AFY would be
        available after SEJPA constructs new treatment facilities that would result in additional capacity.
       Supply Available under MMD Conditions: Represents the quantity of recycled water available
        on any given day during the maximum usage month. This amount of supply is used to determine
        the extent of demand the recycled water system could serve. Supply available under MDD
        conditions is approximately 1.3 MGD.
       Timing of Deliveries: The timing of deliveries is used to calculate daily operational storage and
        represents when recycled water will be delivered to SFID throughout the day on any given day
        under MMD conditions. Deliveries from SEJPA are anticipated to occur evenly over a 24-hour
        period; however, for system reliability purposes, storage will be planned for deliveries over a 12
        to 15 hour period outside of the irrigation period. Therefore, operational storage capacity equal to
        MMD volume will be required.
4.2.4 SEJPA Supply Cost Considerations
According to SEJPA, the cost of the recycled water from SEWRF for the Eastern Service Area will be
approximately $920 /AF for up to approximately 300 AFY of water delivered. As reuse increases, the cost
to produce recycled water decreases, and assuming an annual demand of 700 AFY, the cost of recycled
water is estimated to be $780/AF. SEJPA anticipates that the cost of recycled water could escalate by 5%
to 6% annually due to cost increases for energy and chemicals.
The Metropolitan Water District (MWD) recently cancelled pending and future recycled water funding
programs for San Diego County Water Authority (Water Authority) member agencies. These programs
provided up to $250 per acre-foot for local supply development projects including recycled water
projects. It is unknown whether funding from MWD for local supply development projects will be
available in the future. The Water Authority also provides a local supply development support program
that offers up to $200 per acre-foot for new local supplies. Though the Water Authority program currently
remains available, due to current economic conditions it is not certain that this program will be available
in the future.


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SEJPA has indicated they would receive the $250 per AF incentive from MWD (if available) for the first
350 AFY of recycled water delivered and beyond that amount, SFID could apply for the $250 incentive.
In addition, SFID would be able to apply for the Water Authority incentive of up to $200 per AF.

4.3 City of San Diego
The City of San Diego owns and operates the NCWRP, which delivers recycled water to the City of San
Diego, City of Poway, and unincorporated areas of San Diego County served by Olivenhain Municipal
Water District (OMWD). This supply option would deliver recycled water to SFID from the City of San
Diego’s NCWRP through an interconnection with the City of San Diego distribution system or though a
connection with the OMWD system. The City of San Diego recycled water distribution system has a
termination point just east of the SFID service area on San Dieguito Road near Fairbanks Ranch. OMWD
ties into the City of San Diego system at this termination point, and has an OMWD recycled water
pipeline that runs to the north paralleling SFID’s Eastern Service Area boundary. In addition to
connecting directly to the City of San Diego termination point, this Facilities Plan also considers
receiving City of San Diego supply through the OMWD pipeline connecting to the City of San Diego
termination point.
A connection to the OMWD system would deliver recycled water from NCWRP through the OMWD
system to SFID. The intent is that the water supply would be from the City’s NCWRP. OMWD also
operates the OMWD 4S Treatment Plant, which produces recycled water for OMWD customers. OMWD
recycled water supply from the 4S Treatment Plant are accounted for and are not available to serve
SFID’s Eastern Service Area; however, since SFID would connect to the OMWD system, it is possible
that a small amount of recycled water from the OMWD 4S Treatment Plant could enter the SFID service
area under this supply option. This may add complexity to the permitting process.
4.3.1 NCWRP Water Quality
The Waste Discharge and Water Recycling Requirements for the Production and Purveyance of Recycled
Water for the North City Water Reclamation Plant, San Diego County (Order No. 97-03) were issued by
the San Diego RWQCB on January 9, 1997 and amended on June 11, 2003. Recycled water from
NCWRP undergoes tertiary treatment and complies with Title 22 standards. The permit allows for
distribution of recycled water from NCWRP to Miramar Reservoir, the western portion of Poway,
Scripps, Miramar, Tecolote, Mission San Diego, and Solana Beach HAs. NCWRP is currently not
permitted to distribute recycled water in Escondido Creek Hydrologic HA nor San Elijo HSA, which
encompass the SFID Eastern Service Area. The NCWRP permit would have to be amended to include the
applicable HAs or HSAs.
NCWRP permit limits are equal to or lower than current Basin Plan groundwater quality objectives;
however, nitrate limits are not specified in the NCWRP permit and nitrate concentration (twelve month
average) exceeded Basin Plan water quality objectives. SEWRF currently does not have an effluent limit
for nitrate; therefore it is reasonable to assume a permit limit would not be required of NCWRP for
service in the Eastern Service Area. NCWRP recycled water generally meets discharge specifications in
their permit, except for manganese. NCWRP reported a 12-month average concentration of 0.066 mg/L
manganese in 2009. Manganese limits in San Elijo HSA are equal to the NCWRP current permit limits at
0.05 mg/L. The City was not available to discuss actions being taken to bring the recycled water effluent
to within the permit limits or to modify the permit requirements.
Although the City’s permitted 12-month average TDS limit of 1,200 mg/L exceeds the 1,000 mg/L target
water quality for irrigation, the City currently sends a portion of its recycled water to a demineralization
facility that uses electro-dialysis reversal to reduce salinity in recycled water. In 2009 TDS in recycled
water from NCWRP averaged 914 mg/L.




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Permits and water quality from OMWD 4S treatment plant were not reviewed because anticipated volume
from this source would be very small. Water quality from a connection to the OMWD system would be
identical or very similar to that produced at NCWRP.
4.3.2 Institutional Requirements
SFID does not currently have an agreement with the City of San Diego for supply of recycled water;
therefore, an agreement would have to be negotiated between the two parties.
If a connection is made to the OMWD system, an additional agreement would have to be negotiated with
OMWD for the use of OMWD’s existing pipelines for delivery of recycled water to SFID from San
Diego.
4.3.3 Availability and Reliability of Supply
Availability and reliability of supply from the City of San Diego has not been confirmed. The City is
evaluating implementation of indirect potable reuse (IPR) and may choose to use its available recycled
water for IPR. In addition, SFID and the City are currently re-confirming the terms and conditions of an
existing agreement for shared use of surface water from Lake Hodges, and the City has expressed a desire
to delay discussions of a new recycled water use agreement until the current Lake Hodges agreement
issues are addressed.
For the purpose of this Facilities Plan, City of San Diego availability and reliability of supply were
assumed. The supply assumed matches estimated demands that would be served from a distribution
system originating from either the City of San Diego recycled water distribution system termination point
on San Dieguito Road, or from a distribution system originating from the shared use on an OMWD
recycled water pipeline that currently connects to the City of San Diego system. The demand is larger
from the OMWD connection point due to the ability to cost effectively reach additional demands from
this connection point.
The following is a summary of assumed supply available from NCWRP at a connection to the City of San
Diego recycled water system termination point in San Dieguito Road (supply assumed to match demand
served from this connection point and associated distribution system route):
       Annual Supply: Annual supply available is assumed to be 689 AFY
       Supply Available under MMD Conditions: Supply available under MMD conditions is
        assumed to be 1.3 MGD.
     Timing of Deliveries: Deliveries from City of San Diego are anticipated to occur evenly over a
        24-hour period; however, for reliability purposes, storage will be planned for deliveries over a 12
        to 15 hour period outside of the irrigation period. Therefore, operational storage capacity equal to
        MMD will be required.
The following is a summary of assumed supply available from NCWRP at a connection to the City of San
Diego recycled water system via a jointly used OMWD recycled water pipeline paralleling SFID’s
Eastern Service Area boundary (supply assumed to match demand served from this connection point and
associated distributions system route).
       Annual Supply: Annual supply available is assumed to be 744 AFY
       Supply Available under MMD Conditions: Supply available under MMD conditions is 1.5
        MGD.
       Timing of Deliveries: Deliveries from City of San Diego through the OMWD system are
        anticipated to occur evenly over a 24-hour period; however, for reliability purposes, storage will
        be planned for deliveries over a 12 to 15 hour period outside of the irrigation period. Therefore,
        operational storage capacity equal to MMD will be required.



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Supply Cost Considerations
For the reasons described above, supply costs have not been confirmed with the City of San Diego. Two
City of San Diego supply cost scenarios were developed for this Facilities Plan, representing current
supply cost and potential future supply costs. The cost of a recycled water project alternatives using the
San Diego supply were developed using both supply costs to provide a range of potential costs that a
project is expected to fall between.
The first supply cost scenario represents assumed current cost and is based upon the terms and conditions
in an agreement between the City of San Diego and OMWD for the sale of recycled water to OMWD.
That agreement specifies a Council-Adopted recycled water rate of $350 per AF, a $25 per AF premium
for recycled water delivery outside of City boundaries, and a $400,000 Capacity Reservation Charge for
400 AFY. The Capacity Reservation Charge is a one-time charge, and is assumed to be proportional to
the amount of capacity requested or $1,000 per AFY. This charge can be treated as a financed capital cost
and annualized to provide a unit cost. At 3% interest over 20 years, this cost is equal to $67 per AF.
Based upon these assumptions, the current total supply cost from the City of San Diego Supply is
estimated to be $442 per AF.
The rate for recycled water from the City of San Diego will likely increase in the future. Under the
direction of the San Diego City Council, the Water Department commissioned a rate study to review the
financial aspects related to production, sale, and distribution of recycled water. As new information on
recycled water rates from this source is obtained, recycled water cost projections should be updated.
There are many variables that will impact the City’s future recycled water rate and the actual rate is
unknown. Based upon trends in the industry, SFID estimates the City’s rate will be approximately $2.50
per hundred cubic feet, which is approximately 60% of the City’s current irrigation water rate. This
assumption results in an estimated future City of San Diego Supply cost of $1,181 per AF, which has not
been confirmed by the City of San Diego.
The current and future City of San Diego Supply cost include application of previously available
incentives from MWD and the Water Authority equaling a total of $450. If these incentives are not
available, the cost may increase by up to $450 per AF. Connecting to the OMWD system may also
require wheeling charges for use of available capacity within OMWD pipelines. This cost has not been
developed.

4.4 Community Services Districts (CSDs)
Rancho Santa Fe, Fairbanks Ranch and Whispering Palms CSDs treat wastewater from residential areas
in unincorporated areas of San Diego County to secondary treatment standards and dispose of effluent in
percolation ponds. Whispering Palms CSD reuses most of its secondary effluent for irrigation at Rancho
Paseana, a thoroughbred racehorse training facility. The potential impact of eliminating this source of
water to Rancho Paseana was not considered as part of this Facilities Plan.
This supply option would collect secondary effluent from the three plants and treat the effluent to Title 22
standards at Rancho Santa Fe CSD WWTP for distribution in the Eastern Service Area. Because of high
TDS in the plants’ secondary effluent, the treatment process would have to include advanced treatment of
a portion of the flow using membrane filtration (MF) and reverse osmosis (RO) to provide recycled water
with 1,000 mg/L TDS. Another option is to blend tertiary treated effluent with potable water to reduce
TDS concentration.
A detailed evaluation of the CSD supply option, including treatment components and cost estimates is
provided in Appendix B and provides the basis of information in this section.




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4.4.1 CSD Water Quality
If the CSD supply option is implemented, existing WDRs for the CSDs would need to be modified and/or
new WRRs would need to be obtained through the RWQCB. The treatment system would be designed to
provide effluent concentrations meeting specified permit requirements. It is anticipated that permit
requirements would be similar to SEJPA or NCWRP and obtaining effluent quality equal to the SEWRF
and NCWRP permit conditions is readily achievable with the treatment concept proposed. Effluent from
the facility or a blend of the effluent and potable water would have to meet Title 22 requirements and
basin groundwater quality objectives and would meet the irrigation TDS objective of 1,000 mg/L based
on an annual average.
4.4.2 Institutional Requirements
The CSDs are managed by three separate entities and agreements would have to be reached between
SFID and the applicable CSDs for this supply option. Staff representing the CSDs expressed an interest in
recycling the water from the CSDs and a project was designed in the early 1990’s to produce and deliver
recycled water to the Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club but was not implemented.
4.4.3 Availability and Reliability of Supply
Three options for this supply were developed. The first option evaluated was to provide tertiary treatment
with demineralization through advanced treatment with MF/RO to produce recycled water of the quality
required. The cost for tertiary treatment and demineralization was very high ($5,800 to $10,100 per AF
depending on operations) due to the high cost of brine management of RO concentrate. As a result,
alternatives that would tertiary treat the CSD effluent and blend with potable water from the SFID R.E.
Badger WTP to reach a TDS of 1,000 mg/L were developed. Two scenarios for blending tertiary treated
CSD effluent with potable water were developed:
    1) Tertiary treatment and blending effluent from all three CSDs – Blend Scenario 1, and
    2) Tertiary treatment and blending effluent from Rancho Santa Fe WWTP only – Blend Scenario 2.
The following is a summary of available supply from the CSDs for each scenario. Refer to Appendix B
for a full evaluation of the CSD supply options.
CSD Treatment with Demineralization
This option would pump secondary treated effluent from Whispering Palms CSD and Fairbanks Ranch
CSD to Rancho Santa Fe CSD for tertiary treatment with demineralization of effluent from all three
plants. Recycled water produced would then be pumped to the Eastern Service Area distribution system.
Below is a summary of supply available under this option.
       Annual Supply: Annual supply available is 749 AFY based on annual production capacity;
        however, actual recycled water yield (amount that could be reused) is estimated to be 352 AFY
        based on seasonal demand and available supply.
       Supply Available under MMD Conditions: Supply available under MMD conditions is 669,000
        MGD.
       Timing of Deliveries: Deliveries will be made over a 24-hour period. The plant would have
        secondary equalization.
Blend Scenario 1 – Treating all 3 CSDs
Blend scenario 1 would pump secondary treated effluent from Whispering Palms CSD and Fairbanks
Ranch CSD to Rancho Santa Fe CSD for tertiary treatment of effluent from all three plants. The tertiary
treated effluent would then be pumped to a storage tank at Rancho Santa Fe Golf Course for blending
with potable water to achieve 1000 mg/L TDS. Below is a summary of supply available under this option.
       Annual Supply: Annual supply available is 837 AFY


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            o 368 AFY of recycled water (net recycled water yield)
            o 469 AFY of potable blend water
       Supply Available under MMD Conditions: Supply available under MMD conditions is 1.73
        MGD.
            o 760,000 gpd of recycled water
            o 970,000 gpd of potable blend water
       Timing of Deliveries: Deliveries will be made over a 24-hour period. The plant would have
        secondary equalization.
Blend Scenario 2 – Treating Only Rancho Santa Fe CSD
Blend scenario 2 would tertiary treat secondary effluent from Rancho Santa Fe CSD at the current plant
site. The tertiary treated effluent would then be pumped to a storage tank at Rancho Santa Fe Golf Course
for blending with potable water to achieve 1000 mg/L TDS. This option could be implemented as a stand-
alone supply project or as the first phase of a larger CSD supply system by expanding to treat flow from
the other two CSDs (Blend Scenario 1). Below is a summary of supply available under this option.
       Annual Supply: Annual supply available is 432 AFY
            o 155 AFY of recycled water (net recycled water yield)
            o 277 AFY of potable water
       Supply Available under MMD Conditions: Supply available under MMD conditions is 864,000
        gpd
            o 310,000 gpd of recycled water
            o 554,000 gpd of potable water
       Timing of Deliveries: Deliveries will be made over a 24-hour period. The plant would have
        secondary equalization.
4.4.4 Supply Cost Considerations
Supply cost is based on conceptual design and capital and operation and maintenance cost estimates
developed in Appendix B. The cost of recycled water produced from the CSDs is estimated to be $10,100
for the demineralization option based on how the plant is expected to operate. The high cost is mainly
attributable to brine management and disposal costs from the RO system. If the plant could be operated to
better match demand, brine management costs could decrease. The lowest theoretical cost that could be
achieved is approximately $5,800/AF and would apply if supply (and operation of the MF/RO facilities)
could match demand exactly. This operational scenario is impossible to achieve, but the cost was
estimated to provide a comparison to the year-round operation cost.
The cost of recycled water from this source for Blend Scenario 1 is $1,200/AF and for Blend Scenario 2 is
$1,800 per AF. These costs are based on developing a distribution system that could utilize all of the
supply. If all of the water is not used, costs will rise because the treatment costs would remain, but yield
would decrease.
If available, recycled water incentives from MWD and the Water Authority of up to $250 and $200
respectively could potentially be secured by SFID to reduce the overall cost of all three scenarios. The
availability of incentives is currently uncertain.

4.5 Comparison of Demand with Recycled Water Supply
Chapter 3 identified over 1,300 AFY of potential demand in SFID’s Eastern Service Area. No single
supply source could supply enough recycled water to serve the total potential demand of 1,300 AFY.
Combining multiple supply sources could serve the total potential demand of 1,300 AFY; however, the


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Eastern Service Area is essentially built-out and nearly all potential recycled water demand would offset
current potable water users. Therefore, completely new recycled water infrastructure would need to be
constructed that parallels the existing potable water system. The customers comprising the 1,300 AFY of
potential demand identified in Chapter 3 are spread across the entire Eastern Service Area, and the cost of
a distribution system to serve all of these demands is not practical and is the limiting factor in the amount
of demand that could be cost-effectively served in the Eastern Service Area.
The following steps were taken to establish practical demand in the Eastern Service Area:
        1. The largest demands were identified and a “backbone” recycled water system was developed
           between the supply options and the largest demands.
        2. Demands located adjacent to the backbone recycled water system were identified and
           included in the practical demand for the Eastern Service Area.
        3. Distribution pipelines to other demands were evaluated based on the size and type of demand
           and incremental cost of facilities required to serve the demand. Cost effective demands were
           included as practical demands.
Based upon this assessment, it was determined that around 700 and 750 AFY of practical demand exists
in the Eastern Service Area depending upon the source of supply. Though it has not been confirmed, it is
anticipated that supply available from a direct connection to the City of San Diego distribution system
could supply up to 750 AFY, including the anticipated MMD. SEJPA has indicated that following
completion of planned construction at the SEWRF, the SEJPA source could supply up to 700 AFY and
meet MMD conditions. The CSD supply cannot meet the MMD required to serve all practical demand;
therefore, a project from the CSD supply would be supply-limited rather than limited by practical
demand.
The Facilities Plan considered two supply and demand scenarios. Since the Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club is
the largest demand in the Eastern Service Area, Scenario 1 includes the golf course, demands along the
pipeline serving the golf course and/or demands nearby the golf course. Under Scenario 1, demands
ranged from 325 to 425 AFY depending upon the origin of the supply and associated pipeline routes.
Under this scenario, pipelines would be sized for future expansion to meet the practical demand of 750
AFY. To reduce the cost of a first phase project, pump stations and storage facilities would be sized for
the Scenario 1 demand and would have to be expanded in the future to meet the practical demand.
Scenario 2 is a system to serve the full practical demand, up to 750 AFY depending on the supply source.
Table 4-1 compares the amount of available supply with identified practical demand on an annual and
daily (MMD) basis for Scenario 1 and 2 by supply source.




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    Table 4-1: Comparison of Recycled Water Supply to Practical Eastern Service Area Demands

                           Average
                          Annual RW              MMD RW             Scenario        Scenario        Scenario         Scenario
 Supply Source             Supply                 Supply             1c AAD         1c MMD           2d AAD          2d MMD
                            400 AFY              0.62 MGD
                         (immediately)          (near term)
                                                                    324 AFY         0.62 MGD         689 AFY         1.3 MGD
                         700 AFY (long            1.3 MGD
SEJPA                        term)b             (long term)b
City of San Diego
                           689 AFY              1.3 MGD
(Direct                                                             429 AFY         0.81 MGD         689 AFY         1.3 MGD
                         (unconfirmed)        (unconfirmed)
Connection)
City of San Diego
                           744 AFY              1.4 MGD
(OMWD                                                               319 AFY         0.61 MGD        744 MGD          1.4 MGD
                         (unconfirmed)        (unconfirmed)
Connection)
CSD with                                                                                               Not             Not
                            749 AFY              0.67 MGD           360 AFY            0.68
Demineralization                                                                                    applicable      applicable
CSD Blend                                                             Not              Not             Not             Not
                            368 AFY              0.76 MGD
Scenario 1                                                         applicable       applicable      applicable      applicable
CSD Blend                                                           104 AFY                          155 AFY
                            155 AFY              0.36 MGD                           0.20 MGD                        0.36 MGD
Scenario 2                                                         (RW only)                        (RW only)
 AAD = Average Annual Demand
 MMD = Max Month Demand
 Footnotes:
     a. Peak hour supply is supply available from the source during the peak hour usage period. Assumed to be zero for SEJPA
          and City of San Diego supplies (all deliveries would occur outside of the irrigation period). The CSD peak hour supply
          for Blend Scenario 1 and 2 is for the blended water, which includes flow from the CSDs and from the potable water
          system.
     b. Long term supply availability following SEWRF upgrades.
     c. Scenario 1 demands (or potential Phase I) include Rancho Santa Fe Golf Course demands and other demands readily
          accessible to the backbone distribution system to supply the golf course.
     d. Scenario 2 demands include practical Eastern Service Area demands.

 4.6 Comparison of Recycled Water Quality
 Recycled water from the three supply sources must be compared with both regulatory requirements and
 end user requirements for irrigation.
 4.6.1 Regulatory Water Quality Comparison
 The water quality objectives for the affected HA and HSA as well as the potential supply source permit
 requirements and recent water quality measurements are provided in Table 4-2.




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         Table 4-2: Groundwater Quality Objectives versus Permit Requirements and Water Quality
                                                        Constituent (mg/L or as noted)
                                                                                                Turb. Color
               TDS      Cl    SO4 %Na NO3                    Fe     Mn      MBAS     B     Odor (NTU) Units             F
                                               1
CARLSBAD HYDROLOGIC UNIT (904.00)
Escondido
Creek HA
(4.60)
San Elijo
HSA (4.61)     2,800    700    600      60         45        0.3    0.05     0.5     1.0   none       5        15       1.0
                                                        1
SAN DIEGUITO HYDROLOGIC UNIT (905.00)
Solana
Beach HA
(5.10)         1,500    500    500      60         45       0.85    0.15     0.5    0.75   none       5        15       1.0
SUPPLY WATER QUALITY
San Elijo Water Reclamation Facility (SEWRF)
Permit
Req.2          1,200    400    400     NR       NR          0.30    0.15     NR     0.75    NR       NR        NR       1.0
           3
Reported       1,194    370    305     N/A      4.7         .013    0.09    N/A     0.41    N/A     1.75      N/A     0.34
City of San Diego North City Water Reclamation Facility (NCWRP)
Permit
Req.4          1,200    300    300     NR       NR          0.30    0.05     NR     0.70    NR       NR        NR       NR
           5
Reported        914     239    226     58.0    45.1         0.086   0.066   0.23    0.35    N/A     0.56      N/A     0.44
Community Services Districts (CSDs)
Design
Parameters     1,000    N/A    N/A     N/A     N/A          N/A     N/A     N/A     N/A     N/A      N/A      N/A      N/A
Assumed
Permit
Req.         1,200 300 300              60      45      0.3      0.05    0.5     0.70 none           5         15       1.0
       N/A: Not available or not applicable.
       NR: Not required (not included in permit requirements).
       ND: Not Detected
       Bold indicates effluent quality exceeds basin plan objectives.
       1. Source: Water Quality Control Plan for the San Diego Basin (9), California Regional Water Quality
           Control Board, San Diego Region, September 8, 1994
       2. Source: Master Recycled Water Permit for the Production of and Purveyance of Recycled Water for the
           San Elijo Joint Powers Authority, San Dieguito Water District, Santa Fe Irrigation District, and City of Del
           Mar for the San Elijo Water Reclamation Facility, San Diego County (Order No. 2000-10). Permit limits
           shown are 12-month average limits. TDS, chloride (Cl) and sulfate (SO4) also have daily maximum limits
           of 1,300 mg/L, 450 mg/L and 450 mg/L respectively.
       3. Source: 2009 Annual Report for the San Elijo Joint Powers Authority San Elijo Water Reclamation Facility
           and December 2009 Monthly Report. Twelve month average reported is shown.
       4. Source: The Waste Discharge and Water Recycling Requirements for the Production and Purveyance of
           Recycled Water for the North City Water Reclamation Plant, San Diego County (Order No. 97-03). Permit
           limits shown are 12-month average limits.
       5. Source: North City Water Reclamation Plant Annual Monitoring Report, 2009. Twelve month average
           reported is shown.




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4.6.2 Landscape Irrigation
In general, since all customers are in the Eastern Service Area are landscape irrigation customers, they
will have similar requirements for water quality. The discussion below examines water quality issues
associated with using recycled water supplies for landscape irrigation.
Recycled water generally has a higher salinity content (reported as TDS) than potable water. Plants
irrigated with recycled water that has high salinity can cause reduced soil aeration, water infiltration and
percolation. Other constituents of concern such as sodium, chloride, chlorine and nutrients can cause
problems ranging from plant toxicity resulting in leaf burn to the plugging of sprinkler head openings.
Recycled water from SEWRF and City of San Diego NCWRP has been successfully applied to
landscaping for several years so the concerns are limited. Although design parameters have not been
established for the CSD supply option with the exception of TDS, it is anticipated that effluent water
quality from the CSDs with demineralization or from the CSDs tertiary treated and blended with potable
water would be equal to or better than the other two supply sources.
4.6.3 End-User Requirements/Impacts
It is unknown if specific customers would need additional treatment or blending to reduce the amount of
salts in the root zone because the specific types of plants and onsite soil conditions are unknown. If the
plant health becomes an issue, multiple mitigation measures are available to reduce salt buildup.
Granulated gypsum can be added to turf grasses to keep soils salinity levels acceptable. Recycled water
could also be blended with potable or raw water to reduce salt buildup or landscaping can be “flushed”
with potable water on occasion to reduce salt buildup. Salt buildup can be a problem for many kinds of
foliage; however problems are most prevalent at golf courses.

4.7 User Interest and Barriers to Use
The largest customer in the Eastern Service Area, Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club, has expressed an interest
in recycled water. The golf course is primarily interested in potential cost savings, environmental benefits,
and reduced restrictions on water use during drought periods.
Barriers to conversion to recycled water typically include the cost of conversion, water quality, and public
acceptance. The cost to convert on-site facilities for the safe use of recycled water (e.g., no cross
connections) while replicating the current potable water service conditions (e.g., pressure, connection
points and reliability) can require new facilities beyond just recycled water meters. For example, the
primary water use for large landscape customers is non-potable but do include some potable uses,
primarily for drinking and washing. Similarly, most customers should have a separate irrigation system so
conversion would be relatively simple, but some irrigation systems may have unauthorized potable
connections or hose bibs and golf courses or tees may require greens to remain on higher quality potable
water while the remainder of the course is irrigated with recycled water.
Finally, public acceptance of the use of recycled water is crucial since the general public could express
concern about exposure to recycled water directly at some sites (parks, schools, golf courses, etc.). Proper
public outreach should be able to address these concerns since service to customers connected to the
recycled water system includes measures protective of public health as a requirement. Since SFID already
distributes recycled water, customers in the service area are familiar with the benefits and need to use
local supply sources.

4.8 Recycled Water Supply Summary
The following bullets summarize key findings from the recycled water supply assessment for SFID
       Recycled Water Supply Available




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            o    Practical demand in the service area is limited by the extent and cost of distribution
                 facilities required to serve the demand. Total potential demand identified was greater than
                 1,300 AFY (see Chapter 3). Practical demand that can be cost effectively served by
                 distribution facilities is estimated to be in the range of 700 and 750 AFY (see Chapter 5).
                 There are two supply sources that appear to be able to serve the practical demand, and
                 both have challenges:
                       SEJPA – SEJPA has indicated they could meet practical demand requirements
                           following completion of planned construction projects. If a project in the Eastern
                           Service Area were phased to first meet the demand of the golf course and other
                           demands along the alignment to the golf course, SEJPA could currently supply
                           the amount required for the first phase now (325 AFY) and the remaining amount
                           after completion of plant expansion projects.
                       City of San Diego – The City of San Diego was not able to confirm availability
                           of supply at this time. It is assumed that technically the practical demand could
                           be served; however, this has not been confirmed.
                       CSDs – The CSD supply source cannot meet practical demand due to seasonal
                           variations in demand (mainly MMD conditions). The CSD supply could meet the
                           demand of the Rancho Santa Fe Golf Club; however, the cost for
                           demineralization of the supply would be excessive and makes this option non-
                           viable. Two scenarios for blending CSD tertiary effluent with potable water to
                           meet water quality requirements were developed. Chapter 5 looks at matching
                           demand with available supply under the blending Scenarios.
       Operational Storage Requirements
             o Operational storage equal to MMD volume is required to meet peak hourly demand.
       Water Quality/Permitting Issues
             o Water quality is not expected to be a significant concern for the users identified;
                 however, the following issues must be addressed before implementation of a project
                 using supply from these sources:
                       SEJPA - SEWRF has exceeded its permit limits and basin water quality
                           objectives for TDS in single samples and regularly exceeds the irrigation water
                           quality goals for TDS (1,000 mg/L). The current SEWRF permit is unclear on
                           whether the plant is currently permitted for recycled water delivery in the HSAs
                           in which the Eastern Service Area lies. SEJPA permit requirements and effluent
                           water quality have exceeded basin plan objectives in the San Elijo HSA for
                           manganese. SEJPA is planning to implement demineralization facilities to
                           improve water quality.
                       City of San Diego - The City of San Diego NCWRP exceeded permit limits and
                           basin plan objectives in the San Elijo HSA for manganese. The City of San
                           Diego supply is already demineralized and meets irrigation water quality TDS
                           goals of 1,000 mg/L.
                       CSDs – The CSDs currently treat to the secondary treatment standards. In order
                           to provide recycled water for landscape irrigation, tertiary treatment would have
                           to be implemented and new permits obtained. In addition, demineralization or
                           blending with potable water would be required to meet irrigation water quality
                           goals for TDS.
       Institutional Issues – Several institutional issues would need to be addressed with each of the
        potential suppliers:



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            o  SEJPA – SFID currently has an agreement with SEJPA for supplying water for use in
               SFID’s Western Service Area. An amendment to the existing agreement, or a new
               agreement would be required to establish terms and conditions for purchase recycled
               water to supply the Eastern Service Area. In addition, this option requires installation of a
               new transmission pipeline within an abandoned SDWD pipeline. An agreement would
               need to be established between SFID and SDWD for the use of the abandoned pipeline
               and associated easements.
            o City of San Diego – Though the current agreement between the City of San Diego and
               OMWD provides a clear understanding of current terms and conditions between the City
               and outside agencies, there are several unknowns regarding potential terms and
               conditions of a potential agreement with SFID for the Eastern Service Area. The City is
               in the process of considering increases to its recycled water pricing structure that could
               substantially change the cost of the recycled water supply. The City has indicated that it
               cannot discuss potential terms and conditions of an agreement at this time; therefore,
               there are several unknowns that must be addressed before this supply source could be
               considered a viable option. In addition, if the option of utilizing the OMWD pipeline to
               convey City of San Diego supply to SFID, and agreement with OMWD would be